Sociology final exam notes

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9 Apr 2013
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Sociology
Chapter One
Social relations among people powerfully influence suicide rates
-sociology not always dry and academic exercise but means of charting a better
course for society
-trying to understand social phenomena
-in can, 13 sucides for ever 100, 000, 36th ranking
-aspects of specific individual’s lives that caused them to become depressed or
angry
-Durkheim, associated suicide rates and psychological disorder
-more women than men, 4 male suicide for every female suicide
-jews highest pshy. Disorder, lower suicide rate
-suicide rates increased as age did
-social solidarity, more involved in sharing beliefs and views
-high degrees of social solidarity=low suicide rate
-married half as likely as singles
-women have an intimate social responsibility, so lower suicide rates
-seniors are more prone because of old age, no circle of friends
-jews less likely than Christians because they are defensive and tightly knit
“suicide varies with the degree of integration of the social groups of which the
individual forms a part”
-almost zero suicide rates but share of moral principles have eroded since the 60’s:
attendance for places of worship is declining, unemployment rates are increasing,
rate of divorce increasing, out of marriage births increasing, more intimate
interaction with less parental supervision
-social relations form who you are
-understanding people’s personal problems with social structurese
Microstructures: intimate social relations family, friendship
Macrostructures: which lies outside your circle, economic inequality: unequal
division of labour within marriage
Global Structures: international organizations, donating money to charities,
dropping loans from third world countries
C.Wright Mills: connection between social structures and personal troubles:
sociological imagination, what goes on in the world and how it affects men
-only saw god as the one who controlled events and too busy designing the ideal
society
Scientific Revolution: not only speculation but evidence
Democratic Revolution: people responsible to organize society but human
intervention can be disastrous
Industrial Revolution: social problems
The Sci Revol.
-any suggestions going against the word of god is heresy
-Copernicus theory, Newton, Galileo, Descartes, France
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-scientific evidence for every theory proposed
Demo. Revol.
-realization that people control society, God ordained the social order
American Revol. & French Revol.
-experience massive change within a short period of time, figure out ways of
overcoming social problems
Industr. Revol.
-lost faith in religions, worked, reacted to poverty, science of society is possible
Auguste Comte coined the word: study of society on scientific foundations
Confucius, Ib Khaldum, Aristotle
-time of political and social revolution, these things destroyed that was valuable to
him
-Marx, Durkheim, Weber: scientific method of research
Theory- tentative explanation of some aspect of social life that states how and why
certain facts are related
Research- process of carefully observing social reality to assess the validity of a
theory
Values are ideas about what is right and wrong
Functionalism
-human behavior is governed by stable patterns of social relations eg: suicide rates
are influenced by patterns of social solidarity
-howundermine social stability
-growth of industries lowered social solidarity and contributed to social instability
-social structures based on shared values
-re establishing equilibrium best solves problems
-unions and strikes against injustice
-conservative response to social unrest in 19th century
-deep root in great depression
-Talcott Parsons: various institutions must work to ensure smooth operation of
society
-family raises new generations, new military defends society, religions create
common moral code
Robert Merton: proposed that social structures have a different consequence
-some are latent and some manifest
-manifest-visible and intended , latent-invisible and unintended
Conflict Theory- centrality of conflict in social life
-focus on macrolevel structures, relations between classes
-major patterns of inequality produce social stability
-privileged groups maintain advantages while subordinate groups struggle to
increase theirs
-eliminating privilege lower the level of conflict and increase total of human welfare
Karl Marx
-observed destitution and discontent by Indus. Revol.
-class conflict lies at the center of his ideas
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-max productivity, minimize expenses
-class of poor workers against shrinking wealthy owners
-“class consciousness”
-growth of trade unions, labour parties, end private ownership of property
Max Weber- growth of service sector
-less labour, enjoy higher wages
-Marx didn’t understand how improvement of technology and higher wages, better
working conditions would improve that
-Weber: able to live modestly, religious beliefs facilitated capitalist growth
-religious doubts can be reduced and one can live modestly Protestant Ethic
-capitalism developed because of people’s religious attachments to work
VERSTEHEN, understanding
-both conflict theorists and functionalists assume that people’s group memberships
determine their behavior
Symbolic Interactionism
-face to face interaction in microlevel social settings
-explanation of social behavior require understanding the subjective meanings
-people create social circumstances and don’t react to them
-validate unpopular beliefs which would increase our tolerance of people who are
different
-person behind the wheel crashed, tell family its not suicide, inconsistencies in rates
because altered stories
Feminist Theory: demand on woman by late 19th century
Harriet Martineau-first woman sociologist
-critical studies of slavery and factory laws
-translated comte to English, voting rights and higher education
-theory focuses on system of male domination in society
-male domination rely on structures of power and social convention
-operation of hierarchy in both micro and macro settings
-gender inequality should be changed for betterment of society
-unequal domestic opportunities, way guys n girls are brought up, opportunities in
education and work field
great sociological puzzles of our time and how are sociologists responding to
challenges presented by social settings in which they live
-blue collar protested against wages, working conditions which forced government
to charge taxes
-white collar and other non manual workers rose during Post industrial revolution
sped up by globalization
-liberal capitalismnew dominant socioeconomic system
-optimism in regards to technology
Autonomy versus Constraint
-personal autonomy and freedom to create personal identity
-wide arrangement of products to choose from yet sets constraints on us
Prosperity: political, educational opportunities, raise standards of living, inequality
as well
Diversity vs. Uniformity
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