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Sociology final exam notes

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University of Toronto St. George
Robert Brym

[email protected] Office hrs. thurs 9-11 am 725 spadine rm 225 Thurs 7-9pm msn Sociology Chapter One Social relations among people powerfully influence suicide rates -sociology not always dry and academic exercise but means of charting a better course for society -trying to understand social phenomena th -in can, 13 sucides for ever 100, 000, 36 ranking -aspects of specific individual’s lives that caused them to become depressed or angry -Durkheim, associated suicide rates and psychological disorder -more women than men, 4 male suicide for every female suicide -jews highest pshy. Disorder, lower suicide rate -suicide rates increased as age did -social solidarity, more involved in sharing beliefs and views -high degrees of social solidarity=low suicide rate -married half as likely as singles -women have an intimate social responsibility, so lower suicide rates -seniors are more prone because of old age, no circle of friends -jews less likely than Christians because they are defensive and tightly knit “suicide varies with the degree of integration of the social groups of which the individual forms a part” -almost zero suicide rates but share of moral principles have eroded since the 60’s: attendance for places of worship is declining, unemployment rates are increasing, rate of divorce increasing, out of marriage births increasing, more intimate interaction with less parental supervision -social relations form who you are -understanding people’s personal problems with social structurese Microstructures: intimate social relations family, friendship Macrostructures: which lies outside your circle, economic inequality: unequal division of labour within marriage Global Structures: international organizations, donating money to charities, dropping loans from third world countries C.Wright Mills: connection between social structures and personal troubles: sociological imagination, what goes on in the world and how it affects men -only saw god as the one who controlled events and too busy designing the ideal society Scientific Revolution: not only speculation but evidence Democratic Revolution: people responsible to organize society but human intervention can be disastrous Industrial Revolution: social problems The Sci Revol. -any suggestions going against the word of god is heresy -Copernicus theory, Newton, Galileo, Descartes, France -scientific evidence for every theory proposed Demo. Revol. -realization that people control society, God ordained the social order American Revol. & French Revol. -experience massive change within a short period of time, figure out ways of overcoming social problems Industr. Revol. -lost faith in religions, worked, reacted to poverty, science of society is possible Auguste Comte coined the word: study of society on scientific foundations Confucius, Ib Khaldum, Aristotle -time of political and social revolution, these things destroyed that was valuable to him -Marx, Durkheim, Weber: scientific method of research Theory- tentative explanation of some aspect of social life that states how and why certain facts are related Research- process of carefully observing social reality to assess the validity of a theory Values are ideas about what is right and wrong Functionalism -human behavior is governed by stable patterns of social relations eg: suicide rates are influenced by patterns of social solidarity -howundermine social stability -growth of industries lowered social solidarity and contributed to social instability -social structures based on shared values -re establishing equilibrium best solves problems -unions and strikes against injustice -conservative response to social unrest in 19 century -deep root in great depression -Talcott Parsons: various institutions must work to ensure smooth operation of society -family raises new generations, new military defends society, religions create common moral code Robert Merton: proposed that social structures have a different consequence -some are latent and some manifest -manifest-visible and intended , latent-invisible and unintended Conflict Theory- centrality of conflict in social life -focus on macrolevel structures, relations between classes -major patterns of inequality produce social stability -privileged groups maintain advantages while subordinate groups struggle to increase theirs -eliminating privilege lower the level of conflict and increase total of human welfare Karl Marx -observed destitution and discontent by Indus. Revol. -class conflict lies at the center of his ideas -max productivity, minimize expenses -class of poor workers against shrinking wealthy owners -“class consciousness” -growth of trade unions, labour parties, end private ownership of property Max Weber- growth of service sector -less labour, enjoy higher wages -Marx didn’t understand how improvement of technology and higher wages, better working conditions would improve that -Weber: able to live modestly, religious beliefs facilitated capitalist growth -religious doubts can be reduced and one can live modestly Protestant Ethic -capitalism developed because of people’s religious attachments to work VERSTEHEN, understanding -both conflict theorists and functionalists assume that people’s group memberships determine their behavior Symbolic Interactionism -face to face interaction in microlevel social settings -explanation of social behavior require understanding the subjective meanings -people create social circumstances and don’t react to them -validate unpopular beliefs which would increase our tolerance of people who are different -person behind the wheel crashed, tell family its not suicide, inconsistencies in rates because altered stories th Feminist Theory: demand on woman by late 19 century Harriet Martineau-first woman sociologist -critical studies of slavery and factory laws -translated comte to English, voting rights and higher education -theory focuses on system of male domination in society -male domination rely on structures of power and social convention -operation of hierarchy in both micro and macro settings -gender inequality should be changed for betterment of society -unequal domestic opportunities, way guys n girls are brought up, opportunities in education and work field great sociological puzzles of our time and how are sociologists responding to challenges presented by social settings in which they live -blue collar protested against wages, working conditions which forced government to charge taxes -white collar and other non manual workers rose during Post industrial revolution sped up by globalization -liberal capitalism—new dominant socioeconomic system -optimism in regards to technology Autonomy versus Constraint -personal autonomy and freedom to create personal identity -wide arrangement of products to choose from yet sets constraints on us Prosperity: political, educational opportunities, raise standards of living, inequality as well Diversity vs. Uniformity -more tolerant of diversity in terms of immigration law Anthony Giddens: “suspended between extraordinary opportunity and global catastrophe” CHAPTER 2 Culture: socially transmitted ideas, practices, and material objects that people create to deal with real life problems A society involves people interacting socially and sharing culture, socially transmitted beliefs, values, practices Human tools: abstraction and symbols (created ideas or ways of thinking and having a particular meaning for something) Cooperation: create a complex social life by establishing norms Production: techniques to improve the way we live Sanctions/social control: rewards/punishments system -people often create own culture and reject existing ones, sometimes culture invisible to people who are immersed in it -ethnocentrism- startled when approached by other cultures than your own -Rationalization: application of most efficient means to achieve given goals and the unintended, negative consequences of doing so -concentrate power and threaten democracy (bureaucracies) -consumerism, lifestyle involving defining ourselves in terms of goods we purchase -support for multiculturalism is not correlated with traditional attitudes -cultures tend to become diverse or heterogenous as societies become more complex -renaissance, protestant reformation, sci revol, the French & American revoll, questioned old way of thinking -cultural fragmentation picked up during industrialization -globalization destroys political and cultural isolation -rights revolution in 60s, high levels of discrimination amongst minority groups -raised problem: how we can achieve an acceptable balance between right to be equal and right to be different Post Modernism- Electic mixing of elements from different places and times -blending facets of different cultures -mix and match, erosion of authority -decline of consensus around core values -value shifts are more rapid like change of political party -canadians grew skeptical of authority esp political institutions -fate of historical projects and social movements such as German nazism -post-modernism condition empowers people to make own decisions in terms of religious beliefs and individualism -Werkglocken-timing of meals, sunset, sunrise, seasons -we have accepted and internalized the regime of the work clock, its become a product of culture -George Ritzer- Mc Donaldization; restaurant is dominating everywhere -rationalized food preparation, making it inexpensive and as fast as possible -iron cage, gap advertising, not the product but the people who wear it, we become advertising -child nagging, child psychologists used to find efficient ways to get them to buy the product -subculture: distinctive set of beliefs and traditions within a larger culture -counterculture: oppose dominant values and seek to dominate them -consumer prevents that because consumerism itself is a method of social control -Ozzy Osbourne- youthful rebellion; lifestyle looked at differently when their show was aired; “just a phase” -P.Diddy- suppression of black activists, mass media, white society -turning countercultures into mere subcultures Sociology as a life or death issue Chapter 1 and 2 Determinism: the belief that everything happens the way because of destiny Voluntarism: we alone control our destiny -the relations we have with other people create opportunities for us to think and act but also set limits on our thoughts and actions -suicide is influenced by the social relations; how we interact with others, share beliefs, values, and moral standards Low solidarity=higher suicide rate -unmarried adults half, females less, jews less -social ties are weakening Intermediate solidarity= increasing strength of social ties and shared culture -better the adult supervision, the better interaction with adults that children have High Solidarity: military unit, protect bomb Strive to identify: personal/political beliefs which would be deemed as interesting -patterns of social relations among people -institutional changes -popular subculture of black men focusing on violence and death -sex ratio pointing to homicide rates: few black men are murdered there are more black males than females -civil rights movement, US became less discriminative towards a substantial black middle class -race riots “ war on poverty” industries moved to where land was cheaper as well as the labour -turned to violence and drugs, hip hop glorifying the mean streets, offensive language, media spreading malicious lies -self-destructive lifestyles, guns, drugs, denigration of women -turning point when shakur died in 96 -concerts raising insurance at concerts -P.Diddy- individualism can change the world -serving jail time is cool, 50 cent -representing that lifestyle not because it is profitable -Lil Kim shootings faked -thug life, violence, proud, arrogant: a system of self empowerment; upward social mobility (movement up a system of inequality) -professional athletes and artists setting unrealistic aspirations, culture is created to solve human problems -promoting unrealistic goals, away from school -offending public; toning down the rhetoric Social Structures: relatively stable patterns of social relations that constrain and created opportunities for thought and action -constrain and create a host of opportunities for the people who comprise them -effects of mass media on real world behavior -research based on experiments, allows researchers to isolate presumed causes and measure their effects precisely -surveys, sample, population -Toronto high school students, property and violent crime not present among black youth -Field research-systematically observing people in their natural social settings -not template for action but a fantasy outlet for emotional issues -official statistics; homicide rates fell between the increase of violent hip hop songs -young people to dress and talk a certain way, not influence them to act violently -limit the availability of handguns to prevent this perhaps? LEC 1 Functionalism -fashion cycles contribute to social inequality -no longer provides explanation of fashion cycles Focus : Values- Main Question: How does the institution of society contribute to social instability? Fasion Interpretation- fashion cycles help to preserve the class system by allowing people of different rank to distinguish themselves Conflict -speed up fashion cycles in order to make bigger profits Focus: inequality Main Question: how do privileged groups maintain advantages and subordinate groups seek to increase theirs, often causing social change in the process? Fashion Interpretation: fashion cycles exist so the fashion industry can earn profits; fashion distracts consumers from social problems but the resulting equilibrium is precarious Color Mafia- gather and choose the colors that will dominate seasonal trends Symbolic Interactionist -how fashion convey meaning -social categories change over time, not fixed items; as they change, society changes, our identity changes -identities not constant, changing the way we dress -fashion establishes our identity Focus: meaning Main Question: how do individuals communicate to make their social settings meaningful? Fashion Interpretation: Because fashions are meaningful, fashion cycles allow people to communicate their identity, which is always in flux Feminist: -fashion is a way of imprisoning them, turns them into sexual objects -fashion industry related to women Focus: patriarchy Main Question: Which social structures and interaction processes maintain male dominance and female subordination? Fashion Interpretation: Fashion cycles often “imprison” women and diminish them by turning them into sexual objects; but they can also empower them Telephone video: empowering women, reinforcing patriarchy, overcoming male domination, asserting female power Create culture to solve problems, something practical, invent to solve real problems -becomes shared only when we need it -steam engine (aelopile) invented about 100 years after christ was born, hero invented in Alexandria -engage similar practices(saying a prayer, wearing an amulet), calms down anxiety -digital computer circa 1939, students in Ohio university -unaware of own culture like fish is oblivious to water  Ethnocentrism involves judging another culture exclusively by the standards of one’s own.  Cultural relativism is the belief that all elements of all cultures should be respected as equally valid. Cliterectomy: sewing up of the vagina, increase the fertility -masculine levels of sexual activities, less likely to be a virgin, and faithful within marriage -infection, sock, severe bleeding, infertility, infection of urinary tract, psychological trauma -WHO states its violent against women -important to avoid ethnocentrism and understand other cultures with empathy -aware of the need to draw the line somewhere -education is thought control, conformed to certain ideas and constraints free though  Rationalization is the application of the most efficient means to achieve given goals and the often unintended, negative consequences of doing so.  A bureaucracy is a large, impersonal organization composed of many clearly defined positions arranged in a hierarchy. It has a permanent, salaried staff of qualified experts and written goals, rules and procedures. Staff members strive to achieve goals more efficiently. Waber -culture is changing, have to use effective rationalization and bureaucratization to handle large amounts of people within a constraint and limited amount of resources  Consumerism is a lifestyle that involves defining one’s self in terms of the goods one purchases. -what kind of car does he drive, what kind of person he is? -what we buy represents who we are and who we represent -advertisement, money spent heavily on this industry -encourages us to be good consumers, acts on natural desire to be part of group -allows us to buy socially desired characteristics (young, sexy, beautiful) advertisement plays on that -constraint, influences to do certain things e.g. teach you to shop until you drop consumer debt, forces us to work harder to keep up with credit debt, increases stress levels -high levels of consumption encourages environmentally dangerous activities -draws attention from real social issues in the world -switch from glam to neo-grunge - Define culture sociologically Understand the twin dangers of ethnocentrism and cultural relativism in understanding culture sociologically Appreciate the ways in which culture constrains people and frees them Analyze cultural phenomena from functionalist, conflict, symbolic interactionist and feminist perspectives Scenario 50 years old, lung cancer and died -stress, work-style, inherited, poor health-care system, genetics, social influences Scienario 50 years old, healthy runs -higher stamina and physical endurance Lecture Oct 3 -turn to education and socialization -socialization: process of learning culture and becoming aware of yourself as you interact with others -biology shapes who we are -vocal chors, institution, sociology sets broad human limits -sociobiology, our genes accounts for visible characteristics but stuff like whether we are law abiding, faithfulness, intelligence -evolutionary process: men more prone to be less faithful -darwin’s evolutionary theory  characteristics of members of each species vary widely species members with more adaptive characteristics are more likely to survive until reproduction the species characteristics that endure are those that increase the survival chances of the species -more anxious human being was, higher chances of survival -women dependent on men, during pregnancy cycles, not many reproductive cells -how the game is played during survival of the fittest, written in our genes, not conscious -behavior cannot be questioned or changed, no access to conscious -sociobiological factors too simplistic, doesn’t take account for social context -number of sexual partners between female and male a very miniscule difference -eating: biological and cultural -guilt, getting physically larger, healthy, exotic foods, religious influence -agents of socialization: family, school, peer groups, media and technology -peer strong control; accent Pierre Bourdieu Habitus: psychic structure composed of a set of unconscious dispositions that include patterns of thought, sensibilities, and taste -over course of life, child, early adolescence, shaped by status in society -habitus acquired not consciously, exists because internalizes its environment, represents the deepest kind of socialization, painted lense shapes and colours everything you see out of it Class Habitus Middle Class: teens acquire a habitus commensurate with their class position, including the valuing of education, appreciation for abstract thinking and cultural production (like art) and an orientation to the world that emphasizes power and control Working Class: teens acquire a habitus including the value of practical work (trade) concrete thinking over abstraction, an orientation to the world that emphasizes “getting by”, without the expectation of achieving power -changes over time, massive environmental change LECT OCT 10 -sadistic, existence of the weak threatened germans -norms of solidarity demand conformity -relationsips important, desire to please them than morality of actions -very often do favour to please ignoring the question of what is good/bad -soldiers didn’t hate the people they were systemically killing people, felt guilt, strong loyalty towards comrades, committed atrocities because they wanted to maintain group solidarity -not bad, ordinary, often acted to sustain to sustain friendship ties overlooking morality of actions -people rarely commit crimes within corporations; afraid of losing jobs -gang members often to seek financial gain, engage in criminal activity to pursue post social bond, little family life, go along with bad stuff just to maintain membership and be respected -no correlation between prepensity of Christians and their educational attainment or any political orientation, attitude towards jew, how religious they were -had one thing in common: poorly socialized into norms of the group, didn’t accept the Nazis , non-conformists, did not automatically accept group norms -freer not to conform, free to act in ways they believed which was right -meerly trying to adhere group norms -structures of authority render people obedient, fear of being ostracized, rejected -milgram experimented; subjects punishment and learning, man was sat down electrodes attached to the chair, volt buttons -subjects free to abort the experiment -in bureaucratic settings, inclined to do bad things -max weber: large, impersonal organization of defined positions in hierarchy, staff are empowered to achieve specific goals -rate of killing not the highest in places where anti-semitism was high -effiency and organization of state more important: Romania: weak Holland:strong -social group: two or people who identify with one another, routinely interact, and adhere to defined norms, roles, and statuses -social category: composed of two or more people who share similar status but do not routinely interact or identify with one another primary group: norms, roles, and stasuses are agreed upon but are not put in writing. Social interactions creates strong emotional ties, extends over a long period, and involves a wide rang of activities -lots of pressure to conform than secondary -prof ash assembled 7 men, 6 graduates, 1 experimental subject, showed the men a card with a line drawn on it, 2 lines -extremely easy to convince people overcoming their individual response secondary group: larger, and social interaction is more impersonal, creates weaker emotional, extends over a short period, and involves a narrow range of activities Likelihood of conforming to group: factors -as group size increases -women more likely to conform, men more likely descent -culture matters, socities relatively individualistic, group more important than individual -groupthink:is the tendency to conform to group norms despite individual misgivings -bystander apathy: tendency of witness not to get involved in wrongdoing, as it increases, likely of one bystander helping decreases, less responsibility any one individual feels -ingroup vs outgroup, spatial, symbolic, signs, lingo -visharif, Oklahoma, robbers cave 1954, 2 groups of 11 year olds to summer camp, all strangers, groups kept apart, series of competitions, each became antagonistic, ransacked cabins, food fights, stealing, intense competition encourages outgroups and ingroups to form boundaries -cultural shift -knowledge has enabled people to resist on reasonable demands, people have to form a union, religion, political party, lobby -people can and do form collectivities to interact with other social collectivities -a variable: concept that can have more than one value -correlation: relationship or association between two variables -correlation coefficient: measures the strength of the association between two variables. -1 +1, -:negative linear, +:positive linear association, 0 indicating no association -correlations maybe coincidental -coin: ½, ¼, loaded? -spurious, frequency of stork sightings and fertility, rural area, context matters because different context leads to different conclusions Chapter 3 Socialization “terrible twos”, willfully break norms, breaking valued objects, negativism hard to live through, essential stage in developing a sense of self and becoming autonomous human being -negativism: way a child learns what really can and cannot be done, what is series and what is preference -need to develop autonomous, competent, self-dorected actors -development through interaction then becomes socialization -learn how to act appropriately with others, competent and effective member of society, sense of individual identity -interact competently, understand ourselves in relation to those others -examine both peoples’ sense of belonging and their sense of belonging and their sense of autonomy, both how people are constrained by norms and values, autonomous agents able to make decisions for themselves -freedom and constraint not opposite but interconnected features -socialization an active process, interactive, look towards role models -acquire a self identity -crucial learning process occurs in childhood makes us members of society: primary socialization -learning to be a student, husband, wife, parent, job is secondary socialization -mental conception of what people think of us -problems of survival; symbols, norms, values, and everyday practices; allow us to master nature, build orderly societies -part of us internalized through socialization which makes social interaction, social organization, and social order possible -sidewalk behavior, conventions, rituals, laws, constrain us and guide us -norms make smooth and orderly interactions possible freeing us from the need to plan every step -content of socialization differs depending on society and social environment -each person is influenced by distinctive or overlapping subculture of family and friends by class and gender -subculture: a group within a larger culture that has distinctive values, norms, and practices, unique personal histories share that -instincts, natural differences, cant deny that some human behavior is the outcome of biological factors; nature vs. nature, which is important that influences our beliefs and behaviors? -debate over intelligence whether it is inherited, the correlation between iq and race -nature vs nurture false opposition, complementary and inseperable -children have opportunity to learn, reason, and value problems in early life, brain my have not fully developed -not born human, become human in the process -ever since childhood, emotional need to cling and interact -smiles, laugh, touch; without this socialization is impaired -illigitemate child anna, unable to feed herself, walk, etc -orphanage no care although as healthy in nursery, die at 4, 1/3 of them -socialization essential physical being, without it infants are incapable of being fully competent -self refers to our awareness of ideas and attitudes about our own personal and social identity, self is a crucial part of socialization -self-image greatly depends on social interaction, newborn doesn’t differentiate itself from mother, gradually sees mother as separate person -through interaction, infant acquires herself reflected in the eyes of others -recognize connection between social and physical self, body for constructing self and identity -weight loss surgery, sense of embodiment, non-formative bodies can profoundly influence a person’s self and identity, “new” people in terms of body and self -revealing real body and real self Charles Horton Cooley Looking-glass self, emphasis less of the actual responses of others than on our imagination or interpretation -displeased at what we see depending on expectations about ourselves physically -without social mirror, no sense of self -self-image emerges as product of involvement in groups -significant others; parents, central importance -primary group-intimate face to face association -imagination, identification, self-concept is built and organized -the structure and content of self are derived from society which is represented by the groups and significant others surrounding the individual George Herbert Mead -relationship among mind, self, and society that became foundation of symbolic interactionism -Mead did not assume that socialization consists largely of learning to conform to the rest of society, rather he saw socialization as an active process which individuals play a crucial role in their own development -symbolic communication, symbols/gestures -development of language, replacement of gestures with ideas, use of symbols enables child to think of itself in relation to others, core of all stages of socialization processes “take the role of the other” -determine or appreciate someone else’s perspective in a particular situation -taking role of the other, not born with the ability to take the role of the other -taking role of the other that children also develop a sense of self -conformity and individuality are interconnected; mind, self, and society are the product of interaction -imitative stage: do not interact effectively, they cannot take the role of the other, lack verbal and other skills needed to communicate effectively, make-believe, no real conception of themselves, role-playing only imitation play stage -adopt roles of significant others -imagine how people will respond without actually having to act out situation through playing -children don’t see role playing as a social necessity -difficulty coordinating their actions with others -get ball opportunity to kick it, rules difficult to grasp Game stage: developed a generalization impression of behavior, baseball player continually adjust behavior to the needs of the team, responding to generalized other, a conception of how people in general will respond in a situation, generalized other is internalized -compromises values, attitudes, and beliefs -internalized the attitudes, values, and beliefs that are a part of society in which you live -means that the attitude, values, and beliefs that were at one time imposed on you by others come to be a part of you -react with shame when embarrassed -active process because it proceeds through interaction -communicate with ourselves -how we should react, debate alternative courses of action -internal conversation, integrated senses of self -objects to ourselves -first aware of ourselves, objective element : me -question ourselves, analyze our feelings, respons -the self is both spontaneous and conformist, both active and reflective both experiencing and experienced -continuing conversation between me and I, learning opportunities -human beings shape their own circumstances and lives -not all share a generalized other, generalized other not society -not everyone socialized the same way, own intentions, preferences, and interactions -constraints such as class, ethnic, religious, and geographic differences -sense of self and self worth, not free to become whomever and whatever we want to be -recognition that socialization implies both conformity and creativity and individual both deal with constraints and take advantage of opportunities: Paul Willis -similar theory to mead but extends by looking at youths rather than children, recognizing institutional and social contexts within which the self is forged, maintained, and transformed -sociologists assume most fundamental forms of socialization occur in childhood and that after children start school -teens and young adults are still engaged in a process of developing their identity and sense of self -young people concerned with identity, announcing themselves to others, social location; class, race, ethnicity, gender -social collectivities, membership makes a difference -commercialization try to profit from the desire of young people to have fun, express themselves and be up to date -“the materiality of context, symbolism of self -memberships of race, class, gender, age, and region not only learned, lived and experimented with -creative individuals trying to transform work, express and control ourselves -the username has a meaning that goes beyond a simple identifier, name means something and we may be curious what that meaning is. -username is creative; generating interest -symbolic means what matters to them and who they really are -take advantage of every opportunity to make the everyday world around them meaningful -music; less as a means of entertainment, sign of group membership -change and development, sign of growing up -creative and strategic social actor, determines the course of life -gender socializations; process through which individuals learn to become feminine and masculine -gender indentity is learned -behavior deviates from expectations, unsure how to relate to that person -infant is simply not a child, identified through cosmetics, clothing, accessories, products -parents are first source of gender learning -female: soft, fine featured while males are firm, strong, well coordinated, hardy, and alert -boys take out garbage girls babysit -develop a general division of labour -stereotypes of masculine and feminine characteristics -oversimplified gender role, self concept, interaction with peer and adults but has been decreasing since 70s -occupational goals appropriate to their gender -paid work must be fit in these other duties -less their innate differences -traditional gender roles are reproduced in modern wedding showers -bridal and co ed shower perpetuate gender roles in marriage -childhood socialization referred to as primary socialization, influences our self concept -adolescence and youth dramatic transformation of identity; status and social relationships tend to occur -period between childhood and adulthood, crucial period of life in which people undergo new experiences, deal with new demands and responsibilities -balance of between autonomy and conformity, freedom and constraint -high demands placed on them, difficult time, emotional and social turmoil -develop own identity, act on own preference and form own relationships -not expected to assume economic responsibility as soon as they reached sexual maturity -high school provide skill that allow adolescent to become independent of the family -openness is the route to intimacy and democracy, young people experience rules imposed by parents who are often unwilling to compromise -source of resentment, as parents demand more, relationships moves further away from friendship -family exerts more of an influence than peer groups, fundamental matters; religious, politics, career aspirations -less influenced by teachers and parents than peers, youthful autonomy -conflicting and confusing turmoil -anticipation socialization; the process by which aspirants to a particular social role begin to discern that it will be like to function in that position -how it is to enact the roles they aspire -anticipate others’ behavior, how to conduct ourselves, norms and characterizating particular settings and situations -sociologists identify anticipatory socialization as a process of preparing onself for acquiring new norms and behavior -Adult Socialization -new stasuses, acquire new and different social identities -participate effectively in their society, undergo socialization, differs from adolescent socialization in several important aspects -adults generally have control over content and direction of socialization -adults usually engage in socializing activities -we need to become familiar with the expectations associated with them, best formed -institutional and social scene unlike any they have encountered and whose demands are initially unclear -uni students better position to follow interests as they are expected to be autonomous by profs -must learn to
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