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Sociology Exam Notes.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Robert Brym

Sociology Exam Notes Chapter 1 Introduction Durkheim Examined association between suicide rates and social solidaritydegree which group members share beliefs and values and intensity and frequency of interactionAnomic Suicide occurs in low social solidarity settings where norms and governing behavior are vaguely defined when people live in a society that lacks a widely shared code of moralityEgoistic results from lack of integration of individuals into society because of weak social ties Altruistic suicide High social solidarity where norms tightly govern behavior suicide bombers Implies that social forces exist external to individuals and constrains individual behavior Increased suicide today youth face lower level of social solidarity and less rooted in society Unmarried men most likely to commit suicideSocial Structures Microstructures Overarching patterns of intimate social relations formed during facetoface interaction Macrostructures Overarching patterns of social relations outside ones circle of intimates and acquaintances Global Structures Patterns of social relations outside and above national level The Sociological Imagination Ability to see connection between troubles and social structures Scientific revolution encouraged evidence based conclusions about societyDemocratic revolution suggested people were responsible for society thus human intervention solving social problemsIndustrial revolution Created host of social problems Origins Of Sociology Values Theories and Research Theoretical Traditions in Sociology 1 Functionalismstresses human behavior is governed by stable patterns How social structures maintain or undermine social stability 2 Conflict TheoryShows how major inequality to produce social stabilitystresses how members of privileged groups seek to maintain advantages while subordinate groups struggle to increase theirs 3 Symbolic Interactionsm Argues that people help create circumstances not merely react Micro level social setting emphasizing need for understanding subjective meanings that people attach to social circumstance 4 Feminist TheorySuggest male domination and female subordination are determined by structures of power and social convention rather than biologyChapter 6 Social Stratification Social Stratification Refers to persistent patterns of social inequality in a society perpetuated by the way wealth power and prestigeStatus Ascribed assigned vs Achieved earned Types Of Stratification Systems Open stratification system in which merit rather than inheritance determines social rank this allows the prospect of social change Reflected in meritocracy positions earned not givenClosed Stratification System Inheritance rather than merit little social change possible Caste systemCanada might be meritocracy but ascribed statuses play an important roleMarx Class Conflict Industrial revolution tremendous increase level of economic production and degree of inequality Advocate trade unions labour and lawsMeans of production technology capital investments raw materials used in productionSocial relations of production Relationships between main classes involved in productionTwo Major Classes of capitalism Bourgeoisie owner of the means of production Proletariat workersExploitation of wage laborers was the result of surplus valueturned into profits capitalistsClass Conflict Conflict between major classes within a mode of productionMarx was a socialist Consciousness And Revolution Criticized for predictions not finding support in later capitalist societies which were characterized by absence of widespread class conflict growth of middle class and relative decline in inequality Later socialist systems of government characterized by persistent inequalityWeber Emphasized Life chances opportunities for higher standard of living Focused on determinants of power ability to impose ones wishes on others saw more complexity in social stratification system more classes than Marx Weber did not think that the development of class consciousness was inevitable and did not think that class conflict would lead to the ultimate demise of capitalism Davis and Moore Functional Theory and Social Stratification Inequality exists in all society must be necessary All societies have occupational roles some more important than others Greater rewards needed for extended training for jobs doctor vs janitor Social inequality is important and inevitable Criticism huge income and wealth inequalities gender differences inherited wealth denoting important roles movie stars nurses and daycares Lenski Technology and Stratification Systems
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