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Department
Sociology
Course
SOC101Y1
Professor
Paloma Villegas
Semester
Summer

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SOC362 - Quality of Social Life Lecture 7: Wednesday, February 27, 2013 Technology for economic activity - cut down time used - allows people to reduce inputs of labour and materials needed to produce outputs - allows for people to build surplus and be free to consume it later - allows for division of labour (one person doesn't do everything required to live) - advantage: people can specialize in things - disadvantage: deskilling - also allows for modernization - newer and better developments - development of social institutions cities, schooling, arts, networks, etc. - but... for whom? the whole population or select few? --> division and hierarchy created Therefore technology... - facilitates accumulation of material surplus - increases productivity of economic activities - supports division of labour - allows for development of material basis for civilization - supports intelligentsia that advance the arts and sciences Unequal QOL - production of technology does not lead to equal benefits in QOL Inequality due to Class - Marx; division of labour --> unequal --> class inequality - division of labour as an effect by product of technological innovation - those engaged in mental labour deemed superior over those engaged in physical labour - owners of means of production extract surplus from the labor of working class - happened in factory work; what are some modern day examples? Status Competition - Weber, Bourdieu - people receive prestige and honour from others for their wealth, occupations education, and ways of life (all influenced and affected by technologies) - consumer oriented societies: keeping up with the Joneses - by the time the "masses", the wealthy have moved onto more exclusive products - Velben and the leisure class - more recently, creation of class more engaged in leisure - ability to demonstrate that you don't have to work is a great status symbol; automatically put into higher status than those involved in difficult labour - BUT, not all people who have high status engage in conspicuous consumption (some in upper and professional- creative classes do not lead leisurely lives; too focused on careers...?) * importance of branding? * demonstration of being able to afford Gender and the domestic technology - 2 developments in mid 1990s - increased suburbanization - shifting roles for men and women * women entering workforce in larger numbers or wanting to do less domestic tasks - quote on page 69-71 - image produced about domestic, ideal housewife; this idea facilitated the diffusion of the new technologies - push to keep women in the home; caused the idealization of women in homes and acted as powerful symbols to strengthen image of domestic housewife How did technology help the domestic sphere? - appliances facilitated tasks - decline in the employment of domestic servants Simple Living - voluntary simplicity; people who voluntarily give up things - cost of consumerism (environment) - social justice lens (free up material resources currently used to produce and consume - Etzioni's 3 voluntary simplicity adherents - affluent downshifters: give up some material goods - strong simplifiers: adopt strategy of income simplicity, may be motivated by personal ideas or eternal reasons - simple living movement: downshifting and income simplifying + joining of social networks to support more intense simplifying - question of choice (do people truly have this choice?) - Nevarez argues that designating simple liviers as anti-modern is misleading. - movement only exists in context of modernity and development of technology; we cannot understand simplicity without understanding modernization Simplicity as status distinction - simplicity adherents usually affluent and educated -- high status - simple livers are driven by the consumption of anti-consumerism (paradox? relational process exists) Lecture 6 – Technology - good or bad? o Complicated relationship - Can we wean ourselves from our use of technology? o Tuen off tv, phone, or computer - Do we all hae “affluenza” : “the painful contagious, socially transmitted condition of overload, debt, anxiety, and waste resulting from the dogged pursuit of more”? - technology as Janus faced o servant of humanity o controlling humanity - Nevarez o Look at where technology is embedded within social contexts  Ex. accumulation of material surplus - Technologies allow o People to reduce inputs of labor and materials needed to produce outputs o People to build a surplus ( food for example) and be free to consume it later  Allows people to focus on other endeavors o Division of labour  One person does not have to do everything required to live  Can lead to both specializing and deskilling  Industrial revolution  Division between public and private spheres - Technology allows for modernization o Institutions etc  But for whom? - Technology o Facilitates accumulation of material surplus o Increases productivity o Supports division of labour o Allows for te development of the material basis for civilization o Supports itelligenistia that advance the arts and sciences - Inequality due to class o Dicision of labour as an effect/by product of technological innovation o Marx  Division of labour  unequal  class inequality  Division betwenn mental and physical labor  Owners of means of production extract surplus from the labour of working class  How do we see this happening today? o Status competition  Weber, Bourdieu  People receive prestige and honor from others for their wealth, occupations, education and ways of life (all influenced/affected by technology)  Consumer oriented societies  Keeping up with the Joneses  By the time the masses accumulate the products of the wealthy, the wealthy have moved on to more exclusive products o Veblen and the eisure class  Leisure is a strong symbol to demarcate you don’t have to work  Conspicuous consumtion: people have to know you can afford the newest goods in order to maintain your status symbol  Buy visible markers to make everyone see this  Not all with high status engage in conspicuous consumption  Some in upper and professional-creative classes do not lead leisurly lives o Too focused on careers - Janus face and the affluent society o Rise of consumerism o Beginning in mid 1800s people had increased access to mass produced goods  But people had little surplus money or credit  1920: development of formal credit systems  easier to sell goods that were visible to others - gender domestic technology o 2 developmets  increased suburbanization  shifting roles for men and women  women enterin the workforce in larger numbers or wanting to do less domestic tasks o caveat: women have always worked - how did technology help the domestic sphere o appliances facilitatd tasks  but also led to a raising in standards and expectations  domestic tasks grew in number and kind, even as time spent on each task dropped o decline in the employment of domestic servants  women had to pick up the slack - simple living o voluntary simplicity  cost of consumerism (environment)  social justice lens  fre up material resources currently used to produce/consume - etioni: 3 voluntary simplicity adherants o affluent downshifters: give up some material goods o strong simplifiers: adopt strategy of income simplicity (no high status high stress jobs) may be motivated by personal ideas or external reasons: job loss, health problems etc. o simple living movement: downshifting + income simplifying + the joining of social networks to support more intense simplifying - cant understand simple living without modernization SOC362 – Quality of Social Life Chapter 3: Technology (reading notes) - Technology intended to simplify our lives… is complicating it - “technology is the culprit and emblem of consumer materialism, our surrender to endless social and cultural change” - David Shenk’s reduction of technology use (8 ways) o Liberates people from subservience to technology o Restores free will and human community - Graaf et al contends that technology  more thoughtful choice between consumption and leisure o More meaningful and creative lives o Less repetitive and standardized work - Connections of technology to QOL: o 1)  Technology motivates us to engage our environments in order to satisfy our needs and wants  Gives us a standard of living, views on development of human knowledge, state of social progress  Society’s level of technology development = indicator for its ability to meet its members’ needs and wants  Technology = servants of human society; our creation of and access to technology  makes QOL good o 2)  Association with many of society’s ills and annoyances  Intending for it to serve our interests  unanticipated outcomes because it interacts with us in complex ways  Rational designs yet disastrous consequences  Humanity serves technology Technologies for Economic Activity - Makes possible the accumulation of material surplus o Allows societal members to free up future-oriented activities (surplus of goods that can be consumed later) o  site of social surplus = measure of society’s human development (poorer, primitive vs. richer, advanced) - Allows for less time and labour o QOL and consumer materialism and overwork - Technology and division of labour o Looking to each other to help out with work o Specialization in certain areas (goes more in depth with technology) - 1) Development of distinction between public and private sphere o Workplace vs. domestic living space  Distant and distinct set of interpersonal rules + institutional roles - 2) Economies and businesses drive technological innovations and diffusions into consumer realms o Business imperatives? Civilization - Idea that technology ‘enables’ march of civilization (establishment of social institutions) - Colin Renfrew emphasized 3 essential social institutions o 1) Ceremonial centers o 2) Writing o 3) The city - Science and creativity Producing Society‘s QOL - Technology suggests and illustrates a collective perspective on QOL - All production of QOL; outcomes result from useful transformations of physical society’s symbolic impacts Technology and Unequal QOL - Class and status hierarchy - Marx: class inequality = social relations of production (technology included) - Nevarez: technology in such society entrenched in class structure and traditional exploitations seems to have given way to more open systems of mobility and individual entrepreneurialism - Class inequalities today, largely reproduced by people’s abilities to effectively work within institutions - Fluency in technical and aesthetic practice, ability to learn, and willingness to flexibly adopt new skills and roles  greatly affect the autonomy and expertise they can exercise in the workplace -  work-based QOL Status Competition - Technology also serves social needs outside of workplace o Impulse to seek esteem and distinguish from others  status hierarchies o Wealth, occupation, education  prestige and honour - Possessions are central to social comparison (easily made visible) o Technology is one of these, employs the “wow factor” - Thorstein Veblen: rewards of social surplus are purposely distributed unevenly throughout modern societies, because ‘leisure classes’ (ruling class) maintain statuses Distributing Society‘s QOL - Emphasis shifts to individual attribution of QOL o Doesn’t mean individuals experience QOL uniquely or idiosyncratically… but rather… - QOL = duality of social relations o Collective accomplishments of whole society o Individual experience of constituent units Consumerism and Technology - Social contract = people accept social changes unleashed by technology in exchange for the convenience and freedom provided by it o Grounded in cultural norm and social custom (76) Technology vs. Simplicity - Loess of human choice? - Some say, simple living offers different vision of freedom o Promises enhanced QOL in freedom from entanglement and addiction of modern technology Voluntary simplicity - “Frees up material resources that developed societies currently devote to their materialism” - Basis for alternative indications to GNP - Grrowing number of people adopting this lifestyle - Etzion (84): o 1) Affluent downshifters voluntarily give up material goods, luxuries, and consumer habits  Ex: green products, organic and local foods o 2) Strong simplifiers further adopt strategy of income simplicity  Ex: High status/stress jobs, early retirement, personally meaningful jobs  Motivated by dramatic lifestyle decisions  Not fully undertaken by choice o 3) Simple living movement, in addition to previous 2, also join social networks to support ethic and infrastructure Simplicity as Status Distinction - Paradox: this “downshift” and staying away from certain things is actually just another consumer niche - Brooks (88) o Voluntary simplicity adherents come from affluent, educated population that has reached highest tier of status ladder  “Experience superiority over the poor and materially insecure” o By challenging mainstream consumption, hypocritically, a consumption of anti-consumption occurs - Voluntary simplicity responds to need for status recognition by creating the option of choosing lower-cost but visible consumer goods that signal that one has freely chosen less affluent lifestyle (88-89) Family How are Canadians really doing? Well-being-the presence of the highest possible quality of life in its full breadth of expression, focued on but now necessarily exclusive to: good living standards, robust health, a sustainable environment, vital lcommunities, an educated populace, balanced time use, high levels of democratic participation, and access to and participation in leisure and culture. -we want to know how people in our life ar doing, if they are healthy etc -canadians well being from 1994-2010 -Canadian Index of Well being (CIW)- measures our quality of life that assessed those things that matter to Canadians beyond the economy, eg healthy populations, environment, community vitality -findings of this reveal truths about the connection between our wellbeing and the economy, and pose this question: are out gov‘ts truly responding to the needs and values of everyday Canadians? -24% decline of CIW due to recession -education an living standards hace come close to growing at same rate as gdp and since 2008 are stalling or dropping a lot Community vitality -80 % Canadians volunteer to help others -crime and safety – safety at its highest level Democratic engagement -canadians satisfied with the way our democracy works Education -doing well as CIW SHOWS - measures literacy and skill levels of the pop. Environment -measures the wise use of our natural environment that involves prevention of waste and damage Healthy populations -mental pgysical health; life expectancy Leisure and culture - activity of human expression Living standards -income and wealth Time use -how ppl experience time and how time use affects wellbeing **Overall domains- 5.7 % improvement -trends tell us when the economy improves, Canadians get little benefit but when it stumbles, Canadians take the fall. -8 domains, 64 indicators to determine the CIW composite index -fewer of us are voting -women are significiantly under-represented in parliament -canadas global engagement is poor -GDP doesn‘t show how well a country is doing SOC362H1- March 6- FAMILIES -defining families- way familys are organized and socially produced, embedded in social relations, lineage. -how power relations are imposed within the family structure, who decides how the income is spent etc, and how the family space is organized -mainly women who take on roles of social reproduction -‗social reproduction‘ (the school, students who are not only math and English they learn things like citizenship which allows them to become citizens) and ‗reproductive labour‘- activities ..(finish on slide) Another definition of family -Family is defined as social institution that secures the roles of individuals -family is responsible for providing for the economic needs of the members -fulfills the needs people have on an emotional level -serves as identity formation –referring to the role of the family in social reproduction, sense of belonging -primary arena of socialization -structural unit aas well has a series of relationships, ntwork bound by shared kinship, an extend across long distance, not defined spatially as household is -affective needs -securing livelihood for individual throughout their life cycle Historicizing familial structures -from the clan to the nuclear family -early families needed large quantity of members- suddicient workforce -with the onsent of industrialization and migration to cities> decreased reproduction rates -nuclear family seen more as companionate family- love for marriage and have more time to devote to each individual child -calls to epand definitions of family beyond heterosexual nuclear family- can you think of examples? -no longer need 10 children to work on the farm SO decrease in birth rates -so, companionate family- now ppl marry for love as opposed to merging territories or exchanging from one town to another or economic benefit, now there is an emphasis on marrying for love State -allows ppl to adopt, so the state intervenes -state organized ways in which ppl were able to marry and not marry -immigrants- state sponsors ppl who cannot be Role of gender in family units -how did the development of family units lead to gendered familial expectations? -how did this affect women? -entrenchment of the public and private vibe -rigidifying familial expectations regarding women‘s place in the home -industrialization and separation of public/private sphere -women only allowed to work until marriage (early to mid 1900s) -classed –some women had to work -middle class domesticity- the new ideology of domesticity- women were a symbol -housewife- became the centre of middle-class domesticity Childhood 19 cent beginning of romantic vision of childhood -characteristics like purity, spontaneity, innocence -not everywhere (classed) children‘s labour was still very important for this subsistence of a family Development of public schools -19 century -romantic vision of childhood influenced calls for mandatory school attendance More contemporary divisions of childhood (ever lengthening period of children‘s lives before adult responsibilities) -teenagers/adolescents -tweens -this increasedinterest in childhoos meant parents had more responsibilities, experience more surveillance eg, from the state to bring up children appropriately -it also led to the proliferation of academic and self-help books in regards to child rearing -this also has led‘ experts to encourage parents to equate their children‘s QOL as the family‘s QOL. -What do you think about this approach? Method of entitilement Different types of parenting Intensive mothering- mid century -benjamin spock -said it was their natural (instinctive- mother role) role to be very involved + focused parents -comeplete involvement in a childs life -soccer mum Attachment Parenting -nevarez calls for understanding families through the lens of self-determination of ALL its members -self-determination can be read through the lens of -maslows hierarchy of needs –self-actualzation -capabilities approach (the real opportunities for ppl to do and be what they have reason to value) -aristotle and flourishing -an inquiry into family WOL must attend particularly to the structured range of choices that women have and to the specific settings and stages in which women are given…. Finish on slide -he also says, that there are TWO TENSIONS - womens autonomy can enhance family‘s well-being -in industrial societies, don‘t see womens entry into etc..hence on QOL..children might not be attended too properly, if children are not attended to FEMINIST PREMISE -putting work vs. fam unproductive -binary and simplifying -one way we can think abut undoing this binary is through defamilialization -finish on slide Defamilialization -famialilsm: ―policy regime that assigns a max of welfare oblidations to the household‖ 94 -responsibilities fall on women -so moving the emphasis off family and off to somewhere else such as the state -feminist advocates call for defamilizaing …finish on slide -ifferent iterations of defamilialization -increased entry to paid employment for women -womens increased access to higher education -yet have these gain freed women completely of the imposition of household responsibilities? -the second shift (hochschild) -in 2000, working mothers ratcheted up their time spent tending to children, so fathers making more time for children lead to gendered responsibilities in the home -work-llife balance issues -what strategies do families have to counteract these issues- have one parent stay at home? - -video- work-life balance issues from the globe and mail - gendered socialization occurs National contexts of …finish on slide -3 different types of welfare states 1. liberal- u.s., Canada and UK 2.social democratic welfare regime- allows for defamilialization, universal benefits , public childcare, generous maternity -don‘t worry about section on comparison of U.S. AND france Family notes The defamilialization of families occurs when ―women assert their public place via formal employment‖ (Nevarez 94). Mothers in two-parent families come from work and do household work too. The anti-family view demonstrates how some women love their high- demanding jobs because it rewards them with benefits such as staying in hotels or traveling abroad; this is better than coming home to screaming kids. This relates to what was learned in regards to Adam smith with his term neoliberalism, where society is individualistic and everyone acts for their own benefit; people are not concerned with public good. - is good to note that Canada gives paid maternity leave and parents have to share 35 hours of parental leave (99). This relates to defamilialization because it gives a chance for the family to be together for that maternity period where the mom is at home. This allows mothers to spend time at home and de stress increasing their quality of life perhaps? They have more ‗me‘ time which can provide satisfaction. This relates to one of the seven domains of well- being by Robert A. Cummins, health, where stress free lives contribute to healthy lifestyles and therefore greater life expectancy. -Nevarez discusses work-life balance and how mums have to juggle their domestic work life well as their work in the workforce. Symbolized names such as ‗soccer mom‘ contribute to decreased quality of life due to pressures of keeping that name to the best of their abilities. -Going against these symbolized names shows a change in family structure and hence defamilialization where the mothers go into the workforce giving them a sense of power to earn money rather than become a stereotypical soccer mom or just a caregiver. The author could have also stated how a sense of competition is present between not only stay- at-home moms and working moms, but between moms who keep these symbolized names such as soccer mom because since caregiving is the only thing some moms do, they want to be the best at it. -However, as previously stated, the ability for women to earn provides them with power, which contributes to their quality of life since, as learnt in lecture one, one of the answers as to how we define quality of life is through power. - It is not a surprise then that divorce rates have increased due to women‘s growing involvement in the workplace and due to them rebelling from patriarch (94). Nevarez could have discussed the critical change during adolescence when children leave home to go to college and university and how this affects families say with daughters who participate in domestic work as opposed to the effects of families who have sons that leave the house; Nevarez could have shown how different genders contribute to the change in a family‘s quality of life. -The discovery of childhood is an interesting period and I agree with Nevarez as he talks about how parents shape their children‘s character because the parents are the most influential beings in a child‘s life; children follow their parent‘s behaviour at a young age. A big finding is the drop in family sizes at the end of the nineteenth century, which is interesting because as more women are entering the workforce and as life is becomes more individualistic, people are marrying much later in life. Also, since more people are attending university, people are limiting the number of children they have hence family sizes are not as big as they used to be. -So there is certainly a low of downward mobility where a huge role and burden is placed on parents nowadays compared to Industrial times where kids worked and provided the money for the family. Now, the children attend educational institutions and the parents have to fund this because everything requires thousands of dollars which young adults do not have. Tying this to defamilaliztion, even though children are attending universities and colleges, working moms are busy working throughout the day. In this case of the working mom, the family becomes absent without a mother during her time at work and unattached to the mother because even when she arrives from work she is tired. Parents today are ridden with responsibilities that can seem overwhelming. Hence, the concept of work-life balance is an important one for QOL, with several implications. -Family time is decreased by tasks and necessity -Love is filtered through commitments and expectation of work, school, and afterschool activities -mothers (esp in US) face social pressures to embrace intensive parenting: e.g. soccer mom and minivan mom -good mother hood seen as ―always on duty‖ – for everything that a child could ever need- quality and quantity time- allowing them to be productive and have a bright future, as a role model, love seen not just as spending time with but also spending time for them split shifting- ―two parent families often look much like one parent families, and single parent families much like no parent families. Split shift spouses are more likely to separate or divorce and other impacts on martial quality. Children devotion is increasing0 Working mothers spend around 11 hours a week tending children, which is quite similar to 1975 stay at home moms. US fathers have increased 30 min since 5 years ago and 80 minutes since 1965 -trend not only limited to America - the amount of work by married mothers compared to married fathers have decreased 8 folds since 1965- but is still twice as much as their male counterpart -married mothers lost 4.4 hours of free time since 1965, though fathers stayed the same. The two tho, spend about 3 hours less per week visiting friends and relatives, 2 hours less reading mother (father is 3) , 1.3 hours less on hobbies, and .9 less on organizational activities. Finally- 20% of the time lost is time spent with spouse as a QOL inquiry, - a key issue is why family pursuit should warrant such a sacrifice of individual well-being History perspective -family is a primary unit of economic participation and social reproduction: it is the smallest organization of social reproduction- a social molecule in the generation of society‘s QOL 2 key questions – 1.how has familial unit evolved as organization to secure material well-being? 2. How have concerns for, indeed the very consciousness of, family members‘ individual QOL emerged? - The inverse relationship between family size and economic prosperity, observed generally in developed and developing world alike, underscores the centrality of material well being as an organizing principle of the family. That the overall trend has been toward a smaller family suggests this pursuit has been successful in the long view of history. Intensive mothering places burden of family member‘s individual qol even more squarely on women‘s shoulders: whereas fathers promote their families wellbeing through work and other public actions, mothers primary contribution are seen to reside naturally within private households. Earning profiles give career women significant new choices about children and should parenting be taken up, technology of birth control and fertility enhancement let women move childbearing back to later stages of adulthood. Once again, this tends to result in fewer offspring and thus greater parental investment, possibly to include intensive mothering- in individual children. The latch-key-kid arrangement may put children at risk—the jury is still out—but it also represents a strategy by working parents to shoulder the cost of families private welfare when mothers face persisting labor market disadvantages In mommy wars between middle classes, children are hardly left o be children in the ways themselves were, or the way children still are in working class and poor families, where parents typically lack the time, resources, or history of successful interaction with gatekeepers to motivate such an undertaking Children today are diff from baby boom in that they‘re more likely to have no bros or sis, have a working mother, see their parents divorce, spend more time without adult supervision, have sex in mid teens (esp for girls) and hold a job before high school graduation. -The potentials for risk also allow for individual autonomy and flourishing though. SOC362 – Chapter 5: Work  Contemporary worker can add 3 burdens symptomatic of the ―new world of work‖ o The erosion of stable employment has reached remarkable levels  Causes anxiety and stress over job loss o Many are putting in more hours than ever, often just to keep themselves and their households financially afloat o The work-life imbalance experienced by households as parents and other adults of employable age commit to increased hours in the formal workplace  Together these burdens constitute the crisis of work-based QOL that has gripped public imagination in recent decades  Work can also be the muse to personal QOL, providing them outlets for creativity, autonomy, and self-actualization that inspires them to greater degrees of morale and productivity that benefit the workplace  Although the goals people have for work are subjective and can reflect an almost infinite variety of wants and needs, we can begin to think about them by distinguishing between intrinsic and extrinsic rewards: o Work can be its own reward or; o It can be the means to other goals (respectively)  Four overarching values frame the pursuits of these intrinsic and extrinsic rewards: o Meaningful work o Leisure o Money o Security  Meaningful work and leisure: o Pertain to control one exerts over one‘s work activities and are fundamentally intrinsic aspects of work  Money and security: o More extrinsic rewards of work, as they provide means for personal goals pursued outside the realm of work  Hardly any job can satisfy all four goals equally, the must be balanced through personal choices in the kinds of work people pursue  The priorities individuals assign to one or more of these values inform the subsequent trade-offs they might make in their choices about work  These values carry different weights at different times in life, thereby highlighting the organizing role of the life-course in the work-based QOL people pursue  Different stages of life bring different constraints; thus specific life stages mediate the external impact of gender, class race, and other social forces and make more or less feasible certain pursuits of work-based QOL A Brief History of the Daily Grind  Insofar as human proclivities (what we want to do) and aptitudes (what we can do well) diverge from the tasks of material survival (what we must do), the opposition between work and personal QOL is an ancient experience  Which social settings systematically oppose work to personal proclivity and aptitude? o Scholars point to the division of labor, the crucial historic achievement by which societies flourish materially as the original force setting work against personal QOL  By specializing task and skill, the division of labor limits the free play of human curiosity and technical ability  Once leaders, managers, and other ‗higher‘ specializations of mental labor appear on the historical scene, emotional labor is also exacted when subordinates must appease their superiors with word as well as deed Achieving the Trade-Offs of Work  In the Middle Ages peasants‘ venerable schedules of work and rest, sustained by custom and law, would be transformed only through the wrenching social and cultural changes set loose by capitalism and the Industrial Revolution  These changes introduced systematic variations into the human experience of meaningful work, leisure, money, and security  Consider security of employment o For peasants to view security as a choice would be meaningful only once the opposite, insecurity of work, became common  Consider pursuit of money o For peasants, the pursuit of money required immersion into the social infrastructure of wage labor and industrial labor demand  Consider leisure o Only after the Industrial revolution separated the sphere of work geographically and experientially from the home would ‗getting a life‘ involve leaving the physical space and social order of the workplace  Consider meaning of meaningful work o Crucial is the rise of modern work ethics exhorting us to a lifelong ‗calling‘ of hard work o For capitalists and workers alike, the Protestant work ethic legitimated an individualized framework toward work and the personal goals it might advance The Good Ol‘ Grind Days of Work  Standard employment relationship o A stable, socially protected, dependent, full-time job, the basic conditions of which (working time, pay, social transfers) are regulated to a minimum level by collective agreement or by labor and/or social security law  Things like employment insurance, a fixed work day, schedules for promotion, sick days, and paid vacation enhance workers‘ personal and family QOL  SER provides a predictable and legible schedule for the life-course, providing workers a set of bureaucratic guidelines to organize their experience for the long term  By being able to anticipate these things, workers can plan for extrinsic rewards of work  The SER highlights the evolving relations between corporate bureaucracy, workforce, and state over the 20 century o Workers in this period didn‘t gain job security and steadily rising earnings out of corporate altruism o Instead, employers conceded these when they sought to plot out the corporation‘s long-term growth and depended upon a labor force versed in specific skills and workplace norms o In America this mutual dependence between employers and employees was presaged by corporate-initiated ‗welfare capitalism‘ manifested in the company town built by the Hershey Chocolate Company in 1903  In white collar sectors, the SER was symbolized in the ‗organization man,‘ a now derogatory phrase that evokes the homogenous workplace cultures imposed by employers o E.g. IBM controlled white-collar workers work lives through dress codes  Conformity to workplace norms was also expected outside of work in the private lives of employees and their families  In exchange for consent to this employer intrusion into daily life, white collar workers received an enviable set of material rewards and an important source of personal status Pursuing ‗Quality of Working Life‘  Deindustrialization, the growth of the service sectors, globalization, new applications of information technology – these and other economic trends eroded the growing market share and rates of productivity that had previously given corporations incentive to abide by the SER The Quality of Working Life Initiative  As the SER began its slow demise, QOL emerged to mobilize a rather substantial challenge to corporate organization of work; this challenge emanated largely from within the corporate fields of labor relations and business management  Over the 1970s and 80s a quality of working life (QWL) initiative took hold in response to workers‘ discontents over low levels of meaningful work, task variety and significance, organizational feedback, knowledge of results, and other potentially satisfying features of work that employers had rationalized away  Some general criteria for high quality of working life: o Security o Equitable pay and rewards o Justice in the workplace o Challenge o Recognition for contributions  The QWL was historically significant for its attention to the quality of blue-collar work; manufacturing workers have long suffered alienating work and organizational rationalization, and the movement took aim at these accordingly o Some union leaders worried that the movement undermined their collectively- bargained contracts over the pace and process of work, if it was not in fact a covert attack on the unions‘ authority to represent rank and file‘s demands o A few QWL advocates acknowledged that by giving workers opportunities to have their say, make an impact in some situations, and thereby ‗identify with management goals‘ QWL reforms could obscure managers‘ adversarial stance toward labor‘s demands o Others saw harmony between the QWL initiative and unions‘ advocacy for a less alienating workplace, expressing interest in how the movement could make work more interesting and rewarding for workers – so long as management separated any QWL reform from the provisions of collective bargaining  By advocating QWL as a means to enhance workforce competitiveness, workplace reforms gained a legitimacy among corporations that its earlier focus on QWL as an intrinsic foal for discontented workers did not Discovering the Work-Life Nexus  The view of QWL that human resource professionals, corporate management, and labor representatives alike articulated is, from today‘s perspective, revealing for what it fairly ignored: o Workers‘ life outside the workplace  QWL researchers tended to emphasize the effect of male breadwinners‘ employment and occupational status on family stability, marital satisfaction, and child relations  Women‘s QWL was rarely discussed as a condition of the formal workplace  The issue here is that QWL advocates and literature underscored how the movement otherwise viewed caregiving and family as concerns outside the domain of QWL  Whereas the QWL initiative that thrived in the 1970s and 80s centered on the intrinsic reward of work‘s meaningfulness, management and labor discourse regarding QOL and work has since begun focusing on rewards expended outside the workplace: leisure, money, and security  The context for the QWL initiative‘s decline as well as these shifts in thinking about work and QOL is the dramatic workplace transformations wrought by globalization and later the so-called new economy QOL at Work Today: Are you Kidding?  Globalization and technology may have destroyed work as many once knew it, but jobs have hardly disappeared on the whole; rather, they rematerialize in other sectors and new, often lower-paying and less sustainable form of employment  The individualistic connotations of QOL – autonomy, self-actualization, and the like – provide unsteady goalposts now that the target of work-based QOL has moved away from the organizational context of work itself New Freedoms, New Burdens  The erosion of the traditional breadwinner occupation over the last three decades could unleash personal freedom for many  Women‘s growing participation in the labor market symbolizes at least some element of meaningful achievement for women in their personal freedom and their advocacy of social change  Countries where breadwinner occupations hold a privileged place in welfare policy tend to be patriarchal and conservative in political nature and private life, and women in these countries tend to hold paying jobs much less frequently  Conversely, in the U.S. and other nations with more deregulated labor markets, the growing opportunities for part-time and freelance employment suit the preferences of many working mothers and other workers to carry out both formal work and family caregiving  Likewise, the impermanence of employment may offer new opportunities to pursue QOL through work, if not a fixed workplace, by freeing workers from intolerable bosses, unwanted office politics, and bureaucratic constraints upon workers‘ initiative and creativity  The impermanence of employment gives free agents an opportunity to turn the tables on employers, as it were, and exploit them as temporary stops along a self-defined journey of personal interest, skill development, and work-life flexibility  Critics of this view said that the free agent ethos promoted a calculating and mercenary outlook and loosened traditional commitments to employers, communities, or even families  Both views neglected the fact that its moralistic tenor and frequent references to the bureaucratic, ‗organization man‘ office as the traditional experience of work underscored their distinctly middle-class perspective The Problem of Overwork  Then there is the number of hours people work – perhaps the most visible symbol of changing QOL in the new world of work  ―Take back your time Campaign‖ o seeks to promote minimum paid-leave laws and raise public consciousness about the costs of overwork  However, Americans tend to think they work longer hours than they actually do, a pattern Robinson and Godbey attribute to the subjective experience of ‗time-deepening‘ that technology, multitasking, and rising expectations of personal productivity impose upon us  Overwork has become the province of the higher classes  This trend reflects the compositional shift within the ranks of the affluent, as those whose wealth derives from the active employment have been eclipsed those whose wealth came from property and investments  Meanwhile, subordinate groups face the undesirable situation of having too much time off  Be careful not to generalize; yet below that time-impoverished stratum lies the ‗underclass‘ of workers with the weakest attachment to the labor force, for whom unemployment brings hours of forced idleness, while above it lies the dispossessed proletariat, restructured out of the industrial occupations that gave their ranks meaning and mobility and in many cases saddled with the liabilities of narrow skills and inflexible job-search expectations The Labor-market as Cultural Framework  As the modes of employment multiply, a collective ideal of modern work declines  Increasingly, citizens of developed societies share fewer experiences and expectations, of the kind symbolized by the SER, about what work should provide people and what they should offer in return  Class consciousness: while people are still social, empathetic creatures who relate to each others‘ predicaments, aspirations, and sacrifices through group affiliations, they do so less and less as collective produces, as workers  Organizational deinstitutionalization is a key factor here; when corporations go ‗flexible‘ and welfare states retreat from regulating work conditions, the market individualizes the experience of work as workers negotiate their earnings, hours, and benefits  In a world where aesthetic criteria rule supreme, people reject the ethical meanings of work, such as calling, duty, or entitlement, and view occupations and industries through the prism of ‗interesting‘ vs. ‗boring‘ jobs  Boring jobs are considered to be: o Chosen willingly only by people as yet unprocessed by the society of consumers and unconverted to consumerism, and this satisfied with selling their labor in exchange for bare survival  Interesting jobs: o Maximize and validate the currency of personal choice o Represent one of the highest status symbols in a society where work is compulsory but ethical views of work have receded from views Work as the Muse of QOL  Three notable perspectives from business and popular literatures that illustrate current ways people relate to work as the muse for QOL The ‘Cultures’ of Companies  Management literature has increasingly endorsed the cultivation of company culture, that is, a company‘s signature competencies and ‗values‘  It is a regular commandment within boardrooms and employee lounges that firms articulate a company culture, make it coherent, and bring employees on board with it  Company culture appears most in retail and entertainment sectors, where employees are rewarded for demonstrating and advising customers on the branded experience or lifestyle being sold o E.g. Disney ‗cast members‘  Company culture strategy not only offers existing employees opportunities to find genuine meaning in their work through the exercise of organizationally-specified ‗autonomy,‘ it also shows its most positice side to potential employees as they consider new employment opportunities  Sociologist Paul Du Gay contends that the company culture strategy signals the end of the corporation‘s ability to provide workers its own social world, its own total institution  Yet the company culture strategy empowers workers as well, by acknowledging and rewarding the personal sensibilities of workers who ‗get it‘; workers who recognize the company culture within their own individual aspirations and experiences find new self- worth as valued contributors to a geimenschaft of management and employees  Like many forms of self-discipline, the company culture strategy masks its coercion with a discourse expressing something altogether different: a new template for work-based QOL o Here workers discover where they fit based on their own personalities and values  For critics, including many workers subjected to this managerial strategy, company culture illustrates a rather plastic, superficial understanding of ‗culture‘  Integrity, innovation, commitment – these and other buzzwords rarely smooth over the alienating features of work for many employees and merely add a note of high absurdity to the job Flow  How the discipline of psychology views the harmony between work and QOL  Flow refers to the subjective conditions of enjoyment and concentration  8 dimensions of flow: o the experience usually occurs when we confront tasks we have a chance of completing o we must be able to concentrate on what we are doing rd th o (3 and 4 ) concentration is usually possible because the task undertaken has clear goals and provides immediate feedback o one acts with a deep but effortless involvement that removes from awareness the worries and frustrations of everyday life o enjoyable experiences allow people to exercise a sense of control over their actions o concern for the self disappears, yet paradoxically the sense of self emerges stronger after the flow experience is over o the sense of the duration of time is altered (hours pass by in minutes; minutes stretch out to seem like hours)  combined these features make the rewards of work intrinsic; work feels like an end in itself, the key characteristic of flow  yet, if contexts affect flow, reform of the contemporary workplace is ultimately not the psychologists‘ goal  happiness, in fact, is a condition that must be prepared for, cultivated, and defended privately by each person  people who learn to control inner experience will be able to determine the quality of their lives, which is as close as any of us can come to being happy Creativity  the managerial strategy of corporate culture and workers‘ pursuit of flow come together in the third and most recent perspective on work as the muse of QOL  creativity characterizes work for artists, thinkers, designers, and others in the ‗super- creative core‘ who produce new forms or designs that are readily transferable and widely useful  10 dimensions of creativity o involves the playful combination of data, perceptions, and materials o requires self-confidence by creators to take risks o not hoarded by geniuses but rather can be exercised by everybody, given the right circumstances o proceeds via the stages of preparation, incubation, illumination, and verification/revision o draws on personal experience across many realms o demands diligent and substantial effort o involves inestimable stretches of time o often makes for an obsessive and solitary life o motivates primarily through its intrinsic rewards o draws heavily on interpersonal collaboration o flourishes in open and tolerant social environments  these theories of flow and creativity depict the possible harmony, even synergy, between work and QOL  particularly outside the academic field, these sectors are often immersed in the lifestyles and activities that lure young creative talent to cities or other amenity rich planes  this idealized creative worker occupies the most adaptable life-stage and is rarely encumbered by family dependents or other commitments that might preempt long hours of devoted and not necessarily well-paid creativity  the parallels to the selection and cultivation of employee fit with company culture described earlier are noteworthy, but that such managerial concern can be ‗flexibly‘ externalized out of the firm onto external features of the labor market itself: industries and cities, but also ‗value-adding‘ life stages and lifestyles The Movable Feast of Work-based QOL  Ross‘s lack of attention to the workplace‘s affective milieu is one reason why his theory of creative class, for all its insights into the quality and organization of work, provides such an antiseptic view of workers‘ lives  The affective milieu for labor, creative or otherwise, represents a ‗sunk environment‘ in workers‘ QOL that the firm cannot externalize – an inflexible value-added in a flexible economy  By contrast, the technocratic emphasis on creativity, like the discourse on company culture and flow, serves the managerial interest in easing workers into a new world of impermanent employment, unstable earnings, and work-life imbalance  Those who can truly find work-based QOL on their own, independent of the specific occupations, workers, bosses, or workplaces they find themselves among today are highly valued in contemporary labor markets  We can imagine 2 classes under this umbrella o Workers whose in-demand skills lead employers to concede various elements of a great job represent the most advantaged stratum of elite workers on the labor market o Workers who authentically adhere to the culture and norms demanded by employers are prized for the self-discipline they contribute and model to others March 12, 2013 Lecture 7 WORK AND QUALITY OF LIFE Different factors that affect the quality of working life •Negative effects of work onto our QOL –Erosion of stable employment –Overwork –Work-life imbalance and ways in which family is affected by parents and adults in the home who work or don‘t work, also discussing technologies. All of those could lead us to have a negative quality of working life. But there are also some positive effects of working •Positive  –Work as a source/site of creativity, flourishing o Self-actualization, whether work allows you to enter that trajectory of flourishing or self-actualization. Does it allow you to express your creativity? •This can be affected by our reasons for working: intrinsic and extrinsic rewards - Meaningful work - Leisure - Money - Security, economic security and other types of security. •Do people weigh these rewards equally? Why or why not? Someone may take on a crappy job for a particular reason. For example, I have a crappy job but it pays well so I can have leisure activity later on. So it depends on life cycle and situation. So people are weighing and evaluating them but do you think they weigh them equally or are people expecting more or less of something? Some professions provide a lot of meaning- may not be paid in the same scale as CEO, you might choose those types of jobs because they provide meaning for you regardless of whether or not they provide leisure. Society also houses what is meaningful and what isn‘t. Sometimes if it is a high status position it might be meaningful, or if it has intrinsic rewards like helping someone‘s life. So meaning is subjective. Society creates hierarchies of meaning. Someone may find meaning in something we don‘t associate with having a high status. You can find meaning in any kind of work. Like you can find meaning in being a janitor but that‘s not what we typically think of. So why do we find something meaningful? •Trade-offs depending on - –Economic situation - –Personal goals so if you‘re in university you might want to have an easy job that doesn‘t pay enough but pays some of your rent, then later on you‘ll look for more stable job and that‘ll go with your life stage - –Life stage, if you‘re single you may have other goals than if you had children - –Other factors •Nevarez proposes a framework for understanding the quality of working life that looks at - –Lived experience (our experiences in the workplace) - –The ways we (society) evaluate work (given our social situation and the historical trajectory of work and occupations) He says that thinking about quality of working life would require us to think about how different factors – our lived experience as well as the ways we as a society evaluate work. So how we‘re influenced to think of what is meaningful and what is not meaningful. Division of labor (public vs. private) An aversion to work is not a contemporary phenomenon - –One could argue that the division of labor is the ―original force setting work against personal QOL‖ (120) so when you had public. Vs. private sphere, this division of labor was original force setting work against personal QOL. What does this mean? That your quality of life would improve if you didn‘t have to do the work that you do. These are pitted against each other. We‘re going to problematize that because a lot of people do find meaning in their work. - –With the division of labor, leisure became understood as separate from work (binary). LEISURE doesn‘t occur in the workplace, but we know that it could. So we can think of before the industrial revolution, work was organized along seasons. - Before: work was organized alongside seasons. People would plant seeds and wait for them to grow. Leisure would work into work life because they‘re wasn‘t necessarily that division. - No incentives for working more ($) What do you think about this? •However, this division of labor can also lead to understanding work as ―meaningful‖ –Weber: work ethic •Weber attributed the success of capitalism to a certain ―Protestant ethic‖ (N. America, Europe) - Promoted ideas of working hard, ever growing pursuit of economic gain, etc - His argument was that this promoted for fast tracking development or flourishing of capital. •Something else we can think about in relation to Quality of Working Life is what happens outside the ―workplace‖ given this division of labor - Work-home or work leisure binaries - What happens to work that occurs in the home (paid and unpaid) - Should research/advocates for improving quality of work life focus only in the workplace (changing work culture) or outside of the workplace as well (workers‘ private lives) Earlier we mentioned that people do actually work in the home or from home and therefore we destabilize this binary between work being here and home life there, often times they do melt into each other. We can begin by thinking of standard employment relationship. •In order to think about how work affects our QOL in contemporary times; let‘s begin with the standard employment relationship. •What is it? •Access to a ―stable, socially protected, dependent, full-time job…the basic conditions of which (working time, pay, social transfers) are regulated to a minimum level by collective agreement or by labour and/or social security law‖ (Bosch, cited in Nevarez 124) - Because of its stability, workers can plan their work and leisure hours and make economic plans for the future (buying a house, sending children to university) •Standard employment relationship –Benefits do not necessarily make work more exciting, valuable etc –However, workers are able to derive ― extrinsic rewards and the meaningful sense of accomplishment that comes with fulfilling ethical commitments to family and other moral communities‖ (p. 124). Because you can better provide for people depending on your income and plan for your future then that might be a trade off to not having a necessarily intrinsically meaningful job. •Standard employment relationship stems from a give and take between employers and employees - Fight to collectively bargain (unions) - Fights included things over regulate minimum wage, maximum working hours •Also influenced by the welfare state •(therefore related to the development of the affluent society) So SER came along because fights from collective workers. •As a result of the standard working relationship, a number of workplace norms were also instituted by employers to control employees - Dress codes - Behaviour norms •However, not everyone benefitted equally from the standard employment relationship –Whom did it primarily benefit? - Full time workers - Doesn‘t radicalize minorities in the same way - What about gender? Primarily benefited men who were white - Question of migration, immigrants are negatively impacted b/c they don‘t have access to these standard jobs. •We currently speak of the erosion of the standard employment relationship. – What has emerged in its place? Precarious Work - Deskilling - Insecurity Emphasis on flexibility – often times flexibility is seen as productive thing but we can also promelatize this as well Overwork Precarious Work Is affected by: •Degree of certainty of continuing employment - –Does a worker have seasonal work? flexible hours? Contract work that may not be renewed. •Control over the labour process - –linked to the presence or absence of a trade union and hence, control over working conditions, wages and pace of work. •Degree of regulatory protection: whether the worker has access to an equivalent level of regulatory protection through union representation or the law. •Income level From: Cranford, C., Vosko, L. F. and Zukewich, N (2003) Precarious employment in the Canadian Labour Market: A Statistical Portrait‖ Just Labour 3 pp. 6-22 Often times the work that people who are engaged in precarious work do is contract work. So in terms of this factor we can think of whether a worker is engaged in seasonal work, flexible hours, when it‘s really busy do they have to work 10-12 hours a day? We talked about how low pay, bad conditions at work, working on a contract, etc, all the ways this will affect work life and quality of all of your life So you can also enjoy and gather good quality of life from the work that you do •Flexibility: a good thing? We often talk about flexible work schedules, having flexibility in type of work you engage in. is it a good thing? •Benefits: (e.g. freelancers) - Can work desired hours - Can have more power outlining/bargaining working conditions - This is often times a class phenomenon •Detriments - Precarious work - Gender: women often work flexible hours to negotiate home responsibilities Overwork •Reality or myth? •Some argue that people are working longer than before: –Longer work weeks: In 2011, average Canadian work week was 38.7 hours (compared to 30.5 in the Netherlands and 33.7 in Denmark.) http://stats.oecd.org/Index.aspx?DatasetCode=ANHRS# •Others argue that people are actually working less •We can relate this to the rise of precarious work: –One effect of precarious work is not working enough hours (underemployment) - Some people engaged in precarious work do work long hours, multiple jobs, etc –However, ―professional, technical, and managerial occupations are most likely to work ‗long work weeks‘‖ (p. 134). - Most like under a standard employment relationship •Both of these can affect a person‘s QOL. How? •We can also think about the reasons people overwork: so why might be people be working more hours - –To maintain a specific lifestyle - –As a result of increases in cost of living, so as inflation goes up, if your wages don‘t go up you may need to pick up more hours in order to continue living at the same rate. - –To gain recognition, purpose, sense of belonging (managers, for example) –All related to improving or maintaining QOL ! if you‘re economic needs are met then QOL should be higher or should be okay in that arena, if you have a sense of meaning you are flourishing, working towards self actualization, your QOL may also be improving. All of these are affected by QOL. At the same time if you‘re overworked that might affect your QOL. •The workplace /occupation can also be imagined as producing an atmosphere that contributes to good QOL –Company culture –Creativity Often times in the media and news we think of work as something that has to be done, but for some people work can be enjoyable. Two examples of how we can think of this is company culture and creativity. Company Culture •Development of ―company cultures‖: way in which employees are asked to behave in relation to their company ―brand‖ –E.g. ‗magical‘ enthusiasm of Disney or do-it-yourself ‗handyman‘ of the Home Depot - People at Disney have to be enthusiastic and happy, the do it yourself handy man culture at the home depot, you look up to them because they can fix things and teach you something. - Can you think of other examples? o Working at Abercrombie or other fashion stores – might target ideal fashion, physique, etc…have to look a certain way when selling brand of specific company, can be considered precarious work •The emphasis here is on ―fit‖, a worker will have a good quality of working life if their personality/ working style fits that of the company culture. So if you‘re not into fashion you may not want to work in a department store, you have to behave in a certain way, for example if you‘re grumpy you might not fit into a lot of these stores that sell a certain image. •What are some critiques of this approach to quality of working life? - In 80s and 90s there were cutbacks to welfare state programs and it affected a lot of families and workers - If we‘re not going to have all of these benefits to provide for our workers, we‘ll still provide a good atmosphere for our workers. What do you think about that? - In order to have a good fit you might have to perform and act in a certain way •The creation of a company culture can be a way to erode worker benefits while still maintaining an atmosphere that employees like - Emphasis on the culture not the resources available to workers So if company culture is enjoyable it does not necessarily make work life more profitable so it becomes culture and not resources available to workers or what may have been available to them in the past. Can also think of culture created by workers, so people who try to take on these jobs try to make the best of it. Creativity •The rise of the creative class (Richard Florida) –Creativity = important in today‘s economies, workplaces and communities –He emphasizes the Super creative core: artists, thinkers, designers etc., important for the development of cities, communities etc. they can enrich community and quality of life - •These folks are motivated by ―fun‖ and ―interesting work‖ – you can see benefit, improve QOL if you engage in creative work. - •Creativity can be the link between work and QOL in and at the workplace. You can have a good time if what you‘re doing is exciting for you •What are some limitations to Florida‘s discussion of the creative classes? - It‘s limited to people who have access to training or formal information - Also access to a job. - When people move into these places, they often move into places that are perhaps populated by working class communities, so people move in and they begin to change the place, rent starts to go up and property value starts to go up. So people who live there move out – gentrification. •Creative classes linked to flexibility and adaptability –―this idealized creative worker occupies the most adaptable life-stage and is rarely encumbered by family dependents or other commitments that might preempt long hours of devoted and not necessarily well-paid creativity‖ (p 144) - Often recently graduated from university or has life experiences highly valued in field - Although the work can involve creativity, it can often be precarious. •Also, no discussion of the employer/ employee conflicts that may ensue (like in any other workplace) •Finally, Florida‘s focus on the creative class and how communities, municipalities can take advantage of this employee sector does not account for worker‘s emotional attachments to their work/workplace can affect their QOL. –Creativity is not the only thing that allows workers to find their work meaningful, how you feel in the workplace is also important –Also, flexibility and adaptability may not allow for the development of these emotional attachments - Do a reverse outline; if you take the first sentence of each paragraph, and your argument makes sense, then that’s good From last week - We can problematize this - Something - Als ocan enjoy the work we do - Also how precarious working conditions affect our QOL ; low pay, bad conditions, working on a contract and worrying whether itll be renewed, how itll affect not juist work life but qol in general Slide - Workplace ooccup;ation can also be imageined as producing an atmosphere that contributed to good WOL - Company culture - Creativity Company culture - The ways employees behave in relation to brand - Ex. magical enthusiasm of Disney - Have to be excited, happy - Can teach you something, not just there to sell you a product (home depot handyman) - Ex. Hollister - Has to be a good fit for the employee - Ex. if youre not into yoga you may not want to work at lululemon - Wokers personality/working style should fit with that of the company culture - What are some critiques to this approach to quality of working life? - Companies not being able to provide as many benefits, so they provided a good atmosphere instead - In order to have a good fit you may have to act/perform to customers - And if youre having a bad day, you have to suppress that, youre expected to smile - Also kidn of discrimination, because they only hire certain types of ppl, but its sold as ‘this is our company culture’ - It’s a rationale for not having to explain certain extra benefits that are no longer present (cutback due to economy) - The creation of a company culture can be a way ot erode worker benefits while still maingainting an atmosphere that employees work - Emphasis on the “|culture” not the resources available to workers Creativity - In todays economy, creativity is very important - We need to take this into account a lot more than we have in the past - The rise of the creative class - > creativity = important in todays economices workplaces and communities - > super creative core: artists, thinkers, designers, etc important for the development of cities, communities, etc. - -- motivated by “fun” and “interesting work” - -- creativity can be the link between work and QOL - [not necessarily looking for best benefits, looking for how fun the work itself is - What are some limitations to Florida’s discussion of the creative classes? (Richard Florida) - Something about how it affects other ppl living in the city Slide - Creative classes linked to flexibility and adaptability - >“this idealized creative worker occupies the most adaptable life stage and is rarely encumbered by family dependants or other commitments that might preempt long hours of devoted and not necessarily well-paid creativity” p 144 - >Often recently graduated from university or has life experiences highly valued in the field [[this is trendy, they’ll be hired for a short period of time, then they’ll get not trendy anymore and they’ll hire new ones, so short shelf life] - >Although the work can involve creativity, it can often be precarious [long hours, not necessarily well paid]] - Also no discusson of the employer/employee conflicts that may ensure (like in any other workplace) Slide - Finally, Florida’s focus on the creative class and how communities, municipalities can take advantage of this employee sector does not account for workers emotional attachments to their work/workplace can affect their QOL - [atmosphere, whether work itself is fun and creative] - > creativity is not the only thing that allows workers to feel their work is meaningful, how you feel in work place also important - Also flexibility and adaptability may not allow for the development of these emotional attachments Slide - Toronto rated as most miserable city in Canada - Problems? - Is community measured through place/ or through something else? Ex. we have internet communities, etc. - But even though we can problematized how these happiness scales are measured, they still have an affect on ppls decision of which city to move to Slide - Does place have inherent conditions that affect our wol or do people Impose social understandings onto space in order to derive good/bad qol? - Discussion Slide - In order to answer this we have to begin with a definition of space and place Slide - Space: - “space is not a specific object removed from ideology and politics; it has always been political and strategic. If space has an air of neutrality and indifference with regard to its contents and thus seems to be “purely” formal.. it is precisely because it has been occupied and used, and has alrea
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