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SOC101Y1 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Social Stratification, Anomie, Parental Leave

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Robert Brym
Study Guide

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SOC101Y1 Term #3 Notes
Tasfoatio of edia fo oe-to-a to a-to-a ade it possile fo itizes to use the edia to organize
against the state
Mass media any technologically based means of communicating between large numbers of people distributed widely over
space or time
o Internet and World Wide Web brought together by media convergence
Media culture provide materials for us to forge our identities and sense of self (notion of male/female, sense of class/ethnicity
and race, us ad the – We constitute common culture)
o Mass media help shape our vision of the world, our values (how we think/feel, what we believe/fear, how we behave)
o Mass media grew due to the Protestant Reformation promoting literacy, democratic movements promoting mass
involvement, capitalist industrialization promoting the search for profit
Media literacy the ability to access, analyze, evaluate, and create media in a variety of forms.
Charles Wrights functionalist perspectives on the media:
o Surveillance: the edia tells us hats happeig i the old.
o Interpretation: the edia itepets hats goig o ad tells us ho to espod.
o Socialization: the media transmit information, values, and norms from generation-generation.
o Entertainment: the media provide us w/ content that we find interesting and enjoyable.
o However, media coverage can be selective.
The media allows us to imagine ourselves as part of a nation-state (e.g. CBC prominently and distinctively Canadian
News media is one of principle sources of information about social reality
o Reinforces dominant definitions of what is normal and desirable
Bookman the media allows us to become members of different imagined communities
Status conferral function the process of giving prominence to particular individuals by focusing media attention on them
The media can also be dysfunctional
o Robert Merton: narcotization people become so overwhelmed by the amount of info they receive that they become
numb and do not act on the information.
o Free flow can affect the status quo and news of what is happening elsewhere can be contagious
Conflict theorists reinforce capitalist ideology, encourage a mass consumer culture, allows those who own the means of
production to sell unnecessary products and services
o Capitalism also creates false needs for consumer products
o Dominant class controls the media, exploitation of the working class by promoting values of the rich and by creating a
false consciousness among workers
o Public does not receive information that would threaten the dominant class the media ignore such information. They
use loaded ods i.e., freedom fighter, or terrorist.
o Holds that 1) institutions (such as the news media) and 2) processes (such as socialization and social control) cannot be
understood from viewpoint of society as a whole; rather, need to be understood from that of unequal and conflicting
groups and classes
Mass media favour interests of dominant classes and political groups in two ways
o 1) Mass media broadcast beliefs, values, and ideas that create widespread acceptance of basic structure of society,
including its injustices and inequalities (dominant ideology and hegemony)
o 2) Ownership of mass media is highly concentrated in hands of small number of people and is highly profitable for them
(CTVGlobeMedia, Rogers, Shaw)
o Consequences of high concentration include: deprives the public of independent sources of information, limits diversity of
opinion, encourages the public to accept their society as it is
Culture industry has turned artistic expression into a marketable commodity
Symbolic interactionists (Interpretative) individuals continually negotiate their social realities
o Charles Cooley: looking-glass self a pesos sese of self is deied fo the peeptios of others, our sense of self
always develops as we interact w/ others
o Two-step flow of communication which occurs between mass media and audience members and involves: 1) Respected
people of high status evaluating media messages, and 2) Other members of community being influenced to varying
degrees by these opinion leaders
Feminist gender scripts are our blueprints for behaviour, belief, and identity; these scripts guide our gender roles.
o Erving Goffman looked at details of print advertisement and found several ways in which women were portrayed
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SOC101Y1 Term #3 Notes
Postmodern Michel Foucault: we live in a society where technologies make widespread surveillance possible in many
different social settings
o This creates a feeling that our bodies are both subjects and objects
o This sense of detachment reinforces a self-surveillance that enforces the norms of the virtual community
Baudrillard: hyperreality situation in which the distinction b/w reality and simulation has become blurred. Media has become
the center of our world and it thus defines our experiences and understandings of the world
Marshall McLuhan: global village technologies would create these so that people around the world can share information
through interactive media
Schiller: cultural imperialism a process whereby powerful countries use the media to spread values and ideas that dominate
and even destroy other cultures, and local cultural values are replaced by the cultural values of the dominant country
o The globalization of culture means that local cultural values are replaced by Western values such as consumerism
o Poo idustialized outies: the digital Thid Wold. Majo aie: ost. Laguage issues also at as a barrier across the
Social media are a category of media that facilitate online exchanges and interaction
o Social networking sites are services that people use to create profiles, connection lists, and share information
o Virtual worlds include virtual game environments
o Blogs and microblogs consist of online journals or short status updates that allow people to communicate and connect
o Collective projects include websites where people participate in the joint creation and ongoing modification of content
o Online content communities consist of services that allow people to share media
Social media is different from traditional mass media in 4 ways:
o Hybridity: enable integration and recombination of old and new technologies
o Networked and nonlinear: social media are many-to-many in their connectivity
o Interactivity: social media is user-generated and continually modified
o Almost everywhere all the time: wherever Interact or mobile connection is
New interactive technologies have become more accessible, creating a more complex communications environment that
mediates the role and tempers the impact that any single medium can have at home, work, or school
Web 2.0 encourages users to be digital collaborators: building web pages and blogs; users, consumers, audiences, take on
hybrid role as producers and content creators
o Two way mode of ouiatio ad to step flo of ouiatio: likes, taggig, tedig topis, YouTue hits ->
consumption patterns of others operate as a point of social reference for how we consume media
o Henry Jenkins argues participatory media culture has changed the face of literacy, shifting it from individual expression to
community involvement
Tukle: edia allo people to epess thei idetit i diffeet as; idetit okshops; osistet /postmodern
Constant online performances not only represent, but reshape us
o Rheingold the internet forges new social connections, unbound by time or location
o Not all online groups conform to this ideal of virtual community
David Bell: German word bund (covenant) to think about online social groupings. A bund is an elective grouping, where people
share a strong sense of belonging. This is his esio of itual ouit
People use social media for awareness of advocacy purposes. Also, to mobilize others for political action.
o Digital diide – separates urban, better-educated, and higher-income people from others.
o Siple atiis leads to slaktiis giving people the false impression that they are socially engages by clicking the
like utton
Surveillance involves focused systematic and routine attentions to personal details for the purposes of influence, management,
protection, or direction. Some surveillance is planned, some unintended.
Body dissatisfaction is a mass social phenomenon, not an individual idiosyncrasy
Even though a lot about the size and form of our bodies is determined by genes our social environment impacts it too (e.g.
height/weight) and societal pressures pushes to turn our bodies in a condition that is recognized as being right and proper
Our bodies represent ourselves it says something about our character
Body can show standard of living = improved diet that increased individual potential
o Attitude is widespread b/c height is an indicator of status
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SOC101Y1 Term #3 Notes
Poverty teds to eouage oesit. Thee is a eipoal elatioship / oesit ad soial lass
Bodies are sites of anxiety/pleasure/desire
o Anxiety: whole industry and set of marketing techniques that are part of the discourses of the body: for example, foods
that are good for us and others that are ad for us
o Pleasure: industry that prompts us to seek sensation: films, magazines, commercials, books, and shop windows tempt us;
for example, eating and drinking are social occasions that may induce pleasurable sensations and exciting experiences
o Desire: the site/tool/object of desire. It is our body that makes first impressions; it is the site of ourselves that is always on
display and people tend to judge by what they can see
Ma of the ost ipotat soial distitios gede, ae, et. ae itte o ou odies i diffeet styles of dress,
tattoos, etc.
Bodies are both biologically and socially defined; enhancing one's body image to conform to prevailing norms is especially
important in urban, industrial societies because:
o Socially, urbanized societies present people w/many more opportunities to meet and interact with strangers
o Economically, industrialized societies enable people to afford body enhancement
o Technologically, we have created many new techniques for transfiguring the body
Impaired people deficient in physical/mental capacity.
Disability physical/mental problem that keeps people from performing within the rage of oal hua atiit; is
socially constructed
Rehabilitation involves curing disabilities to a certain degree through medical and technological intervention; trying to
improve the lives of people with disabilities by means of care, training, and education; integrating disabled people into society
The resulting prejudice and discrimination against people with disabilities is called ableism
o Ableism involves more than prejudice and discrimination; unintended neglect of the condition of people with disabilities
o Recently, people with disabilities have begun to assert normality of disability, form communities of people with disabilities
o “ie s, people ith disailities hae egu to asset thei autoo ad dignity of difference
Sociology of mental illness at the beginning of the twentieth century just one mental disorder was recognized by the federal
government: Imbecility/Insanity
o More mental health issues are diagnosed; perceptions of mental illness is changing
Health is the state of complete physical, mental and social well-being
o Does not depend solely on the absence of disease or sickness and is socially defined, therefore varies over time and
between cultures
Sociology of aging aging is also a process of socialization, learning the different stages of life
o Life course passing through the different stages of life
o Rites of passage rituals signifying the transition from one life stage to the next
o Life expectancy the avg. age at death of the members of a population
Age cohort people o i the sae age of eas e.g., a ooes, Geeatio X
Age roles patterns of behaviour that we expect from people in different age cohorts
Generation a special type of age cohort; people who have unique and formative historical experiences during youth
Age stratification social inequality b/w age cohorts; exists in all societies and is observed in everyday interaction; more
evident in pre-industrial and early industrial societies
Gerontocracies a society ruled by older people
Functionalist in preindustrial societies, family, work, and community were tightly integrated. Industrialization raised the
standard of living and created other conditions that lead to increased life expectancy.
o Social differentiation can exist without social stratification. However, age stratification did develop b/c different age
cohorts performed functions of differing value to society.
Conflict theory dispute that age stratification reflects the functional importance of different age cohorts. Instead, age
stratification stems from competition and conflict. They suggest political struggles can make a big difference in how much
stratification exists in a society.
Symbolic interactionists focus on meaning people attach to age-based groups and age stratification. They stress the way in
which people understand aging is nearly always a matter of interpretation.
Population pyramids graphs that show the % of the population in various age/sex cohorts.
# of seniors in Canada increasing for 3 reasons: 1) baby boom children born during the war, 2) life expectancy has increased due
to idustializatio,  Caadas uet lo ith ate = oe olde people.
Ageism prejudice about, and discrimination against, older people
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