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Sociology Test 3.docx

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Department
Sociology
Course
SOC101Y1
Professor
Robert Brym
Semester
Winter

Description
Sociology Exam 3 Chapter 8  Objective definitions of ethnicity assume ethnic groups exist because of people’s social attachments. From this point of view, ethnicity is something that people possess because of differences in language, culture, customs, national origin and ancestry.  Subjective approaches to ethnicity focus on the process of ethnic identification.  Sociologists define racism as both a certain kind of idea and a certain kind of institutional practice.  Sociologists define racism as “the belief that humans are subdivided into distinct hereditary groups that are innately different in their social behaviour and mental capacities and that can therefore be ranked as superior or inferior”  The concept of new racism was developed by Martin Barker to analyze the way that ideas were being expressed in the 1970’s by British members of Parliament, when they were speaking out about British immigration policy (used the excuse of biological inferiority/ superiority and cultural differences)  Barker argued that the new racism involves beliefs that, although races of people cannot be ranked biologically, they are different from each other and that social problems are creates when different groups try to live together.  Institutional racism refers to “discriminatory racial practices built into such prominent structures such prominent structure as the political, economic and educational systems” Takes three forms:  First, some institutional practices are based on explicitly racist ideas  Second, some institutional practices arose from, but are no longer sustained by, racist ideas.  Third, institutions sometimes unintentionally restrict the life- chances of certain groups through a variety of seemingly neutral rules, regulations and procedures. Sometimes refereed to as systemic discrimination.  Social- psychological approaches to the interpretation of race and ethnic relations focus on how prejudice and unfavorable, generalized and rigid belief applied to all members of a group – and racism satisfy the psychic needs of certain people.  Frustration-aggression is a popular variant of social-psychological theory. It explains prejudice and racism as forms of hostility that arise from frustration. Theory suggests that those that are frustrated in their efforts to achieve a desired goal – a better- paying job, for example, or entry to a university – respond with aggression.  The primordialist thesis suggests that ethnic and racial attachments reflect an innate tendency for people to seek out and associate with, other who are similar in terms of language, culture, beliefs, ancestry and appearance  From this point of view, ethnic prejudice and racism are ways of maintain social boundaries  Sociobiologists offer a popular form of primordial theory. They suggest that prejudice and discrimination – practices that deny members of particular groups equal access to societal rewards – stem from our supposedly biological grounded tendency to be nepotistic  They believe that clusters of genes are assumed to be passed on through kin selection.  Are racism, prejudice and discrimination programmed by our genes? Unlikely  First problem with sociobiology is that shared ethnicity or race does not prevent conflict from erupting  Second sociobiology is not able to explain how and why we frequently break out of our supposed genetically programmed nepotism  Normative theories of ethnic and racial prejudices concentrate on the way in which prejudices are transmitted through socialization and the social circumstances that compel discriminatory behaviour.  Socialization approach focuses on how we are taught ethnic and racial stereotypes, prejudice and attitudes by our families, peer groups and the mass media.  Orthodox Marxist argue that racism is an ideology – a set of statements shaped by economic interests about the way the social world “really works”. Racism is ideological insofar as it is used by capitalists to mystify social reality and justify the exploitation and the unequal treatment of groups of people  Split labour market theory was developed by Edna Bonacich because of the limitations of orthodox Marxism in analyzing racism. She argues that orthodox Marxism tends to assume that the capitalist class is all powerful and that other classes play no role in the development of racist thinking. This is inaccurate because racism is found in all classes to varying degrees. Second, orthodox Marxism portrays racism in overly conspirational terms. Little evidence demonstrates that capitalists sit around plotting new and devious ways of using racism to stop workers from developing class consciousness. Third, orthodox Marxism has trouble explaining why racialized conflict so often results in exclusionary practices – practices that deny employers access to cheaper, more exploitable labour  Split labour market theory makes three other points that are relevant to the analysis of ethnic and race relations in general. First, it argues that individual racism, ethnic prejudice and institutional racism emerge from intergroup conflict. Second, the theory maintains that prejudicial ideas and discriminatory behaviour are ways of socially marginalizing minority groups that the dominant groups sees as threats to their position of power and privilege. Third, the theory suggests that to understand ethnic and racial relations, we need to look beyond individual personalities and sociobiological processes and analyze processes of economic, social and political competition among groups.  On average, Aboriginal people have much lower family incomes, lower rates of labour force participation and higher rates of unemployment that non-Aboriginal Canadians do  To account for the origins and persistence of the problem, some sociologists proposed a variant of the culture of poverty thesis. The concept of a culture of poverty was first developed by Oscar Lewis, an American anthropologist interested in explain the slow pace at which Mexican Americans and Puerto Ricans were being assimilated into U.S society. He suggested that some ethnic groups do no readily assimilate, and hence are poor, because their culture does not value economic success, hard work and achievement  Kzemipur and Halli have applied Lewis’s framework to the issue of ethnic poverty in Canada and Nagle has applied it to the conditions of Aboriginal people. In his view, Indian culture displayed the following characteristics; a present rather than a future time orientation, a high value on mutual aid without the expectation of return, a lack of emphasis on possession of material goods, a lack of appreciation fro the monetary value of time and the absence of a capitalist work ethic.  Sociologists like Steven Steinberg criticize culture of poverty explanations by arguing that groups generally do not get ahead or lag behind because of their cultural values. Instead, they are born into certain situations in life and adopt the values and attitudes that are consistent with their life chances  Since the 1970’s, sociologists have focused on blocked opportunities rather than culture as the explanation for inequalities between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people. The internal colonial model is the most popular variant of the conflict approach. The internal colonial model analyzes the problem of inequality in terms of power imbalances and the exploitation of Aboriginal people and lands by white society.  The members of this new capitalist class are different from other Canadian capitalist, in that they do not personally own all the wealth and capital that is at their disposal. They do, however, control the compensation that communities receive from land- claims settlements. They establish development corporations, hire and fire employees, make capital-planning and investment decisions and decide what and how much to produce.  The term Quiet Revolution describes the social, political, and cultural changes that occurred in Quebec in the 1960’s, in part because of the initiatives of this new middle class.  Benedict Anderson regards nations as “imagined communities”. They are imagined in the sense that, even though members of the smallest nation can never know everyone in the community, there is still a common feeling of fellowship with others in the nation.  A majority of nationalists define the imagined community as all people who now live in the province of Quebec. For them, the social and symbolic boundaries of the nation correspond to present day provincial boundaries. Sociologists call this a form of civic nationalism  Factors that shape Canadian immigration:  The first variable is social class. Most immigrants are admitted to Canada because they fill jobs in the Canadian economy, have certain skills that are in demand or because they create jobs for other Canadians  The second determinant of immigration is ethnic and racial stereotypes – exaggerated, oversimplified images of the characteristics of social groups  The third variable that shapes immigrant selection consists of a variety of geopolitical considerations stemming from Canada’s relationship with other countries.  The fourth variable affecting immigrant selection is humanitarianism. Canada accepts immigrants and refugees partly on humanitarian and compassionate ground  The influence of the fifth variable, public opinion, is more difficult to determine, in part because Canadians do not speak with one voice, regarding immigration  The sixth variable, security considerations, has become more important since the terrorist attacks on the United States on September 11, 2001  There are three categories of refugees that Canada accepts through immigration programs  Convention refugees are people who are defined as refugees by the 1951 Geneva Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees and its 1967 protocol - they are people who, by reason of their race, religion, nationality , membership in a particular social group, or political opinion, live outside of their country of nationality or their country of habitual residence and who are unable or unwilling, because of fear of persecution to return to their country of origin  Country of asylum class refugees are people who are outside their country of citizenship or residence who are seriously and personally affected by civil war, armed conflict or massive violations of humans rights  Finally, source country class refugees include people who would meet the definition of a Convention refugee but who are still in their country of citizenship or residence. This category also includes people who have been detained or imprisoned and are suffering serious deprivations of the right of freedom of expression, the right of dissent, or the right to engage in trade union activity.  About 66,000 family class immigrants arrived in Canada in 2007. Family class immigrants have close family members already living in Canada who are willing and able to support them.  Economic immigrants numbered about 131,000 in 2007. The federal government has increased the size of this category in total immigration flows and has decreased the number of family class immigrants, because it believes that the former are of greater economic benefit to Canada.  Skill workers and professionals are selected by the federal government on the basis of their ability to meet certain minimum work experience requirements, to prove that they have enough funds to support themselves and their family members in Canada, and merit as measured by the points system.  Immigrant entrepreneurs are people who will own and actively manage a business that will contribute to the economy and create jobs.  Immigrant investors are capitalists who have a personal net worth of at least $800,000 and plan to invest at least $400,00 in a business in Canada  Self – employed immigrants must have the intention and ability to create their own employment  Provincial nominees are a relatively recent fifth category. Provinces may fast track individuals for admission to Canada based on specific provincial labour shortages.  Porter argued that Canada is a vertical mosaic, a society in which ethnic groups tend to occupy different and unequal positions in the stratification systems.  He called the first ethnic group to take control of a previously unoccupied or newly conquered territory the charter group of that society Canadian- born individuals earn a lot more than foreign-born ones. These findings should lead
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