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SOC101Y1 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Equal Pay For Equal Work, Gender Role, Sex Segregation

Course Code
Robert Brym
Study Guide

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Sociology Test #3
Chapter 7 – Gender Inequality: Economic and Political Aspects
Affirmative action – comprises the policies and programs designed to create opportunities for,
and to further the achievements of, historically disadvantaged groups in the labour force. One
form of action to correct past inequalities involves setting targets and quotas for the hiring and
promotion of members of groups that have faced barriers and discrimination in the past. The
term is often used interchangeably with employment equity; strictly speaking, it is one aspect of
employment equity.
Employment equity – is the principal of equal treatment of all groups in the paid labour force.
Employment-equity policies and programs seek to dismantle barriers and alter workplace
cultures to create opportunities for and further the advancement of historically disadvantaged
Equal pay for work of equal valuealso known as “equal pay for work of comparable worth,”
is a principle supported by policies and programs that seek to equalize the wage rates offered
for different jobs that are of comparable worth or value in terms of such factors as knowledge,
complexity, responsibility, and skill.
Feminism – refers both to the body of knowledge about the causes and nature of women’s
subordination to men in society, and the various agendas, often involving political action, for
removing that subordination
Gender inequalities – are inequalities between men and women in the distribution of prestige,
material well-being, and power. They are also inequalities in relations of male domination and
female subordination
Gender stereotypes – are a set of prejudicial generalizations about men and women based on
the oversimplified belief that sex determines distinct personality traits and, as a result, causes
men and women to experience the world and behave in different ways
Glass ceiling – is the level in an organization above which women and members of minorities
are seldom found
Labour-force participation rate – is the percentage of the population, age 15 and older, that is
in the paid labour force
Material well-being – refers to having access to the economic resources necessary to pay for
adequate food, clothing, housing, and possessions
Nonstandard work – refers to one or a combination of the following types of employment: part-
week employment (reduced hours per week), part-year employment, limited-term contract
employment, employment through temporary-help agencies, self-employment, and multiple job-

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Part-time work – refers to jobs involving fewer hours of work than is the norm for full-time work
Power – is the capacity to influence and control others, regardless of any resistance they might
Prestige – is the social evaluation or ranking, by general consensus, of occupational activities
and positions in a hierarchical order that reflects the degree of respect, honour, or deference the
person engaged in the activity or occupying the position is to be accorded
Public policy – refers to the government’s stance on issues and problems, as expressed
through its statements and actions, or its inaction
Sex segregation of occupations – refers to the concentration of women and men in different
Sex typing (or sex labelling) of occupations – is the designation of an occupation as “female”
or “male,” depending on the sex for whom it is considered appropriate
Skill – is ability or expertise in performing a given technique or task. Researchers describe
tasks as requiring more or less skill on the basis of their complexity and the degree of autonomy
required to perform them. Existing rankings, incomes, and levels of education associated with
various occupations are often accepted by researchers as indicators of skill
Social movement – is an enduring collective attempt to change part or all of society by means
of rioting, petitioning, striking, demonstrating, or establishing pressure groups, unions, and
political parties
Social roles – are the expectations and behaviours associated with particular positions in
Standard work – is full-time, full-year employment, usually accompanied by job-related
benefits, such as vacation leave, sick leave, and parent leaves, as well as by health and
pension benefits
Statistical discrimination – is the discrimination that occurs when negative decisions
concerning the hiring or promotion of an individual are made on the basis of the average
characteristics of the group to which the individual belongs
Women’s movement – is a social movement that takes action to improve the conditions of
Chapter 8 – Race and Ethnic Relations
Civic nationalism – is a form of nationalism in which the social boundaries of the nation are
defined in territorial and geographic terms
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