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SOC100 Test 3 Notes Definitions.docx

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Robert Brym

Sociology Test #3 Chapter 7 – Gender Inequality: Economic and Political Aspects Vocabulary Affirmative action – comprises the policies and programs designed to create opportunities for, and to further the achievements of, historically disadvantaged groups in the labour force. One form of action to correct past inequalities involves setting targets and quotas for the hiring and promotion of members of groups that have faced barriers and discrimination in the past. The term is often used interchangeably with employment equity; strictly speaking, it is one aspect of employment equity. Employment equity – is the principal of equal treatment of all groups in the paid labour force. Employment-equity policies and programs seek to dismantle barriers and alter workplace cultures to create opportunities for and further the advancement of historically disadvantaged groups Equal pay for work of equal value – also known as “equal pay for work of comparable worth,” is a principle supported by policies and programs that seek to equalize the wage rates offered for different jobs that are of comparable worth or value in terms of such factors as knowledge, complexity, responsibility, and skill. Feminism – refers both to the body of knowledge about the causes and nature of women’s subordination to men in society, and the various agendas, often involving political action, for removing that subordination Gender inequalities – are inequalities between men and women in the distribution of prestige, material well-being, and power. They are also inequalities in relations of male domination and female subordination Gender stereotypes – are a set of prejudicial generalizations about men and women based on the oversimplified belief that sex determines distinct personality traits and, as a result, causes men and women to experience the world and behave in different ways Glass ceiling – is the level in an organization above which women and members of minorities are seldom found Labour-force participation rate – is the percentage of the population, age 15 and older, that is in the paid labour force Material well-being – refers to having access to the economic resources necessary to pay for adequate food, clothing, housing, and possessions Nonstandard work – refers to one or a combination of the following types of employment: part- week employment (reduced hours per week), part-year employment, limited-term contract employment, employment through temporary-help agencies, self-employment, and multiple job- holding Part-time work – refers to jobs involving fewer hours of work than is the norm for full-time work Power – is the capacity to influence and control others, regardless of any resistance they might offer Prestige – is the social evaluation or ranking, by general consensus, of occupational activities and positions in a hierarchical order that reflects the degree of respect, honour, or deference the person engaged in the activity or occupying the position is to be accorded Public policy – refers to the government’s stance on issues and problems, as expressed through its statements and actions, or its inaction Sex segregation of occupations – refers to the concentration of women and men in different occupations Sex typing (or sex labelling) of occupations – is the designation of an occupation as “female” or “male,” depending on the sex for whom it is considered appropriate Skill – is ability or expertise in performing a given technique or task. Researchers describe tasks as requiring more or less skill on the basis of their complexity and the degree of autonomy required to perform them. Existing rankings, incomes, and levels of education associated with various occupations are often accepted by researchers as indicators of skill Social movement – is an enduring collective attempt to change part or all of society by means of rioting, petitioning, striking, demonstrating, or establishing pressure groups, unions, and political parties Social roles – are the expectations and behaviours associated with particular positions in society Standard work – is full-time, full-year employment, usually accompanied by job-related benefits, such as vacation leave, sick leave, and parent leaves, as well as by health and pension benefits Statistical discrimination – is the discrimination that occurs when negative decisions concerning the hiring or promotion of an individual are made on the basis of the average characteristics of the group to which the individual belongs Women’s movement – is a social movement that takes action to improve the conditions of women Chapter 8 – Race and Ethnic Relations Vocabulary Civic nationalism – is a form of nationalism in which the social boundaries of the nation are defined in territorial and geographic terms Culture of poverty thesis – is the theory that some ethnic groups do not readily assimilate, and hence are poor, because their culture does not value, economic, and education systems Discrimination – refers to practices that deny members of particular groups equal access to societal rewards Institutional racism – refers to discriminatory racial practices built into such prominent structures as the political, economic, and education systems New racism – is a theory that suggests that it is natural for groups to form bounded communities. One group is neither better nor worse than another, but feelings of antagonism will be aroused if outsiders are admitted Points system – is used by the Canadian government to select independent immigrants. Applicants are awarded points for various attributes that the Canadian government deems important in determining an immigrant’s economic contribution to Canada Prejudice – is an unfavourable, generalized, and rigid belief applied to all members of group Primordialist thesis – is the theory that ethnic attachments reflect a basic tendency of people to seek out, and associate with, their “own kind.” Quiet revolution – refers to the social, political, and cultural changes that occurred in Quebec in the 1960’s, in part because of the emergence of a large francophone middle class Race – is a socially constructed label that has been used to describe certain kinds of physical differences between people Split labour-market theory – holds that racial and ethnic conflicts are rooted in differences in the price of labour Stereotypes – an exaggerated, oversimplified image of the characteristics of social categories Vertical mosaic – is a social structure in which ethnic groups occupy different, and unequal, positions within the strati
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