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University of Toronto St. George
Robert Brym

Sociology Test #3 CHAPTER 7: GENDER INEQUALITY **This chapter has a lot of overlap from chapter 4 and 6** Introduction  Near 1920s, women’s rights were limited to household work (in extreme cases, women were merely considered property of men)  Social Roles: Behaviours that are expected of people occupying particular social positions. In 1950s, women’s social roles were those of wives and mothers.  Rapid change has occurred over time that has led to blurring the line between the powers of men and women  Divorce laws revised in 1968 – Allowed women to divorce unfair husbands and led to increased freedom  Feminist groups rise and consisting mainly of educated professional women, make strong impact in making females realize their right to equality with men  However a changed world does not mean an equal world: gender inequality still exists and the revolutions have not completely finished Understanding Gender Inequality  Social scientists refer to inequalities between women and men as “gender inequalities” rather than “sex inequalities”  Gender refers to the social meaning and is found in social roles, daily interactions and in institutions, whereas sex refers to the biological meaning  Gender Stereotypes: oversimplified beliefs about how men and women, by virtue of their physical sex, possess different personality traits and, as a result, may behave differently and experience the world in different ways  However, gender stereotypes are largely constructed in the social realm of individual’s lives where they are enforced in families, friends, schools, and workplace (i.e. boys get to grow up with toys like monster trucks, and toolkits whereas girls grow with toys like tea sets, and dolls)  Gender is largely learned through interactions and hence its content is constantly renewed and altered through social interaction; this has three implications  Gender identities are not stable and fixed. What people take to be masculine or feminine varies from one society to other; it also varies in a society over time  Gender identities (the internal sense of being a man/woman) and gender-specific behaviour does not have to be congruent with the sex assigned to individuals at birth  Just like sexuality and sex, gender identities and behaviours are not polar opposites; the images of masculinity and femininity often emphasize opposites but there are in fact degrees of masculinity and femininity (although male and female can be considered as polar opposite, masculinity and femininity are not)  Contemporary studies show that people often still view women and men as having different and opposite personality traits (and this does not have to be necessarily true)  The persistence of stereotypical thinking about feminine and masculine behaviours as being opposites has two implications  The idea of difference in very powerful and it is extremely difficult to eradicate this idea  In these polarized depictions, feminine traits are viewed as less desirable than masculine traits  Gender inequalities: Hierarchical asymmetries between men and women with respect to the distribution of power, material well-being, and prestige.  Does not imply that men always have higher prestige, wealth, and power than do women but it implies that on average men tend to have higher wealth, power, and prestige than women Dimensions of Inequality 1. Power: Capacity to impose your will on others regardless of any resistance. This involves your capacity to influence, manipulate and control others 2. Material Wellbeing: Involves access to economic resources required to pay for necessities of life and other possessions and advantages 3. Prestige: the average evaluation of occupational activities and positions that are arranged in a hierarchy  Prestige reflects the degree of respect, honour, or deference generally accorded to a person occupying a given position Explaining Gender Inequality  Feminism: Theory developed by women to explain gender inequality and its persistence. Feminism refers to the body of thought that speculates about causes and nature of women’s disadvantages and subordinate position in society. It also refers to efforts made (often involving political action) to minimize or eliminate that subordination  There are many feminist theories, three are very popular:  Liberal Feminism:  Assumes that human beings are rational and will correct inequalities when they know about them  Gender inequalities are caused and perpetuated by gender stereotyping and the division of work into “women’s” and “men’s” jobs.  Two main ways to achieve gender inequality are:  Removing gender stereotyping and discrimination in education and paid work  Changing laws to allow for equal opportunities for men and women in paid labour force and politics  Marxist Feminism  Women’s unpaid work in the home maintains and reproduces the labour force  Women benefit the Capitalists through their social role of being wives/mothers  They ensure that male workers are refreshed and ready to work each day  They raise children to become future labourers  They act as “secondary” or “reserve” labour that can be hired and fired if not enough males are available  Gender inequality can only be achieved when socialism replaces this capitalist approach  Socialist Feminism  Agree with Marxist feminism in their belief that gender inequality is caused by the gendered division of labour and its exploitation by capitalism  However classes constitute only one set of social relations that oppress women  There is a second set of oppressive social relations, namely patriarchy  Patriarchy is the system of male dominance over women  Generally, childbearing and the sexual activities of women are the foundation of gender inequality (because they are done for free)  To decrease gender inequality  State-subsidies need to be provided for maternal benefits and child care  Equal pay must be provided for equal work  Removing inequality altogether requires the eradication of male dominance EXERCISING POWER  The ability to control and influence others, or in other words, using power on others implies domination of one and subordination of another  Power relations between men and women are hence described as male domination and female subordination (this means that males tend to have the greater ability in being able to control and influences females)  This male influence and control over women does not have to only mean the predominance of men rather than women in politics and the military, but it can include other examples, such as women being denied the right to vote, and workplace regulations that encourage women to quit work upon marriage  Examples even include today’s situation where women are sometimes looked at sexually by males of our modern society and such behaviour is claimed “normal” by society  Sexual harassment is the result of the general belief that men are superior to women and may impose their will on them  Gender inequalities in power also combine with racial inequalities and as a result, minority women experience the most harassment because they are both women and members of a minority group SEPARATE SPHERES  Historically, women have been excluded from certain types of activities that create opportunities for acquiring power, prestige, and wealth (such as denial of voting rights for women and existence of laws that prevented women from working)  These exclusions, that women were denied, separated them from the public sphere, which became increasingly viewed as the domain of men who were the breadwinners and heads of household  Women increasingly became a part of the private sphere which held  Consequences of this separation on women:  Women assigned to be domestic (at home) labourers  Devaluation of the work in the home because it is unpaid  Tendency to view nurturing and care-giving as biologically-determined traits rather than acquired skills  Financial dependence of women on men  Reduced access to power, prestige, and material well being  The recognition of these two disadvantages has elicited two main responses  People have tried to eliminate the devaluation of domestic labour by having women’s unpaid work recognized officially and having a dollar value assigned to it  Emphasis on the entry of women into the public sphere  Increased participation of women in the public sphere today however does not mean that gender equality exists  Women’s labour-force participation rate is still lower than men’s FEMALE LABOUR-FORCE PARTICIPATION  Since the beginning of 20th century, there has been a substantial increase in female labour participation. This includes increase in rates of employed married women and women with young children  Factors in increase of women’s labour-force participation rate  Increased demand of service workers  Early 1900s, most jobs included agriculture of manufacturing  But around 1920s, more and more jobs became available in firms that provided services  Hiring women in these firms was more suitable because of seemingly less work requirements and the ability to pay lower wages  Decrease in number of children born  Female labour-force participation rates increased rapidly in the postwar years  The fertility rates dropped substantially because of the Great Depression (and hence less capability in supporting more children)  Hence the availability of young females workers declined, which led industries to become more open in allowing married women to work  Increased financial pressures on families  For low income families, it became required that women also work  Over time and after world war 2, women’s paid employment became an important source of family income DOMESTIC LABOUR  Despite rise in female labour force participation, women are still more likely to do the unpaid domestic labour (including child-care) than men  While men have begun to do housework and child-care more than before, women still spend more hours than men on domestic activities  As a result, women have less time for practicing recreational activities, hobbies, and leisure than men  Women also tend to be more likely to report feeling stressed OCCUPATIONAL SEGREGATION AND SEX TYPING  Although more and more Canadian women are now paid workers, they are frequently in jobs that involve caregiving, nurturing, and the sort of management functions typically found in the home  This concentration of men in some occupations and women in others is often called sex segregation of occupations  The notion that a given occupation is appropriate for one sex versus the other is referred to as the sex typing (or sex labelling) of occupations  Statistics confirm that women and men are often concentrated in different occupations  The occupations that women are concentrated in are often lower than those predominantly held by men in terms of authority, responsibility, skill requirements, mobility opportunities, and earnings  These inequalities indicate male advantage in labour force  Ex: Women typically are less likely to have supervising jobs and in the case that they do have supervising jobs, they tend to supervise fewer employees than men; moreover, women tend to be less likely to hold top positions  These patterns indicate the glass ceiling effect: Level in an organization above which women and minority members are rarely found GENDER AND SKILL  Jobs typically held by women have lower skill requirements than do jobs typically held by men  One possible reason for why women are less likely to be employed in high-skilled jobs is that gender bias exists in the definition of skill  Ex: Nursing occupations require high levels of interpersonal skills in dealing with relatives of dying patients but because the ability to handle distraught people is considered “natural” in woman, it is not recognized as a professional skill in a nursing occupation. In contrast, plumbing jobs done by men require knowledge of so called “technical skills”, which can be recognized as professional skills  Bias in the evaluation of skills occur when such technical knowledge is considered more valuable than knowledge about personal interactions and caregiving  This example indicates that our definition of skill are socially constructed: what we define as skill reflects other social evaluations and hierarchies (if women are predominant at one job, we are more likely to consider the skills of such a job, less valuable)  Skill undervaluation of female sex-typed occupations is a concern for two reasons  Wage levels are associated with skill requirements (hence the “less valuable female skills” lead to lower wages)  Current pay equity policies often ask whether men and women are receiving equal pay for performing similar jobs (however, this ignores that men tend to be higher in concentration for jobs that are considered to have higher skill requirements and hence higher pay; essentially, although men may be getting the same pay as women in similar jobs, the concentration of men will be higher in better jobs than women) NONSTANDARD WORK  Standard work consists of full-time, full-year employment whereas nonstandard work consists of part- time work, part-year employment, and limited-term contract employment  Nonstandard work is more common for women that for men  Employment in nonstandard work usually has less job security, lower pay, and fewer benefits EARNINGS  Women on average earn less than men on average  There are four main explanations of this lower pay:  Gender differences in the characteristics that influence pay rates  Argue that the lower wages of women are caused by lower productivity resulting from women’s lower educational achievements  Gender differences in the type of work performed  The concentration of women in certain occupations and industries characterized by low wages, including nonstandard (particularly part-time work)  Discrimination  Women can be paid less than men because of their gender (personal and deliberate)  Most discrimination is impersonal, produced by standard and unquestioned practices such as assigning women to certain jobs and men to other jobs, and paying men and women different wages even when they hold the same job (called statistical discrimination)  Societal devaluations of women’s work  Work that can be interpreted as being related to, or involved with, domestic work of women (teachers, babysitters, etc.) tend to receive less pay (because a lot of the skills are considered innate and natural qualities of women, which makes them less valuable) BIRTHPLACE AND COLOUR MATTER  All women are not alike and differ in terms of birthplace, colour, age, etc.  These characteristics themselves are usually accompanied by inequalities, which are often mixed up with the general inequalities faced by women, leading to stronger cases of inequalities in some scenarios than others  Members not born in Canada or those who are a member of visible minority face many additional hurdles:  More likely to be employed in low-skill occupations  Earn less than white Canadian-born counterparts  Overall, earn les per week than women who are not members of visible minority groups  Considerable diversity exists in the labour-force, and hence women should not be regarded as a homogenous group WOMEN’S GROUPS: ORGANIZING FOR CHANGE  The economy is only one of several areas in the public sphere from which women have been excluded; politics is another important arena that excluded women and that women have now begun to penetrate  By saying politics, it is more generally meant that women have been excluded from any activity that mobilizes people to make their views known, to press for change, and to achieve objectives  Women’s movement: A social movement that takes action to improve the status of women  Feminism is an important part of this movement  Women’s groups still lobby the government for change, and a lot has been achieved  Voting rights  Gender equality in the workplace  Fairer division of assets in divorce cases  Programs to combat violence against women  However many lobbying efforts of women groups are limited by 3 main factors  Reliance of women’s groups on state funding  Consensus building approach  Heterogeneity of women’s groups  Efforts are further limited by change in interaction between women’s groups and governments, which has been caused by:  Electoral success of more conservative parties  Federal government’s calls for economic restraint and increased provincial/territorial and private-sector responsibility  Dissatisfaction within women’s advocacy groups on agendas (criticized for reflecting concerns of white, largely middle class women) GENDER IN POLITICS  Politics is an important area of gender politics because that is where laws determining rights and entitlements are formulated and public policies set (and people who vote have a large part in this because every voter has the capability of choosing parties representing their interest; denial of a large particular group of individuals such a right would lead to political policies not working in their behalf)  Women were denied participation in politics for several reasons  Sex-role stereotypes: considered women to be more family-oriented and not wanting to participate in politics because that is what they were taught throughout childhood  “Male” political culture: Emphasized that politics is a “male” activity and therefore hostile to the participation of women  Gatekeeping: Placing women in contests where the chances of winning were small for them as compared to their competition  Insufficient Resources: Female candidates may be at a disadvantage to the extent that they earn less than male candidates and consequently have less to spend in a campaign, in comparison to male candidates  Clash between political and family life: Influences the participation of some women in politics because the political lifestyle tends to be anti-family REPRESENTATION BY WOMEN, REPRESENTATION FOR WOMEN  Representation by women is not the same as representation for women: both men and women may use their legislative roles to place women’s issues on political agenda and to support party policies and legislation that reflect women’s situations and concerns  How are differences among women to be represented: after all, women themselves can be supportive of one class and discriminate against another class of women MODELS OF CHANGE  Starting in 1970s, North American research in inequality started shifting away from perspectives that attributed unequal outcomes to individual differences in talent, educational achievement, and opportunity à resulted in efforts to increase access to education and training for members of less privileged groups  Public policy: Statements made and actions taken, or not taken, by governments with respect to a given problem or a set of problems PUBLIC POLICY AND GENDER INEQUALITY IN THE LABOUR FORCE  Currently no government policy targets gender inequality in politics  But two areas of policy development that bear on gender inequality in the labour force are:  Employment equity, including affirmative action  Pay equity as expressed in the principle of equal pay for work of equal value  Although legal actions has been taken against some cases of inequality, there has been limited coverage and impact of policies against inequality in general CORRECTING THE BALANCE: WOMEN IN POLITICS  Although there is no policy aimed at reducing gender inequality among elected politicians, numerous actions could increase the percentage of women in Canadian politics in the future  Having parties display good intentions  Reducing the economic barriers (i.e. financial burdens) to winning nominations and running for office  Recognizing family needs and responsibilities and the social roles of women  Weakening or eliminating the gatekeeping tradition  Engaging in affirmative action measures like setting quotas to ensure that a certain percentage of women are on riding nomination lists  Centralizing party decision-making to give elites more control over women’s representation KEY TERMS Affirmative action: Creating policies and programs to create opportunities for, and to further the achievements of, historically disadvantaged groups in the labour force (such as setting quotas and targets). Gender Inequalities: Inequalities between men and women in the distribution of prestige, material well-being, and power. They are also inequalities in relations of male domination and female subordination. Gender Stereotypes: Set of prejudicial generalizations about men and women based on the oversimplified belief that sex determines distinct personality traits and, as a result, causes men and women to experience the world and behave in different ways. Glass Ceiling: The level in an organization above which women and members of minority are seldom found. Material Well-Being: Having access to the economic resources necessary to pay for adequate food, clothing, housing, and possessions. Nonstandard Work: Refers to one or a combination of the following types of employment: part-week employment, part-year employment, limited-term contract employment, employment through temporary-help agencies, self-employment, and multiple job-holdings. Power: The capacity to influence and control others, regardless of any resistance they might offer. Prestige: The social evaluation or ranking, by general consensus, of occupational activities and positions in a hierarchical order that reflects the degree of respect, honour, or deference the person is engaged in the activity or occupying the position is to be accorded. Sex segregation of occupations: The concentration of men and women in different occupations. Sex typing (or sex labelling) of occupations: The designation of an occupation as “female” or “male” depending on the sex for whom it is considered appropriate. Social Roles: the expectations and behaviours associated with particular positions in society. Statistical discrimination: The discrimination that occurs when negative decisions concerning the hiring or promotion of an individual are made on the basis of the average characteristics of the group to which the individual belongs. CHAPTER 8: RACE AND ETHNIC RELATIONS ETHNICITY AND RACE: THE SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION OF DIFFERENCE  We believe that race and ethnicity are ascribed characteristics – we assume that we are born with a certain race or ethnicity that cannot be changed  Sociologists claim although we cannot change our birth parents, or our skin colour, we do not necessarily have fixed ethnic and racial characteristics – it is more useful to see race and ethnicity as achieved characteristics (statuses that are acquired by virtue of social definition)  Ethnicity: There are two fundamental ways of defining ethnicity  Objective definitions of ethnicity assume ethnic groups exist because of people’s social attachments  Ethnicity is something that people possess because of differences in language, culture, customs, national origin, and ancestry  Subjective approaches to ethnicity focus on the process of ethnic identification or essentially self- identification of group members  Ethnic groups are made up of people who identify themselves, or who are identified by others, as belonging to the same ancestral or cultural group  Whether they display any of the cultural characteristics of the group with which they identify, or whether they are merely born into that group, is largely irrelevant  The way people define themselves, and are defined by others is in constantly changing  Prejudice: Unfavourable, generalized and rigid belief applied to all members of a group  Discrimination: Practices that deny members of particular groups equal access to societal reward  Race: Socially constructed label used to describe certain kinds of physical differences between people  Racial classification of humanity are arbitrary, that genetic differences between groups are small, and that genetic differences are behaviourally insignificant  Racial classification based on a characteristic such as skin colour, are as illogical as racial classifications based on the length of index fingers  Ethnic boundaries and identities are flexible, negotiated, and historically variable  However despite social construction, race and ethnicity are important parts of our social reality  Many continue to believe existence of race and ethnicity and organize their relationships with others based on those beliefs  Racism: Two forms of definitions are attributed to racism, biological and sociological  The traditionally defined biological versions refer to the belief “the belief that humans are subdivided into distinct hereditary groups that are innately different in social behaviour and mental capacities and can therefore be ranked as superior and inferior”  The claims of inherent superiority and inferiority of groups have been so thoroughly discredited that racism has taken new forms  Researchers have developed the concept of new racism as a way of analyzing its changing manifestations  New racism involves the beliefs that, although races of people cannot be ranked biologically, they are different from each other and that social problems are created when different groups try to live together  New racism hence hints at the theory of human nature that suggest that it is natural for groups to form bounded communities  One group is neither better nor worse than the other, but feelings of antagonism will be aroused if outsiders are admitted  In new racism, the beliefs should be considered racist because of their underlying intent: to socially exclude, marginalize, and denigrate certain groups of people, but to do so without reference to unalterable biology  Institutional racism: Discriminatory racial practices built into such prominent structures as the political, economic, and education systems (or racism in institutions)  Institutional racism can take three forms  Institutional practices based on explicitly racial ideas (Canadian history has a lot of this form of institutional racism; Chinese people denied the right to vote in federal elections until 1947; Japanese Canadians were denied their basic civil rights, were forcibly expelled from the west coast of British Columbia, and had their property confiscated)  Institutional practices that arose from, but are no longer sustained by, racist ideas (In 1960s black workers from Caribbean admitted to work on southern Ontario farms because they deserved the “back breaking work”; today thousands of workers from the Caribbean are admitted into Canada to work at Ontario farms, although this act is no longer considered racial)  Institutional practices that sometimes unintentionally restrict the life-chances of certain groups; this is sometimes referred to as systemic discrimination (Height and weight requirements for jobs with police forces and fire departments did not necessarily originate in racist ideas, but these requirements meant that certain Asian groups could not get jobs as police officers and firefighters THEORIES OF RACE AND ETHNIC RELATIONS  Four main approaches that seek to explain various forms of ethnic and racial hostility  Social Psychology: Focus on how prejudice and racism satisfy the psychic needs of certain people  A popular variant of social psychological theory is the Frustration-aggression theory, which explains prejudice and racism as forms of aggression that arise from people frustrated in efforts to achieve goals. Since the real source of frustration is usually too powerful to confront directly, or may not be known, people take out their frustrations on the less powerful. Hence, racial and ethnic groups become safe targets of displaced aggression. This can also be called scapegoating, where the targets of frustration are scapegoats.  This theory does have its limitations though: It does not specify circumstances that lead to aggression (it is not necessary that we always have aggression from frustration; we can choose to internalize this frustration, or we can choose to let it out in other ways); neither does the theory explain why some groups rather than others are chosen as scapegoats  Primordialism  The primordialist thesis suggests that ethnic and racial attachments reflect an innate tendency for people to seek out and associate with “their own kind” (others who are similar in terms of language, culture, beliefs, ancestry, and appearance)  Ethnic prejudice and racism are ways of maintaining social boundaries  Prejudice and discrimination stem from our supposedly biologically grounded tendency to be nepotistic  According to socio-biology, in people’s “natural” tendency to want to pass on their genes, they favour those most alike themselves (similar ethnic and racial groups) and treat them as “family”  Humans hence naturally favour members of their own ethnic or racial groups – their “families” – and have a natural distrust and dislike of “nonfamily” members  This theory also has its limitations  We have seen white people kill white people and we have seen Americans terrorize members of their own ethnic or racial groups without concern for common ethnicity or race  Socio-biology is not able to explain how and why we frequently break out of our supposed genetically programmed nepotism (for example Canadians of various kinds of anti-racist social movements participate together)  Normative Theories  Concentrate on the way prejudices are transmitted through socialization and social circumstances that compel discriminatory behaviour  For example, the socialization approach (a normative theory) focuses on how we are taught ethnic and racial stereotypes, prejudices, and attitudes by our families, peer groups, and the mass media. This approach argues that prejudice and attitudes are learned through social interaction.  The limitation of socialization theories is that they are unable to explain how prejudicial ideas, attitudes, and practices arise in the first place  Power-Conflict Theories  Stress how ethnic and racial conflict derives from distribution of power in society  Orthodox Marxism: Racism is an ideology used by capitalists to mystify social reality and justify the exploitation and the unequal treatment of groups of people  Use of Africans as slaves: the existence of racist ideas did not cause slavery, but rather slavery was a particular system of labour control that was justified by racist ideology  Racism is viewed by Marxists as an ideology that justifies especially intense exploitation of racial minority and immigrant workers  Hence racist ideas can be used by employers as a means of creating artificial divisions in the working class so as to prevent class consciousness that would threaten the social and economic order  Split Labour Market Theory: Racial and ethnic conflict rooted in differences in the price of labour  Orthodox Marxism tends to assume that the capitalist class is all powerful and other classes play no role in the development of racist thinking; racism is found in all classes to varying degrees  Non-white workers have often received low wages and white workers high wages; hence employers try to replace high-paid white workers with low-paid non-white workers  High-paid workers try to protect their own interests by limiting capitalist’s access to cheaper non-white workers; Thus cheaper non-white workers are the victims of a complicated process of class struggles between expensive labour, cheap labour, and capitalists  Makes three other points:  Suggests that individual racism, ethnic prejudice and institutional racism emerge from intergroup conflicts  Maintains that prejudicial ideas and discriminatory behaviour are ways of socially marginalizing minority groups that the dominant group sees as threats to their position of power and privilege  The theory suggests that to understand ethnic and racial relations, we need to look beyond individual personalities and sociobiological processes and analyze processes of economic, social, and political competition among groups THREE MAIN ASPECTS OF ETHNIC AND RACIAL RELATIONS IN CANADA 1. Aboriginals – Non Aboriginals 2. Francophone – Anglophone 3. Immigrant – Non Immigrant ABORIGINAL PEOPLES  Aboriginal peoples in Canada are essentially a group comprised of Indians, Inuit, and Metis  Indian: Refers to those recognized as “Indians” according to federal government’s Indian Act  Metis: Either descendants of historic Metis, or anyone of mixed European-Indian ancestry who self- defines as Metis, and whose self-definition is accepted by other Metis  Inuit: Diverse group of people who have lived for centuries north of the tree line EXPLANATIONS OF ABORIGINAL CONDITIONS  Aboriginal peoples are the most socially and economically disadvantaged people in Canada  Aboriginal people have much lower family income, lower rates of labour-force participation, and higher rates of unemployment than non-Aboriginal Canadians do  Three explanations for social and economic disadvantage  The Government’s View: Throughout the first half of 20th century, government Indian policy was premised on the belief that Aboriginal culture was both different from and inferior to European culture  The federal government sought to assimilate Aboriginal people into mainstream Canadian society  The government forcibly tried to Europeanize Aboriginal people and culture  The government also tried to assimilate and Christianize Aboriginal children by establishing a series of residential schools located far from children’s families and home communities  The government’s legislative, regulatory, and educational approach reflected the view that inequality, poverty, and poor social conditions were rooted in Aboriginal culture and racial inferiority  The Culture of Poverty Thesis:  Some ethnic groups (Aboriginals in this case) do not readily assimilate, and hence are poor, because their culture does not value economic success, hard work, and achievement  Sociologists however criticize this explanation by arguing that groups generally do not get ahead or lag behind because of their cultural values; instead they are born into certain situations in life and adopt the values and attitudes that are consistent with their life chances  Hence if Aboriginal people have low aspirations, it is likely the result of a realistic assessment of their dismal job prospects and a resignation born out of bitter personal experience  Conflict Theory:  Internal Colonial Model:  Analyzes the problem of inequality in terms of power imbalances and the exploitation of Aboriginal people and lands by white society  Theorists of internal colonialism argue that the Indian Act is a document that disempowers Indian people  Misuse of State power and paternalistic state laws have disempowered Aboriginal peoples by fostering social marginality and dependence  This model however is criticized for having the tendency to oversimplify the conditions of Aboriginal peoples in Canada CLASS AND GENDER DIVERSITY  Aboriginal people should not be regarded as homogenous because socioeconomic diversity also exists within Aboriginal communities  Feminist sociologists have been interested in the role of gender in recent debates about the inclusion of the right to self-government – many Aboriginal women were concerned that the proposal for self- government, which was advanced by predominantly male leadership of Aboriginal organizations did not contain any guarantees of gender equality  Conflict theorists are interested in the political and economic implications of socioeconomic differentiation within Aboriginal communities  Argue for existence of two-class structure among Aboriginal peoples QUEBEC: NATIONALISM AND IDENTITY  Following 1763 conquest of New France by Britain, Anglophone elite became new colonizing power of what is now Quebec  Gradually took over economic and political affairs of Quebec  French Canadians in Quebec (who formed numerical majority) were more disadvantaged materially than Anglophone minority  Quebec eventually was a province where “capital speaks English and labour speaks French”  With World War 1 came rapid industrialization in Quebec and the industrial class became a significant player on the political scene  There was a rise of new francophone middle class of technical workers and professionals  The upper positions of the corporate world were still under the control of Anglophones, who remained hostile to the advancement of francophone – hence the new francophone middle class was faced with a situation of blocked social mobility, which led to the Quiet Revolution  Quiet Revolution: The social, political, and cultural changes that occurred in Quebec in the 1960s, in part because of initiatives of this new middle class  These changes included secularization of the educational system, reform of the civil service, growth in the provincially controlled public sector, greater involvement of the Quebec provincial government in the economic affairs of the province, and questioning of Catholic Church’s authority in all areas of life  Facing blocked mobility in the corporate world, francophone created their own economic opportunities by expanding the power of the provincial government  Support for contemporary sovereignty movement (movement to separate Quebec from Canada and call for Independence) comes from variety of groups who identify Quebecois as a colonized and exploited people  Groups also have differing views of how best to maintain their language and culture – moderates want to strengthen Quebec’s position within the federal systems, while radicals are for own state WHO IS QUEBECOIS?  Quebec is ethnically heterogeneous consisting of races and ethnicities of wide variety  A central issue facing the nationalist movement in Quebec is the definition of Quebecois  Nations are “imagined communities” – they are imagined in the sense, that even though members of the smallest nation can never know in the community, there is still a common feeling of fellowship with others in the nation à Nationalism exists in Nations  Nations also possess physical and symbolic boundaries that define who a member is and who is not à There is still a way to judge who is “ones own” and who isn’t  Majority of nationalists define the imagined community as all people who now live in the province of Quebec; the social and symbolic boundaries arises of the nation correspond to present-day provincial boundaries – this is Civil Nationalism  Minority of nationalists reject Civil Nationalism; they are in favour of cultural and linguistic criteria for membership in the nation – this is Ethnic Nationalism (People who share common history, culture, ancestry, and language)  Concept of pure laine [“pure wool”] – Nationalists regard the true Quebecois as only those who are direct descendants of French people who settled in the colony of New France IMMIGRATION: STATE FORMATION AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT  Canada has a lot of immigrants – In 2001, they comprised of nearly a fifth of the Canadian population  Canada accepts more immigrants with respect to its population than virtually any other country in the world  Migration has been a feature of Canadian history for hundreds of years – however the nature, sources, determinants, and consequences of immigration have varied throughout history  In 19th century, immigrants contributed to formulation of a capitalist state (done in a number of ways through building economic infrastructure, farming, and industrialization)  Immigrants today continue to make important contributions to the social reproduction of Canadian society  Without new immigrants to replenish our population, Canada’s population will begin to decline; this can lead to:  The next generation paying more taxes  Employers on shortage of workers  Smaller consumer markets FACTORS THAT SHAPE CANADIAN IMMIGRATION  The first variable/factor is Social class: Most immigrants are admitted to Canada because they fill up jobs, possess certain skills required for Canadian’s economic needs, or because they create more jobs for others  The second variable is Ethnic and Racial Stereotypes: Stereotypes are exaggerated, oversimplified images of the characteristics of social groups - Before 1962, Canadian immigration policy had a racialized hierarchy of desirability à European immigrants considered more superior to Non-European immigrants and hence more welcomed than non-Europeans  The third variable that shapes immigrant selection consists of a variety of geopolitical considerations stemming from Canada’s relationships with other countries – Racist selection criteria was taken out of immigration regulation because they interfered with Canadian international diplomacy à Canada began to assert itself as a middle power in world politics that could mediate conflicts in and between other countries; this image could not be possible if Canada would be racist in their immigration policy  The fourth variable is Humanitarianism: Immigrants and refugees are accepted partly on humanitarian and compassionate grounds  The influence of the fifth variable, Public Opinion, is difficult to determine because Canadians do not speak with one voice regarding immigration  The sixth variable is Security Considerations: This has become more important since the 9/11 attacks on USA; Hence Canada introduced Permanent Resident Card and number of measures to increase border security; Canada and US are increasingly discussing the harmonization of Immigration policies in the area of security screening of immigrants and refugees CONTEMPORARY IMMIGRATION CATEGORIES  Refugees: There are three categories of Refugees that Canada accepts  Convention refugees: People who, by reason of their race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group, or political opinion, live outside their country of nationality or their country of habitual residence and who are unable or unwilling to return to their country of origin because of fear of persecution  Country of asylum class refugees: People who are outside their country of citizenship or residence who are seriously and personally affected by civil war, armed conflict, or massive violations of human rights  Source country class refugees: People who would meet the definition of a Convention refugee but who are still in their country of citizenship or residence; also includes people who have been detained or imprisoned and are suffering serious deprivations of the right of freedom of expression, the right of dissent, or the right to engage in trade union activity  Family Class Immigrants: Have close family members already living in Canada who are willing and able to support them  Economic/Independent Immigrants: There are five subcategories of independent immigrants  Skilled workers and professionals: Selected based on the basis of their ability to meet certain minimum work experience requirements, to prove that they have enough funds to support themselves and their family members in Canada (merit is based on points system)  Immigrant Entrepreneurs: People who will own and actively manage a business that will contribute to the economy and create jobs  Immigrant Investors: Capitalists who have the capability of investing at least $400,000 in a business in Canada  Self-Employed Immigrants: People who must have the intention and ability to create their own employment  Provincial nominees: Provinces mat fast track individuals for admission to Canada based on specific provincial labour shortages ETHNIC INEQUALITY AND THE CANADIAN LABOUR MARKET: THE VERTICAL MOSAIC  John Porter introduces Canada as The Vertical Mosaic to answer fundamental questions about immigrants regarding their future in Canada  Vertical mosaic: A society in which ethnic groups tend to occupy different and unequal positions in the stratification system  A charter group is the first ethnic group to take control of a previously unoccupied or newly conquered territory à In Canada, these two charter groups are the English and the French  Although the power of these two Charter groups is unequal, they have been able to set the terms by which other immigrants are admitted to Canada and have ensured that they make up the upper ranks of the labour, political, bureaucratic, religious, and media elites à Immigrants who arrived after these charter groups got the lower positions  Non-English and Non-French were assigned the entrance status that was linked in part to the social evaluation of their cultural and racial capacities (hence European immigrants were given a higher entrance status than non-European)  Statistical findings lead us to be cautious about concluding that “race” constitutes a fundamental socioeconomic dividing line in Canadian society  Canada does not have a single, clear-cut pattern of ethnic or racial economic disadvantage, and significant differences exist in the relative positions of visible minority men and women THE DECLINING SIGNIFICANCE OF THE VERTICAL MOSAIC  Over the past two decades, debates have been raged about whether race and ethnicity continue to shape our Stratification system  Some argue that the vertical mosaic is no longer a useful way of describing our society  Others argue that although we may be moving in the direction of greater equality, the vertical mosaic is still a useful metaphor for describing our society  Claims have been made that the vertical mosaic has been recast along racial lines and others argue that immigration status is key to understanding patterns of inequality with the “new vertical mosaic”  We can see the inequality in statistics:  Non-visible minorities earn more than visible minorities  Canadian-born visible minorities earn vastly more than foreign-born  Non-visible minority immigrants do better than Canadian born non-visible minorities  These findings should lead us to be cautious about concluding that “race” constitutes a fundamental socioeconomic dividing line in Canadian society KEY TERMS Civic Nationalism: Form of nationalism in which the social boundaries of the nation are defined in territorial and geographic forms. Culture of Poverty Thesis: Theory that some groups do not readily assimilate. This is because of their cultures, which does not value economic success, hard work, and achievement. Institutional Racism: Racism in Institutions; Discriminatory racial practices built into common structures like political, economic, and education systems. New Racism: Theory that suggests that it is natural for groups to form bounded communities. One group is neither better nor worse than another, but feelings of antagonism will be aroused if outsiders are admitted. Primordialist thesis: Theory that ethnic attachments reflect a basic tendency of people to seek out, and associate with their “own kind” Quiet Revolution: The social, political, and cultural changes which occurred in Quebec, in part because of the emergence of a large francophone middle class that was experiencing restricted mobility from upper status Anglophones. Race: A socially constructed label that has been used to describe certain kinds of physical differences between people. Split labour-market theory: Holds that racial and ethnic conflicts are rooted in differences in the price of labour (where white workers are more expensive than non-white workers, which can make them more desirable than white workers, in turn eliciting negative responses in white workers). Vertical mosaic: A social structure in which ethnic groups occupy different, and unequal, positions within the stratification system. CHAPTER 9: DEVELOPMENT AND UNDERDEVELOPMENT WHAT IS DEVELOPMENT  Historically, development was associated with industrialization and democratization of society based on equal rights and freedoms of its citizens  After World War 2, development came to mean process that generated economic growth, industrialization, and modernization in regions and countries perceived to be poor, traditional, and undeveloped  Two main factors motivated interest in development after World War 2  The Cold War broke out between developed capitalist countries led by the US and the communist countries led by the Soviet Union à Involved intense completion between the two rivals to gain power through increasing their influence and control over less developed countries (which led to development of these countries)  Businesses in the developed West were interested in new markets outside their traditional spheres of operation  Some analysts have argued that development, and the study of development, have served to support world capitalism, an economic system based on competitive enterprises seeking to maximize profits using wage labour THE RELEVANCE OF DEVELOPMENT AND GLOBAL INEQUALITIES  The relevance of development can be looked through two perspectives, one involving morality and social justice, the other involving self-interest and the need for security  There are huge differences in income not only across countries but within countries as well  Neighbourhood economy of global capitalism is maintained by a system of power relations backed up by disproportionate wealth, and ultimate, the willingness to exercise violence when all else fails EARLY THEORIES OF DEVELOPMENT  Social sciences emerged in the context of lively debate in the biological sciences around theories of evolution proposed by Darwin – Hence human societies were likened to social organisms that passed through stages of development and were susceptible to pathologies or disease  One approach was introduced by Rostow – he argued that societal development follows several necessary stages of development  In the beginning, a society might be traditional, undifferentiated, and undeveloped; but when it comes into contact with a developed society, science and technology spread and the traditional society enters a stage of possible “take off”  Take off occurs when and if an increase in market in market transactions, manufacturing, and trade takes place; the society in turn moves along the path to development the more quickly barriers to the spread of market relations are removed and the more efficiently scientific and technological diffusion occurs  Another approach emerged later, known as the modernization theory  Emphasizes the importance of values and norms as drivers of development  All modernization theories make the assumption that most of the responsibility for economic backwardness lies with the societies of the “third world” or “global south” (NOT TRUE)  Development occurs when the citizens of the poor countries adopt the virtues of the developed North and if they fail to do so, they remain in pathological, undeveloped state DEVELOPMENT AS DEPENDENCY  Dependency Theory sharply challenged the notion that lack of development is due to the deficiencies of less developed countries  It did this by taking a holistic view  Recognizing that each part of the world is shaped by, and helps to shape, a wider, global reality  Attending to the history and structure of relations between countries  It was established by the Dependency theorists that it was precisely the nature of the relationship between metropolitan powers and satellite regions that blocked economic progress in the global south  Evidence shows that historically, societies in the global south did not exist in an underdeveloped state until conquest with European powers  It was until the time when Europe starting asserting their dominance, that the development in countries started declining  European colonization had a huge impact in destroying the economies of the global south  West African slave trade also had a critical impact  Individuals will be kidnapped and taken away from African countries (and hence reducing the amount of labourers) for slavery in European countries THE STRUCTURAL ROOTS OF UNDERDEVELOPMENT  The dependency theory shows how social and economic structures established by European colonizing powers distorted local societies for benefit of European traders and merchants, and later blocked the emergence of industrial capitalism in the global south through extraction of resources and using them to their own advantage  The historical development of the capitalist system general underdevelopment in the peripheral satellites COUNTRIES VERSUS CLASSES AS CAUSES OF UNDERDEVELOPMENT  There are two explanations in dependency theory for causes of underdevelopment  The Geographical version  Originally, dependency theorists conceived of underdevelopment as a process involving one area – Western Europe – extracting surplus from other areas  Other scholars argue that in recent times, it was primarily through unfavourable terms of trade that exploitation took place  Both parties however still maintained the basic idea that one area was exploiting another  This Geographical version of dependency theory was challenged by the second explanation, the Marxist Approach  Emphasis was placed on class relationships  Dependency theory ought to focus on exploitation occurring at the level of class relationships  By analyzing the nature of the class interests that shape underdevelopment and types of class conflict that underdevelopment engenders, one can gain a fuller and more precise understanding of the process of underdevelopment  The struggle among classes to achieve dominance is the prime mover of social change and hence, identifiable classes in the metropolitan countries orchestrated the plunder of the global south NOT ALL COUNTRIES ARE ALIKE: CLASS ALLIANCES AND STATE CONTROL  The global south is not homogeneous - each country has a unique history  Different class alliances came to control the state of the global south with widely different consequences for ensuing pattern of underdevelopment  Especially in periods when foreign influence was weak (like global recessions), internal elites and their allies were able to establish local industrial enterprises and internal markets à this deepened the process of development and strengthened local economies  In contrast, foreign capital was so dominant in small countries that middle and industrial working classes failed to develop à Hence the economy was based almost exclusively on exports of only few commodities AGRARIAN CLASS STRUCTURE AND UNDERDEVELOPMENT  In 1980s and 1990s, to understand better the processes of development and underdevelopment, researches focused increasingly on the role of the following:  Class structures  Class alliances  State policies  Research on estates (large, privately owned agricultural enterprises employing many agricultural workers to produce export crops) was done à It was found that estate agriculture was more of an impediment to development than were agrarian structures dominated by small family farms for a few reasons:  Estate owners were found to compensate their workers with small plots of land rather than money wages (and hence reduced their purchasing power and demand for goods that small manufacturers could have produced)  With a ready supply of cheap labour at hand, estate owners had little incentive to employ advanced agricultural machinery on their estates (limited market of agricultural machinery)  Estate owners exercised enormous political power and hence influenced the government to maintain free trade policies so they could export products and import whatever machinery they needed (this made it difficult for the local industry to develop) GEOGRAPHY AND BIOLOGICAL RESOURCES  Diamond argued people’s environment heavily implicated in development of different societies  To make his case, he distinguished between proximate (or immediate) and ultimate (or fundamental) causes of development  Ex: He found that development of firearms and modern metallurgy by Europeans along with lack of resistance to deadly diseases in the peoples of the Americas, were the proximate causes of the defeat of established complex civilizations by marauding Spanish army in Latin America à Led to emergence of structures that helped to enrich Europe while slowing progress in Americas  Ex: The Geographical features of different continents and biological resources available to early peoples were fundamentally important – they were the ultimate causes of development  Europe rich in plants and animals that could be domesticated, as well as the wealth of species available for domestication allowed for accumulation of large food surpluses, which in turn, enabled growth of large, complex, hierarchical societies  Criticism of Diamond’s Thesis  He ignores the mountain ranges and deserts that surely impeded the diffusion of domesticated plants and animals across Europe  Corn, a major staple, was disseminated from Central to South America THE NEOLIBERAL ERA: DEBT, STRUCTURAL ADJUSTMENT, AND UPHEAVAL IN THE SOUTH  In recent years, the neoliberal theory of economic development has become influential in the highest policy circles  A central idea of neoliberal theory is that only in societies where markets are free of government interference can competitive entrepreneurs maximize economic growth for the benefit of themselves and the rest of society  This theory contrasts with the Keynesian approach which heavily emphasizes state intervention in the market  In 1970s, international banks and lending institutions had gone on a lending spree à The global south took advantage of substantial low-rate loans offered by international banks with hopes of industrialization of their nations  After 1981, interest rates were increased dramatically plunging global south countries into debt crises  International lending agencies put in place a new set of policies (SAPs) poor debtor counties would have to follow in order to be bailed out of their dilemma  The new policy, called the Washington Consensus, united the International Monetary Fund, the World bank, and the US Treasury around neoliberalism and the three pillars of this consensus were privatization, austerity, and market liberalization  In practice, structural adjustment programs (SAPs) became the basis of bailout of the countries of the global south facing debt crises  SAPs required indebted global south countries to undertake the following  Privatize state-owned enterprises, such as telephone and oil companies, and national banks  Let in international corporations and goods produced in developed countries  End tariff protection of local industry and agriculture  Radically curtail social welfare programs  Encourage new lines of agricultural exports  Proponents of SAPs claimed they were necessary to provide needed economic discipline and achieve economic growth; neoliberals assumed that markets work perfectly if left free to do so  Critics argued that SAPs would cause social upheaval and misery – the critics were right NEOLIBERALISM AND SAPS AS SOLUTIONS TO POVERTY  Proponents of neoliberal reforms in developing countries argue that they have raised income in poor countries and lifted millions out of poverty  Critics argue that neoliberalism has produced a dramatic increase in global income inequality  There have been however many winners in neoliberal global economy (Mexico, India, China (big time!), and Large commercial agricultural producers)  Level of Consumption versus Quality of Life and the Environment  Although there has been large monetary income on the rise in many countries (India and China), it does not necessarily mean that improvement in the average quality of life has also occurred  Life in rural countries had their own non-monetary benefits (like personal security, tranquility, better air quality, etc.) that are not present in urban life  The urban life has many negative characteristics  Increased personal insecurity along with increases in crime and violence  Negative health outcomes due to pollution in water and air  Dangerous work environments  Deterioration in diet associated with consumption fast food and low quality street foods  Massive environmental destruction and attendant health consequences because of unregulated development  Absolute Poverty and Global Income Inequality  Despite the economic gains in some countries, global income inequality is vast  The most basic fact about world inequality is that it is monstrously large; that result is inescapable, whatever the method or definition  The richest 5% earn enough income in 48 hours that equates to what the poorest 5% earn in an entire year  Price levels in most Asian countries are much higher than formerly assumed giving rise to many more poor people than previously estimated à it is now argued that global inequality is much greater than even the most pessimistic analysts thought  Trends in Inequality Within and Between Countries  From 1930s to 1960s, when welfare states were being constructed and Keynesian economic policies were being implemented, the gap between the rich and the poor disappeared in all developed countries, but only for some global south countries  The gaps between rich and poor countries was quite stable during these decades  After 1970s, when neoliberal policies were implemented, inequalities within countries substantially increased; Between countries, the gap also increased  Overall, neoliberalism helped widen the gap between the rich and the poor  Growth Needs Strong States  Neoliberal policies have not stimulated growth in the global – Growth rates were higher in decade before introduction of SAPs  Lack of growth however is not surprising because rich countries (aside from Britain) also did not follow tenets of neoliberalism à This clearly demonstrates the need for substantial state involvement in development (ex: the Huge Growth by Miracle Asian economies, as well as economies of China and India)  Only the countries of the global south that fell under the sway of neoliberalism have lacked the opportunity to nurture their industrial and technological base  Women under Neoliberalism  Other sign exist that neoliberalism has failed to produce the results claimed by its advocates  In some parts of the global south, neoliberal policies have been especially hard on women because women form the bulk of agricultural work force  Elsewhere, women have had to raise families on their own because their husbands are forced to migrate to the cities or to the developed world in search of cash income  These circumstances are breaking down long-standing patriarching structures and forging new ties of solidarity among women as they strive to cope with the new realities, but the change involves much suffering STATE VIOLENCE, WAR, AND THE PRODUCTION OF POVERTY  Military aggression and war have helped to undermine development in much of the post-World War 2 era  During the Cold War, mutually assured destruction by nuclear weapons made military confrontation between the Soviet Union and the United States out of the question (nevertheless, both countries used their economic and military power to reshape the world during this period)  From the 1950s to late 1970s, under the guise of making the world “safe for democracy” and “fighting communism”, the United States was directly or indirectly involved in series of coups d’état – The government it had installed at that time prepared for a series of pro-American regime that have carried on continuous campaigns of state terrorism that have killed thousands of people  Domino theory: If one country fell under communist influence, its neighbours would follow suit  Operating with the domino theory in mind, the US began decade-long military intervention in Vietnam in 1960s à this intervention followed years of French colonial domination  Soviet Union was also sought to extend its influence and promote the economic model it favoured through the use of its military force to block out efforts to democratize and liberalize authoritarian communist regimes wi
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