Sociology notes - Mithila.docx

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Department
Sociology
Course
SOC101Y1
Professor
Christian O.Caron
Semester
Winter

Description
Stratification Dyad: a group consisting of two interacting people Status: recognized position in a social interaction Social Stratification is the layering of unequal categories of people in society The Functional Theory of Stratification: Some jobs are more important than others, important jobs require more sacrifice and training High reward offered to motivate talented people to undergo training and sacrifice Criticisms: How do we know what occupation is more important? Ignores pool of talent that lies unused because of inequality. Marx Theory of Stratification: Capitalists ability to hire and fire wage workers the moment technological change and economic growth occurs Drive for profits caused many workers, low wages and poor working conditions Result: Class Polarization (people divided into two contrasting groups e.g. half the class wants to go for recess the other half doesn’t) better understanding of class consciousness and workers need to end capitalist (businesses) exploitation. MOST IMPORTANTLY because capitalism produces more than we consume, overproduction will be the fall of capitalism Criticism: Industrial society (use of technology to mass produce) capitalism continued by stimulating demand and creating easy credit. Workers earn higher wages and better working conditions, fought and won state benefits. Weber’s Theory of Stratification: Class position is determined by “market situation” e.g. goods, income, education, skill 4 Classes: Larger property, Small property, No property but educated, no property manual workers Three pillars of stratification: (Left to right) Market Position, Prestige and Power where more rewards for categories with fewer people Implications: Nothing is inevitable about social stratification, the level of it depends on class, status and party e.g. in a democracy citizens decided which party is in office (social mobility, we decided how much inequality there is) Inequality timeline: Private Property stratification rose Merit after early industrialization, inequality fell Government Policy second half of the 20 century, rise of modern welfare state (state takes care of citizens health, education, employment etc. resulted in a divergence in inequality. USA high inequality, France inequality declined Inflation: increase of over time cost Real dollars: cost of goods without inflation Market income: income before taxes How Tax Laws reinforce inequality: Half of Canadian taxes are progressive, pay what you make. Other half regressive, lose what you earn. No inheritance tax, so the wealthy can pass on funds to future generations. Income of the wealthy taxed at lower rates, tax benefits are advantageous to the wealthy RRSP (registered retirement savings plan) benefits increase with income. Marginal tax rate for low (0 %), middle (25%) and high income (50%) Common beliefs about Poverty: Chronic, most depend on welfare, welfare is generous and it’s inevitable. Race and Ethnicity Race specifies groups of people distinguished by physical characteristics e.g. skin color and who have been singled out as inferior or superior based on skin, hair, eye color Ethnic Group people distinguished by cultural characteristics Race is a socially constructed reality, not biological. Race as a social construct means it doesn’t exist except in some people’s minds race defines a person biological appearance. It has gotten to the point where it shapes how we see others and ourselves. Social consequences involve prejudice a
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