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SOC101Y1 Study Guide - Quiz Guide: Hybridity, Web 2.0, Adbusters

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Christian O.Caron
Study Guide

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Globalization is the social economic and political process that makes it easier for people, goods, ideas and
capital to travel around the world at a unprecedented pace
It makes the world look and feel smaller
Globalization as a process means it is neither inherently good or bad
Has real impact on the environment and every human being in the world
Digital divide: inequality of access to means of communication
Top-down globalization
- top down globalization involves the actions of groups promoting globalized capitalism and free trade
- Neoliberal economic policies are associated with:
retreat from state spending and regulation
focus on individual responsibility for ones own welfare
less protection for labor and the environment
privatization of state resources
faith in the power of the market
Globalization from below
- globalization from below describes the actions of groups that criticize the injustices that result from
globalization processes
- advocate for:
spread of international human rights

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global labor standards
increased democracy in the global system
environmental protection
social justice
- is not a cohesive movement and more a broad framework that encompasses multiple perspectives
-this includes:
moderate critiques of neoliberalism
radical anticapitalist positions
various forms of anarchism
armed peasant uprisings
fair trade coffee projects
- in economic terms, money used for investment, currency trading is “financial capital” (98% of money
exchanged on any given day is not died to goods and services)
- overcapacity: global corporations (TNCS) are producing more things than the worlds consumers can
afford to purchase
-centralization: corporations have merged to stay competitive, blending different industries together
Growth of corporate power
- of the largest 175 economies in the world…99 are corporations
- companies play nation state off of one another, pressuring governments to lower taxes rates by
threatening to move production to a more favorable location
-critics of corporate power (No Logo, Adbusters) demand more accountability on the part of corporations

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-while the global economy has made a portion of the world population wealthy...a large proportion of the
world people (at least 50%) are considered poor
State autonomy disappearing?
- democratic deficit is when ordinary citizens are disenfranchised form the process of governance
- due to the three sisters
IMF (International Money Fund)
World Bank
WTO (World Trade Organization)
- Supra-national organizations who put pressure on nations to deregulate capital markets, remove price
subsidies, decrease social spending, orient the economy toward exports, and privatize state- run industries
(adopt neoliberal policies)
Global Consumer
- Global commodity chain is a worldwide network of labor and production processes, whose end result is a
finished commodity
Global commodity chains are not transparent to the casual consumer
-power is distributed unevenly along the chain
- consumerism is a way of life in which ones identity and purpose is oriented primarily to he purchase and
consumption of material goods- is currently being exported to the worlds middle and working classes
Culture as Commodity
- the biggest u.s. export is mass produced products of popular culture
- while many countries would like to protect their cultural products…the WTO has prohibited states from
usuing subsidies and quotas to protect domestic cultural products
-cutural imperialism: domination of one culture over another
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