Study Guides (258,731)
CA (124,987)
UTSG (8,541)
SOC (697)
SOC101Y1 (215)
Midterm

Sociology Test #2 Review

15 Pages
125 Views

Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOC101Y1
Professor
Sheldon Ungar

This preview shows pages 1-3. Sign up to view the full 15 pages of the document.
Sociology Test #2 Review
Test Format:
Part A. Applications (10 questions)
Part B. Based on Chapters 4, 5, and 6 of New Society (18 questions)
Part C. Based on Chapters 9, 10, 11, and 12 of Society in Question (12 questions)
Part D. Based on Lectures and Movie Shown in Class (10 questions)
Covering Lecture Slides:
27 OctoberGender & SexualityNS ch. 4, SiQ ch. 9
3 NovemberMass MediaNS ch. 5, SiQ ch. 10, ch. 11
17 NovemberSocial Stratification I NS ch. 6
24 NovemberSocial Stratification III SiQ ch. 12
New Society – Chapters 4, 5, and 6
Chapter 4: Gender and Sexuality
VARIABLE FEMALE MALE
Chromosomal patternXX XY
Gonadal OvariesTestes
Hormonal More estrogen than
androgens
More androgens than
estrogen + MH
Sex organsUterus, fallopian tubes,
vagina, clitoris, labia
Epididymis, vas deferens,
seminal vesicles, prostate,
penis, scrotum
Around 6th/7th week of growth sex glands (gonads) develop: male – testes, female
– ovaries
Difference in sex organs noticeable by 14th week after conception
Only one sex difference in brain: hypothalamus makes female brain sensitive to
estrogen and responsible for creating menstrual cycle
Being male/female not just biological but also certain masculine and feminine
feelings, attitudes, and behaviours
Biological sex must be distinguished from sociological gender: the feelings,
attitudes, and behaviours associated with being male/female
Transgender: gender identity does not exactly match the sex assigned to them at
birth. They blur widely accepted gender roles by, e.g. cross-dressing
1 in every 5000 to 10 000 Canadians is transgendered
www.notesolution.com
Sociology Test #2 Review
Transsexual: identity with the opposite sex from that assigned to them at birth,
causing them to change their appearance or resort to a sex-change operation 
question how we define males and females
1 in 30 000 Canadians is fully transsexual
We expect individuals to possess unambiguous sex organs and to adopt the gender
role that is consistent with their biological sex World Health Organization
classifies transgendered individuals as suffering from a psychiatric disorder
Transgendered individuals represent problem for most people only because they
do not recognize the validity of intermediate sexes
If gender reassigned occurs before 18 months, tends to be successful
Gender roles are entirely natural, spring fully from human physiology
No one-to-one relationship exists b/w sex & gender transsexuals and
transgenders
Sexuality: activities that are intended to “lead to erotic arousal and produce
genital response”
Sexual behaviour guided by sexual scripts: tell us whom we should find
attractive, when and where it is appropriate to be aroused, what is permissible,
and how to behave sexually
Scripts linked to gender roles
Men – expected to be sexual aggressors more experienced and promiscuous than
women
Women – expected to desire love before intimacy, sexually passive, giving only
subtle cues to indicate interest in male overtures
Because they lack urgent sex drives that reoccupies males, women held
accountable for moral standards and contraception
Sexuality was assumed to be heterosexuality, coined 30 years after term
homosexuality in 1860s
Homosexuality was considered serious psychiatric disorder until 1974, dropped
from Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
Compulsory heterosexuality: assumption individuals should desire only
members of opposite sex
Heterosexuality puts all women at disadvantage: heterosexuality based on
unequal economic, political, legal, and social relations b/w women and men
Adrienne Rich defines Compulsory heterosexuality: the ideologically and
materially enforced insistence that women see themselves entirely as the
complement of men and live under male control or risk sever sanctions—social
stigma or death
Rich: the institutionalization of heterosexuality in marriage and the family is way
of ensuring males’ rights to physical, economic, and emotional access to women
Extreme feminists: women should reject heterosexuality altogether since all such
relationships are based on inequality
www.notesolution.com
Sociology Test #2 Review
Traditional sexual scripts expect us to meet member of opposite sex, fall in love
marry, have intercourse
Men choose to do unconventional sexual activities than women
Men and Francophones more likely to endorse fun standard in sexual intercourse
than women and Anglophones who endorse love standard
Men somewhat more concerned than women with sex and women somewhat more
concerned with love than men
Women site affection for partner as reason for first time sex, whereas men
curiosity and then affection
Acceptance of homosexuality correlated with age, gender, and religion; young
adults, women, and residents of Quebec and British Columbia are more accepting
than other Canadians
1/10 North Americans is homosexual
Estimates of the prevalence of homosexuality depends on how homosexuality is
measured. Estimate based on sexual identity results in lower % than estimate on
sexual orientation
Sexual orientation: the way a person derives sexual pleasure, including whether
desirable partners are of the same or different sex
Conceptualize sexuality as comprising four continua: sexual attraction, sexual
desire, sexual behaviour, and sexual identity
Origins of gender differences in human behaviour:
-Gender as a reflection of naturally evolved dispositions essentialism
-Gender as a reflection of the different social positions occupied by women and
men social constructionism
Essentiaism
Essentialists 1st observe male-female differences in sexual scripts: division of
labour at home and work, mate selection, sexual aggression, jealousy, promiscuity,
fidelity, etc interpret differences as natural or universal
Essentialists – child rearing may exaggerate differences but nature is ultimate
force
Essentialism variants: brain studies, sociobiology, and Freudian theory
Brain Studies
Male-female differences in brain structure can result in behaviour achievement
Left hemisphere – associated with language abilities
Right hemisphere – nonverbal perception and visual and spatial skills
Some researches – two hemispheres develop differently in boys and girls, and
fibers connecting hemispheres
Claim – when male fetus starts to secrete testosterone, it washes over the brain and
briefly inhibits the growth of left hemisphere use of right hemisphere dominant
in men, allowing men to excel in mathematical, artistic, musical and visual-spatial
abilities. Bundles of fibers connecting left and right hemispheres is bigger in
www.notesolution.com

Loved by over 2.2 million students

Over 90% improved by at least one letter grade.

Leah — University of Toronto

OneClass has been such a huge help in my studies at UofT especially since I am a transfer student. OneClass is the study buddy I never had before and definitely gives me the extra push to get from a B to an A!

Leah — University of Toronto
Saarim — University of Michigan

Balancing social life With academics can be difficult, that is why I'm so glad that OneClass is out there where I can find the top notes for all of my classes. Now I can be the all-star student I want to be.

Saarim — University of Michigan
Jenna — University of Wisconsin

As a college student living on a college budget, I love how easy it is to earn gift cards just by submitting my notes.

Jenna — University of Wisconsin
Anne — University of California

OneClass has allowed me to catch up with my most difficult course! #lifesaver

Anne — University of California
Description
Sociology Test #2 Review Test Format: Part A. Applications (10 questions) Part B. Based on Chapters 4, 5, and 6 of New Society (18 questions) Part C. Based on Chapters 9, 10, 11, and 12 of Society in Question (12 questions) Part D. Based on Lectures and Movie Shown in Class (10 questions) Covering Lecture Slides: 27 October Gender & Sexuality NS ch. 4, SiQ ch. 9 3 November Mass Media NS ch. 5, SiQ ch. 10, ch. 11 17 November Social Stratification I NS ch. 6 24 November Social Stratification IISiQ ch. 12 New Society Chapters 4, 5, and 6 Chapter 4: Gender and Sexuality VARIABLE FEMALE MALE Chromosomal pattern XX XY Gonadal Ovaries Testes Hormonal More estrogen than More androgens than androgens estrogen + MH Sex organs Uterus, fallopian tubes, Epididymis, vas deferens, vagina, clitoris, labia seminal vesicles, prostate, penis, scrotum Around 6 7 week of growth sex glands (gonads) develop: male testes, female ovaries Difference in sex organs noticeable by 14 week after conception Only one sex difference in brain: hypothalamus makes female brain sensitive to estrogen and responsible for creating menstrual cycle Being malefemale not just biological but also certain masculine and feminine feelings, attitudes, and behaviours Biological sex must be distinguished from sociological gender: the feelings, attitudes, and behaviours associated with being malefemale Transgender: gender identity does not exactly match the sex assigned to them at birth. They blur widely accepted gender roles by, e.g. cross-dressing 1 in every 5000 to 10 000 Canadians is transgendered www.notesolution.com Sociology Test #2 Review Transsexual: identity with the opposite sex from that assigned to them at birth, causing them to change their appearance or resort to a sex-change operation question how we define males and females 1 in 30 000 Canadians is fully transsexual We expect individuals to possess unambiguous sex organs and to adopt the gender role that is consistent with their biological sex World Health Organization classifies transgendered individuals as suffering from a psychiatric disorder Transgendered individuals represent problem for most people only because they do not recognize the validity of intermediate sexes If gender reassigned occurs before 18 months, tends to be successful Gender roles are entirely natural, spring fully from human physiology No one-to-one relationship exists bw sex & gender transsexuals and transgenders Sexuality: activities that are intended to lead to erotic arousal and produce genital response Sexual behaviour guided by sexual scripts: tell us whom we should find attractive, when and where it is appropriate to be aroused, what is permissible, and how to behave sexually Scripts linked to gender roles Men expected to be sexual aggressors more experienced and promiscuous than women Women expected to desire love before intimacy, sexually passive, giving only subtle cues to indicate interest in male overtures Because they lack urgent sex drives that reoccupies males, women held accountable for moral standards and contraception Sexuality was assumed to be heterosexuality, coined 30 years after term homosexuality in 1860s Homosexuality was considered serious psychiatric disorder until 1974, dropped from Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Compulsory heterosexuality: assumption individuals should desire only members of opposite sex Heterosexuality puts all women at disadvantage: heterosexuality based on unequal economic, political, legal, and social relations bw women and men Adrienne Rich defines Compulsory heterosexuality: the ideologically and materially enforced insistence that women see themselves entirely as the complement of men and live under male control or risk sever sanctionssocial stigma or death Rich: the institutionalization of heterosexuality in marriage and the family is way of ensuring males rights to physical, economic, and emotional access to women Extreme feminists: women should reject heterosexuality altogether since all such relationships are based on inequality www.notesolution.com
More Less
Unlock Document


Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


OR

Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit