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Sociology Test #2 Review

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University of Toronto St. George
Sheldon Ungar

Sociology Test #2 Review Test Format: Part A. Applications (10 questions) Part B. Based on Chapters 4, 5, and 6 of New Society (18 questions) Part C. Based on Chapters 9, 10, 11, and 12 of Society in Question (12 questions) Part D. Based on Lectures and Movie Shown in Class (10 questions) Covering Lecture Slides: 27 October Gender & Sexuality NS ch. 4, SiQ ch. 9 3 November Mass Media NS ch. 5, SiQ ch. 10, ch. 11 17 November Social Stratification I NS ch. 6 24 November Social Stratification IISiQ ch. 12 New Society Chapters 4, 5, and 6 Chapter 4: Gender and Sexuality VARIABLE FEMALE MALE Chromosomal pattern XX XY Gonadal Ovaries Testes Hormonal More estrogen than More androgens than androgens estrogen + MH Sex organs Uterus, fallopian tubes, Epididymis, vas deferens, vagina, clitoris, labia seminal vesicles, prostate, penis, scrotum Around 6 7 week of growth sex glands (gonads) develop: male testes, female ovaries Difference in sex organs noticeable by 14 week after conception Only one sex difference in brain: hypothalamus makes female brain sensitive to estrogen and responsible for creating menstrual cycle Being malefemale not just biological but also certain masculine and feminine feelings, attitudes, and behaviours Biological sex must be distinguished from sociological gender: the feelings, attitudes, and behaviours associated with being malefemale Transgender: gender identity does not exactly match the sex assigned to them at birth. They blur widely accepted gender roles by, e.g. cross-dressing 1 in every 5000 to 10 000 Canadians is transgendered Sociology Test #2 Review Transsexual: identity with the opposite sex from that assigned to them at birth, causing them to change their appearance or resort to a sex-change operation question how we define males and females 1 in 30 000 Canadians is fully transsexual We expect individuals to possess unambiguous sex organs and to adopt the gender role that is consistent with their biological sex World Health Organization classifies transgendered individuals as suffering from a psychiatric disorder Transgendered individuals represent problem for most people only because they do not recognize the validity of intermediate sexes If gender reassigned occurs before 18 months, tends to be successful Gender roles are entirely natural, spring fully from human physiology No one-to-one relationship exists bw sex & gender transsexuals and transgenders Sexuality: activities that are intended to lead to erotic arousal and produce genital response Sexual behaviour guided by sexual scripts: tell us whom we should find attractive, when and where it is appropriate to be aroused, what is permissible, and how to behave sexually Scripts linked to gender roles Men expected to be sexual aggressors more experienced and promiscuous than women Women expected to desire love before intimacy, sexually passive, giving only subtle cues to indicate interest in male overtures Because they lack urgent sex drives that reoccupies males, women held accountable for moral standards and contraception Sexuality was assumed to be heterosexuality, coined 30 years after term homosexuality in 1860s Homosexuality was considered serious psychiatric disorder until 1974, dropped from Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Compulsory heterosexuality: assumption individuals should desire only members of opposite sex Heterosexuality puts all women at disadvantage: heterosexuality based on unequal economic, political, legal, and social relations bw women and men Adrienne Rich defines Compulsory heterosexuality: the ideologically and materially enforced insistence that women see themselves entirely as the complement of men and live under male control or risk sever sanctionssocial stigma or death Rich: the institutionalization of heterosexuality in marriage and the family is way of ensuring males rights to physical, economic, and emotional access to women Extreme feminists: women should reject heterosexuality altogether since all such relationships are based on inequality
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