SOC101Y1 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Compulsory Heterosexuality, Social Stratification, Meritocracy

65 views15 pages
9 Feb 2011

For unlimited access to Study Guides, a Grade+ subscription is required.

Sociology Test #2 Review
Test Format:
Part A. Applications (10 questions)
Part B. Based on Chapters 4, 5, and 6 of New Society (18 questions)
Part C. Based on Chapters 9, 10, 11, and 12 of Society in Question (12 questions)
Part D. Based on Lectures and Movie Shown in Class (10 questions)
Covering Lecture Slides:
27 OctoberGender & SexualityNS ch. 4, SiQ ch. 9
3 NovemberMass MediaNS ch. 5, SiQ ch. 10, ch. 11
17 NovemberSocial Stratification I NS ch. 6
24 NovemberSocial Stratification III SiQ ch. 12
New Society – Chapters 4, 5, and 6
Chapter 4: Gender and Sexuality
Chromosomal patternXX XY
Gonadal OvariesTestes
Hormonal More estrogen than
More androgens than
estrogen + MH
Sex organsUterus, fallopian tubes,
vagina, clitoris, labia
Epididymis, vas deferens,
seminal vesicles, prostate,
penis, scrotum
Around 6th/7th week of growth sex glands (gonads) develop: male – testes, female
– ovaries
Difference in sex organs noticeable by 14th week after conception
Only one sex difference in brain: hypothalamus makes female brain sensitive to
estrogen and responsible for creating menstrual cycle
Being male/female not just biological but also certain masculine and feminine
feelings, attitudes, and behaviours
Biological sex must be distinguished from sociological gender: the feelings,
attitudes, and behaviours associated with being male/female
Transgender: gender identity does not exactly match the sex assigned to them at
birth. They blur widely accepted gender roles by, e.g. cross-dressing
1 in every 5000 to 10 000 Canadians is transgendered
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 15 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Sociology Test #2 Review
Transsexual: identity with the opposite sex from that assigned to them at birth,
causing them to change their appearance or resort to a sex-change operation 
question how we define males and females
1 in 30 000 Canadians is fully transsexual
We expect individuals to possess unambiguous sex organs and to adopt the gender
role that is consistent with their biological sex World Health Organization
classifies transgendered individuals as suffering from a psychiatric disorder
Transgendered individuals represent problem for most people only because they
do not recognize the validity of intermediate sexes
If gender reassigned occurs before 18 months, tends to be successful
Gender roles are entirely natural, spring fully from human physiology
No one-to-one relationship exists b/w sex & gender transsexuals and
Sexuality: activities that are intended to “lead to erotic arousal and produce
genital response”
Sexual behaviour guided by sexual scripts: tell us whom we should find
attractive, when and where it is appropriate to be aroused, what is permissible,
and how to behave sexually
Scripts linked to gender roles
Men – expected to be sexual aggressors more experienced and promiscuous than
Women – expected to desire love before intimacy, sexually passive, giving only
subtle cues to indicate interest in male overtures
Because they lack urgent sex drives that reoccupies males, women held
accountable for moral standards and contraception
Sexuality was assumed to be heterosexuality, coined 30 years after term
homosexuality in 1860s
Homosexuality was considered serious psychiatric disorder until 1974, dropped
from Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
Compulsory heterosexuality: assumption individuals should desire only
members of opposite sex
Heterosexuality puts all women at disadvantage: heterosexuality based on
unequal economic, political, legal, and social relations b/w women and men
Adrienne Rich defines Compulsory heterosexuality: the ideologically and
materially enforced insistence that women see themselves entirely as the
complement of men and live under male control or risk sever sanctions—social
stigma or death
Rich: the institutionalization of heterosexuality in marriage and the family is way
of ensuring males’ rights to physical, economic, and emotional access to women
Extreme feminists: women should reject heterosexuality altogether since all such
relationships are based on inequality
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 15 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Sociology Test #2 Review
Traditional sexual scripts expect us to meet member of opposite sex, fall in love
marry, have intercourse
Men choose to do unconventional sexual activities than women
Men and Francophones more likely to endorse fun standard in sexual intercourse
than women and Anglophones who endorse love standard
Men somewhat more concerned than women with sex and women somewhat more
concerned with love than men
Women site affection for partner as reason for first time sex, whereas men
curiosity and then affection
Acceptance of homosexuality correlated with age, gender, and religion; young
adults, women, and residents of Quebec and British Columbia are more accepting
than other Canadians
1/10 North Americans is homosexual
Estimates of the prevalence of homosexuality depends on how homosexuality is
measured. Estimate based on sexual identity results in lower % than estimate on
sexual orientation
Sexual orientation: the way a person derives sexual pleasure, including whether
desirable partners are of the same or different sex
Conceptualize sexuality as comprising four continua: sexual attraction, sexual
desire, sexual behaviour, and sexual identity
Origins of gender differences in human behaviour:
-Gender as a reflection of naturally evolved dispositions essentialism
-Gender as a reflection of the different social positions occupied by women and
men social constructionism
Essentialists 1st observe male-female differences in sexual scripts: division of
labour at home and work, mate selection, sexual aggression, jealousy, promiscuity,
fidelity, etc interpret differences as natural or universal
Essentialists – child rearing may exaggerate differences but nature is ultimate
Essentialism variants: brain studies, sociobiology, and Freudian theory
Brain Studies
Male-female differences in brain structure can result in behaviour achievement
Left hemisphere – associated with language abilities
Right hemisphere – nonverbal perception and visual and spatial skills
Some researches – two hemispheres develop differently in boys and girls, and
fibers connecting hemispheres
Claim – when male fetus starts to secrete testosterone, it washes over the brain and
briefly inhibits the growth of left hemisphere use of right hemisphere dominant
in men, allowing men to excel in mathematical, artistic, musical and visual-spatial
abilities. Bundles of fibers connecting left and right hemispheres is bigger in
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 15 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Get access

$10 USD/m
Billed $120 USD annually
Homework Help
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
40 Verified Answers
Study Guides
1 Booster Class