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SOC358H1 Compiled Midterm Lecture Notes. Professor Lee

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Tara Lee

LECTURE 1 What is the Chicago School1920s1930sRobert Park and Ernest Burgess o Opposed big theoriesPark found that a lot of the classical sociological theories didnt make sense in the everyday life Vocal critic with ivory tower sociology said they were only loosely based on empirical observationo on the ground approachPark believed that you had to talk to people see things use empirical observation to come to any conclusion Very skeptical of those who spend their time in the halls of academia An advocate of immersing himself in the social world If youre not there you cant know the world First hand knowledge o Urban ecologyPark believed that the city was the sociologists laboratory ShawMckay developed the Concentric ZoneSocial disorganization theory dont look at individual attributes but look at the characteristics of their surroundings meanings of acts change depending on the surroundings place mattersThe above are not the characteristically Chicago School traits but more what Park and Burgess are known for Clifford ShawWrote The jackroller A delinquent boys own story jackroller is pickpocketOwn story or Life history find out the life story of the person and create a sociological analysis The Second Chicago School1940s1960sEverett Hughescareer is a more general concept that touches upon the beginning middle and end of what a person goes through It is a way of sensitizing researchers to the fact that things change over time o Careers work and occupations race relationsHerbert Blumer o Symbolic InteractionismHow meanings are created in interaction there is no universal truth Instead we must look at how things are negotiated with real peopleErving Goffman flyonthewall observes people without interaction o Presentation of Self in Everyday Life Stigma AsylumsHoward Becker getting into smoking marijuana o Outsiders Art WorldsSome scholars Becker disagree on calling the school of knowledge as the Chicago School instead be called a school of activity There is no unity of theory of the scholars in the Chicago School they all did different things The term Chicago school is only used to group the scholars professor agrees with BeckerCourse focuses mainly on the second Chicago schoolThe Chicago School TodayElijah Anderson Code of the Street decency violence and the Moral Life of the Inner Citydifferent perspective on the people hanging out in the street corners from the outsiders and the insidersJack Katz Seductions of Crime The Moral and Sensual Attractions in Doing Evilimportant in the development of criminological theory Katz is a maverick student of Becker This book is significant critique of conventional sociological analysis Robert Emerson Writing Ethnographic Fieldnotesthe guy who teaches you how to do research 1 Mitchell Duneier SidewalkOnce again an outsider narrative about the homeless men who sold books on the sidewalks Duneier becomes an insider and realizes that these men are necessary for a vibrant neighbourhood eyes on the street neighbourhoods require public life the presence prevents certain types of crimeDavid Grazian Blue Chicago The search for authenticity in Urban Blues Clubsbook about how city politics shapes the music scene across the city Three legaciesNaturalism Studying people and processes in their natural contextmeans something to real people there is a reality beyond the labProcess focus on change over time instead of a snapshotFocusing on interactions changes that unfold within a facetoface encounter Within a group activity Within any interactions Meanings interpretive sociology how people make sense of their social situation o Antiobjective reality or TRUTH o Subjective understandingKey concept of course The conflict between the outsiders and the insiders of the social worlds illustrating the distance between the twoCrime and Deviance Chicago StyleBeyond background approach correlations between variables and outcomeso Katz focus on emotions that explain pathways into crimethe majority of people will never commit these serious crimes therefore to pin the causation to the race etc is not valid Murder poor correlation between race gender class and actionSome form of perceived disrespect or shame that propels people into murderLECTURE 2Howard S Becker famous sociologist his views at the time were widely different from the common view at the timeBy looking at the career or the unfolding process to get to a point they note the meaning of becoming a doctor change as they go through medical school The students lose the idealism of helping people and they focus on the practical daytoday things they must do in medical school book called Boys in WhiteThe meanings of any activity is not static it shifts and evolves as the persons situation changesThe concept of career forces one to think about processArt Worlds whenever we talk about famous artists musicians painters we often create these myths about the lone individual genius whos remarkable talents and skills allow him to rise to popularity Becker talks about collective activity challenges this idea He says that we should look at the larger network of relationships the person is in We should study the supporting cast around the person Later in his life Becker focused on handbooks tricks of the trade writing for social scientists What is Deviance summary of readingsUniversal Social rule All social groups create social rules and means of enforcing these rules Becker then goes through the rivaling hypotheses on deviance o Statistical Deviance One way of identifying what is deviant is to see when things statistically fall out of the normProblems with this those who are deviant do not see themselves as deviant people who are deviant may consider those who are calling them deviant deviantCaptures a mixed bag some of whom are seen as deviant and some are not 2
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