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Sheldon Ungar

Socio Chap. 1 Sociology: the systematic study of human behaviour in social context. Our relations with other people create opportunities for us to think and act but also set limits on our thoughts and action. The chief value of sociology is that it can help us clarify the scope, direction and significance of social change. It can also suggest ways of managing change. Durkheim showed that even non-social and antisocial actions are influenced by social structures (levels of social solidarity affect suicide) Sociologists analyze the influence of three levels of social structures on human actions. Microstructure: the pattern on relatively intimate social relations formed during face-to- face interaction (families, friends, work associations) Macrostructure: overarching patterns of social relations that lie outside and above ones circle of intimates and acquaintances. Macrostructures include classes, bureaucracies, and power systems, such as patriarchy. Patriarchy : the traditional system of economic and political inequality between women and men. The rise of sociology was stimulated by three revolutions. The scientific revolution (encouraged that sound conclusions about the working of society had to be based on solid evidence not just speculation). The democratic revolution (people are responsible for organizing society and that human intervention can therefore solve social problems. The industrial revolutions (involved the rapid growth of economic transformation, gave sociologist their subject matter) The post-industrial revolution is the technology-driven shift from manufacturing to service industries and the consequences of that shift for virtually all human activities. Globalization is the process by which formerly separated economies, states and culture become tied together and people become increasingly aware of their growing interdependence. The causes of post industrialism and globalisation form the great sociological puzzle of our time There are four major theoretical traditions in sociology.
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