•Qualitative VS. Quantitative
oQualitative methods are usually dismissed as unscientific and inaccurate
because it seems like it involves a lot of subjectivity, it takes longer, and research
methods and analytical strategies can not be analyzed by high technology means.
•Qualitative as unscientific arises from the notion of empiricism is
oQuality - essential to the nature of things (what, how, when, where)
•Refers to the meanings, concepts, definitions, characteristics,
metaphors, symbols and descriptions of things
oQuantity - is elementally an amount of something (counts and measures of
oData gathering techniques are intentionally coupled with theoretical
perspectives, linking method to theory.
oTherefore, data gathering is not distinct from theoretical orientations
oSeven ways to collect qualitative data:
oAction research (participatory research studies)
•Examination of the basic theoretical assumptions of each technique
and advice on how to start each procedure and how to resolve problems that
oObservations made by researchers are deeply affected by the actions of all
participants, including themselves.
oResearchers need to use different methods so they can observe from different
perspectives directed at the same point.
oThrough this can obtain a better and more substantive picture of reality.
oThe use of multiple lines of sight is called triangulation. (three sighting lines
intersect forming a small triangle called the triangle of error - true location of the
object is the centre of the triangle, and the three lines are about equal in error.)
oLines of action (Denzin) - the use of multiple data collection technologies ,
multiple theories, researchers, methodologies, or combinations of these four
oTriangulation - use of multiple data- gathering techniques (usually 3) to
investigate the same phenomenon
Means of mutual confirmation of measures and validation of findings.