Study Guides (256,443)
CA (124,652)
UTSG (8,518)
SOC (695)
SOC101Y1 (215)

Reading Lec 11 - Race & Ethnicity

7 Pages
120 Views

Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOC101Y1
Professor
Sheldon Ungar

This preview shows pages 1-2. Sign up to view the full 7 pages of the document.
Sociology January 19th, 2011.
Race & Ethnic Relations
New Society – Ch. 8
Objective definition of ethnicity – ethnic groups exist because of peoples social
attachments. Ethnicity is something that people possess because of differences in
language, culture, customs, national origin, and ancestry
Subjective definition of ethnicity – focuses on process of ethnic identification.
Sociologists who emphasize the socially constructed nature of perceived reality
insist that ethnicity is a “transactional process
20th century scientists believes races were subdivisions of Homo sapiens
Most common typology was division of humanity into “Caucasoid,mongoloid,
and “negroid races
Martin Barker: new racism involved beliefs that, although races of people cannot
be ranked biologically, they are different from each other and social problems are
created when different groups try to live together
Beliefs should be considered racist because of underlying intent to socially
exclude, marginalize, and denigrate certain groups of people, but to do so w/out
reference to unalterable biology
Institutional racism – discriminatory practices built into such prominent
structures as the political, economic, and education systems
3 Form of Institutional Racism
1.Some institutional practices based on explicitly racist ideas: e.g. Chinese were
excluded from certain jobs and denied right to vote
2.Some institutional practices arose from, but are not longer sustained by, racist
ideas
3.Institutions sometimes unintentionally restrict life-chances of certain groups
through variety of seemingly neutral rules, regulations, and procedures:
sometimes referred to as systematic discrimination, e.g. height/weight
requirements for jobs w/ police forces and fire departments did not necessarily
originate in racist ideas, but these requirements meant that for many years certain
Asian groups could not get jobs as police officers or firefighters.
Frustration-aggression – explains prejudice and racism as forms of hostility that
arise from frustration. Theory suggests people who are frustrated in their efforts
to achieve a desirable goal (higher pay) respond w/ aggression
Because real source of frustration usually too powerful to confront directly, people
take out frustration on less powerful
Minority ethnic/racial groups are convenient and safe targets of displaced
aggression scapegoating
Scapegoating – sometimes used to explain anti-Semitism
Anti-Semitism – negative attitudes and everyday discrimination directed against
Jews
www.notesolution.com
Sociology January 19th, 2011.
Primordialist thesis – ethnic/racial attachments reflect an innate tendency for
people to seek out, and associate w/ others who are similar in terms of language,
culture, beliefs, ancestry, and appearance
Natural selection does not operate at level of individuals, but kin-related groups
cluster of genes passed on through kin selection
Ethnic/racial groups are large extended families
Since people have “natural tendency to want to pass on their genes, they favour
their “families
Thus people both inherently altruistic and ethnocentric because want to pass on
their genes to own group
Altruistic – prepared to sacrifice their own individual interests for sake of group
Human therefore naturally favour members of own ethnic/racial group
(“relatives) and have natural distrust/dislike to ‘nonfamily”
Normative Theories
Concentrate on way in which prejudice are transmitted through socialization and
social circumstances that compel discriminatory behaviour
E.g. socialization approach focuses on how we are taught ethnic/racial
stereotypes, prejudices, and attitudes by our families, peer groups, and mass media
Socialization theories are superior to social-psychological and primordialist
approaches because they emphasize the way in which ethnic/racial prejudices and
attitudes are learned through social interaction
Limitations of socialization theories is that they are unable to explain how
prejudicial ideas, attitudes, and practices arise in the first place power conflict
theories come into play
Power-Conflict Theories
Orthodox Marxists argue racism is an ideology – set of statements shaped by
economic interests about way social world “really works
In case of advanced capitalism, racism viewed by Marxists as an ideology that
justifies intense exploitation of racial minority and immigrant workers
Racist ideas used by employers as means of creating artificial divisions in working
class consciousness that would threaten social/economic order
Racist ideas help justify allocation of certain groups to low-wage, socially
marginal jobs
Split labour market – argues orthodox Marxism tends to assume that capitalist
class is all-powerful and other classes play no role in development of racist
thinking
Culture poverty thesis – suggests some ethnic groups do not readily assimilate,
hence poor because their culture does not value economic success, hard work, and
achievement
www.notesolution.com

Loved by over 2.2 million students

Over 90% improved by at least one letter grade.

Leah — University of Toronto

OneClass has been such a huge help in my studies at UofT especially since I am a transfer student. OneClass is the study buddy I never had before and definitely gives me the extra push to get from a B to an A!

Leah — University of Toronto
Saarim — University of Michigan

Balancing social life With academics can be difficult, that is why I'm so glad that OneClass is out there where I can find the top notes for all of my classes. Now I can be the all-star student I want to be.

Saarim — University of Michigan
Jenna — University of Wisconsin

As a college student living on a college budget, I love how easy it is to earn gift cards just by submitting my notes.

Jenna — University of Wisconsin
Anne — University of California

OneClass has allowed me to catch up with my most difficult course! #lifesaver

Anne — University of California
Description
Sociology January 19 , 2011. Race & Ethnic Relations New Society Ch. 8 Objective definition of ethnicity ethnic groups exist because of peoples social attachments. Ethnicity is something that people possess because of differences in language, culture, customs, national origin, and ancestry Subjective definition of ethnicity focuses on process of ethnic identification. Sociologists who emphasize the socially constructed nature of perceived reality insist that ethnicity is a transactional process th 20 century scientists believes races were subdivisions of Homo sapiens Most common typology was division of humanity into Caucasoid, mongoloid, and negroid races Martin Barker: new racism involved beliefs that, although races of people cannot be ranked biologically, they are different from each other and social problems are created when different groups try to live together Beliefs should be considered racist because of underlying intent to socially exclude, marginalize, and denigrate certain groups of people, but to do so wout reference to unalterable biology Institutional racism discriminatory practices built into such prominent structures as the political, economic, and education systems 3 Form of Institutional Racism 1. Some institutional practices based on explicitly racist ideas: e.g. Chinese were excluded from certain jobs and denied right to vote 2. Some institutional practices arose from, but are not longer sustained by, racist ideas 3. Institutions sometimes unintentionally restrict life-chances of certain groups through variety of seemingly neutral rules, regulations, and procedures: sometimes referred to as systematic discrimination, e.g. heightweight requirements for jobs w police forces and fire departments did not necessarily originate in racist ideas, but these requirements meant that for many years certain Asian groups could not get jobs as police officers or firefighters. Frustration-aggression explains prejudice and racism as forms of hostility that arise from frustration. Theory suggests people who are frustrated in their efforts to achieve a desirable goal (higher pay) respond w aggression Because real source of frustration usually too powerful to confront directly, people take out frustration on less powerful Minority ethnicracial groups are convenient and safe targets of displaced aggression scapegoating Scapegoating sometimes used to explain anti-Semitism Anti-Semitism negative attitudes and everyday discrimination directed against Jews www.notesolution.com
More Less
Unlock Document


Only pages 1-2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


OR

Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit