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7 Apr 2012
Chapter 8- Race and Ethnicity Relations
Civic Nationalism: form of nationalism in which the social boundaries of the nation are
defined in territorial and geographic terms
Culture of Poverty Thesis: the theory that some ethnic groups do not readily assimi-
late, and hence are poor because their culture does not value economic success, hard
work, and achievement
Discrimination: refers to practices that deny members of particular groups equal ac-
cess to societal rewards(unfair treatment of people because of the groups their in)
Institutional Racism: refers to discriminatory racial practices built into such prominent
structures as the political, economic and education systems
New Racism: theory that suggests that it is natural for groups to form bounded commu-
Points Systems: used by Canadian government to select independent immigrants
Prejudice: an unfavorable, generalized, and rigid belief applied to all members of a
group(real or imagined characteristics)
Primordialist Thesis: theory that ethnic attachments reflect a basis tendency of people
to seek out, and associate with, their “own kind”
Quiet Revolution: refers to social, political and cultural changes that occurred in Que-
bec in the 1960s because of the emergence of a large francophone middle class
Race: socially constructed label that has been used to describe certain kinds of physical
differences between people
Split-Labor Market Theory: holds that racial and ethnic conflicts are rooted in differ-
ences in the price of labor
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Stereotypes: are exaggerated, oversimplified images of the characteristics of social cat-
Vertical Mosaic: social structure in which ethnic groups occupy different, and unequal,
positions within the stratification system
Ethnic Group: composed of people whose perceived cultural markers are socially sig-
Criticisms of Morton’s Skull Study
-1. identifying the race of a skull imprecise even today
-2. small, unrepresentative sample
-3. Controlling for sex reduces of eliminates race difference
-chemical that contains the genetic instructions for all living organisms
-99.5% of DNA of all people is identical
-snips are the .5% that differ and are the focus of comparative genomic research
Comparative Genomics
-focuses on differences between socially distinct groups ex blacks and whites
-genetic diversity is the greatest among Africans and there is genetic variations within
racial groups
-there are more genetic variations among blacks than whites
Race, Biology, and Society
-no biological evidence that race constitutes behavioral differences
-behavioral differences between racial groups vary by social circumstance
-behavioral differences between racial groups are not constant
Social Roots of Racism
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