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Chapter 17- Health and Aging
Age as Leveller Hypothesis: holds that aging renders everyone disadvantaged, re-
gardless of their other statuses
Agesim: is prejudice based on age
Chronic Condition: is a persistent physical or mental problem
Compression of Morbidity Hypothesis: suggest that by postponing the on set of peo-
ples first chronic illness the burden of the illness may last a short time before death.
Demography: the study of characteristics of populations and the dynamics of popula-
tion change.
Functional Disability: long term restriction or lack of ability to perform various activities
of daily living because of a health condition or a health problem.
Healthy Immigrant Effect: the tendency for recent immigrants to enjoy better health
than their Canadian- born counterparts ; dissipates over time
Hierarchy Stress Perspective:a approach to understanding health inequality that em-
phasizes the stress associated with occupying a lower position in the social hierarchy
and its negative impact on health.
Life Course Perspective: draws attention to the interplay between individual life course
change and larger societal changes
Life Expectancy: the number of years that the average person can expect to live.
Medicalization: refers to the social and political process where by more and more ar-
eas of life come under the authority ad control of medicine.
Modified Extended Family: characterized my mutual and close intergenerational ties
responsible behavior on the part of adult children and contact between the generations.
Mortality Rate: the number of deaths per 1000 people in a population.
Multiple Jeopardy Hypothesis: holds that the affects of occupying multiple low statues
is cumulative.
Premature morality: refers to years of potential life lost.
Privatization: involves turning publicly owned organizations into privately owned com-
Prioritization: involved turning institutions into profit making organizations.
Self- Care: the range of activities that individuals under take to enhance health, prevent
disease, and restore health.
Summary/ Facts
-After world war 2 and the great depression living and working conditions were harsh
and unemployment insurance and pensions were limited or non-existent.
-Older adults account for much of the illnesses, disabilities and health care utilization in
any society.
-Older adults represent an increasing proportion of the Canadian population; reflects
decreases in fertility.
Population Aging
-Deaths in old age usually result from chronic degenerative diseases.
-Heart disease and stroke are the major causes of death followed by cancer, respiratory
disease and infection diseases.
-Illness and disabilities accompanying old age are more prominent and that different
demands are placed on the health care system.
-We often stereotype against older people such as poor, frail, lonely and lacking sexual
-Lack of knowledge and interaction contribute to ageism.
-Old age is what associated with death and declining physical and mental health.
-The Chinese, view dementia as part of normal aging.
Class Differences
-People who enjoy socioeconomic advantages tend to experience better health adn live
longer then others do.
-Having few economic resources affects ones everyday life in the type of house,
schools, food, and pension.
-Women live longer then men do.
-Women are more likely to be widowed, not re married and live alone in a nursing
-Men tend to die before their spouses because they marry younger women.
-Men are at a great risk, of social isolation because they are less likely to maintain so-
cial networks.
-Women are the kin keepers, men tend to rely on their wives for social connectedness.
-Our older population is influenced by immigration policies that toke place in the past.
-Aboriginal population has high fertility rates and high mortality rates, there for shorter
life expectancy.
-Has drastic negative consequences of society this is called apocalyptic demography.
-This reduces the complex issue of an aging population to the notation that society can
not afford a growing percentage of elderly people.
Health and Old Age
-Most common chronic conditions are arthritis, and rheumatism, eye problems, such as
cataracts or diabetes.
-People in better physical health tend to enjoy better mental health.
-A minority of elderly adults, those who are poor, are vulnerable for social isolation.
-Canadians are experiencing a later age of onset, functional limitations.