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CHPT 7 GENDER INEQUALITY TEXT AND LECTURE STUDY NOTES .doc

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Department
Sociology
Course
SOC101Y1
Professor
Robert Brym
Semester
Winter

Description
Sociology Test #3 Study Notes Chapter 7- Gender Inequality Terms: Affirmative Action: comprises policies and programs designed to create opportunities for, and to further the achievements of, historically disadvantaged groups in the labor force Employment Equity: principle of equal treatment of all groups in the paid labor force Equal pay for work of equal value: program that seeks to equalize the wage rates of- fered for different jobs that are of comparable worth or value Feminism: the body of knowledge about the cause and nature of women’s subordina- tion to men in society Gender Inequality: inequalities between men and women in the distribution of power, material well-being and prestige. Gender Stereotypes: set of prejudicial generalizations about men and women based on the belief that sex determines distinct personality traits (causes men and women to experience the world in different ways) Glass Ceiling: level in an organization above which women and members of minorities are seldom found Labor Force Participation Rate: percentage of the population, age 15 and older that is in the paid labor force Material Well-Being: having access to the economic resources necessary to pay for adequate food, clothing, housing and possessions Nonstandard Work: one or more of different types of employment ex part time, part year, limited term etcPart-time Work: refers to jobs involving fewer hours of work than is the norm for full- time work Power: the capacity to influence and control others, regardless of any resistance they might offer Prestige: social ranking in which certain jobs stand at the top of the hierarchical order depending on the amount of respect, honor or deterrence the person in the position has Public Policy: the government’s stance on issues and problems that are expressed through actions or statements Sex Segregation of Occupations: refers to the concentration of women and men in different occupations Sex Typing (sex labeling) of Occupations: the designation of an occupation as “fe- male” or “male” depending on the sex for whom it is appropriate Skill: the ability or expertise in performing a given technique or task Social Movement: collective attempt to change part or all of society by rioting, petition- ing, striking, political parties etc Social Roles: expectations and behaviors associated with particular positions in soci- ety Standard Work: full-time, full-year employment accompanied by job-related benefits Statistical Discrimination: occurs when negative decisions concerning the hiring or promotion of an individual are made on the basis of the average characteristics of the group to which the individual belongs Visible Minority: category of non-white people who may face discrimination in hiring and promotion Women’s Movement: a social movement that takes action to improve the conditions of women Summary/Facts: Four Social Mechanisms that Reinforce Gender Inequality 1. job discrimination; Microsoft 2 women same job as men got paid half of what men did 2. occupational segregation 3. incomparable worth 4. disproportionate family obligations 3 structural Policies (Changes in the Distribution of Power) 1. Quota Setting - the idea of setting gender quotas in employment mean that equally qualified candi- dates apply, preference would be given to the women - many women say they don’t want set quotas 2. Equal Pay for Equal Work - establishing gender neutral standards; education and experience required to do a par- ticular job and the level of responsibility and the amount of stress involvd in doing the job 3.Affordable childcare - women have a chance to be better employed and better payed - opposition due to the expense - no occupations in which women earn more than men - women with university degrees earn 74% of what men with degrees earn - women’s earnings will equal men’s earnings in 2088 Gender Stereotypes - 1950s men were expected to have paying and supportive jobs, women stayed home and cleaned and cooked - through media, television and their parents children learn to define certain social be- haviors as inherent to men or women - gender-related identities and behaviors are largely socially constructed - most people think of men and women as opposites- men described to be : aggressive, very active, competitive, independent, leaders - women described to be: not independent, emotional, passive, illogical Dimensions of Inequality - stratification is the result, achieved over time, of routine and frequently recurring prac- tices and often unstated rules - gender inequality is social stratification based on gender Gender Inequality: - marxists: - liberal feminism: assumes that human beings are rational and will correct inequalities when they know about them (inequalities caused by gender stereotyping based on divi- sion of work) - liberalism: a good society is one in which men and women enjoy equal rights and op- portunities (remove stereotyping : 1. remove gender stereotyping 2. changing laws re- sulting in equal opportunity) - Marx feminists: women’s unpaid work in the home maintains and reproduces the labor forces ; believe that gender equality is possible once socialism replaces capitalism - socialists feminists: agree that gender inequality is caused by the gendered division of labor and its exploitation by capitalism (argue that classes constitute only one set of so- cial relations that oppress women) - soci
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