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SOC101Y1 Test 2.docx

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Christian O.Caron

SOC101Y1: Test 2 Study Guide Chapter 4: Gender and Sexuality BRENDA/DAVID REIMER  Born male but due to malpractice had sex reassignment to female (Dr. Money) and @ age 7 went back into male DEFINING MALE & FEMALE: SEX & GENDER  Biological sex Ξ born with distinct male or female genitalia & genetic programming that released hormones to stimulate development of your reproductive system th  Huthns have 46 chromosomes ¼ have unusual 46 chromosome pattern  14 week of conception= b or g FEMALE MALE Chromosomal pattern XX XY Gonadal Ovaries Testes Hormonal EstrogenAndrogen Androgen +, Endogen - + MIH Sex Organs Uterus, fallopian tube, Epididymis, Vas Deferens, vagina, clitoris, labia Seminal vesicles, prostate, penis, scrotum NOT JUST BIOLOGICAL… ALSO FEELINGS Sex is not the same as gender!  Sex = Biological  Gender=Feelings, behaviours etc. Gender Identity  Gender role Ξ How M or F are supposed to act  Transgendered people Ξ gender identity ≠ biological sex (1/5,000-10,000 Canadians)  Transsexual Ξ believe that they in the wrong body (1/30,000 Canadians)  W.H.O. “transgendered people suffer from psychiatric disorder”  Sex Reassignment is sad to work up to 18 months of birth  Sexuality Ξ activities leading to erotic arousal & produce genital response  Sexual behaviour is guided by sexual scripts Ξ scripts are related to gender roles & are entirely natural (comes from human physiology) Men want physical, Women want emotional connection  HOMOSEXUALITY Ξ termed in 1860 & considered a serious psychiatric disorder until 1974  Compulsory Heterosexuality Ξ People assuming individuals should only desire members of opposite sex  FEMINISTS “heterosexuality puts all women at a disadvantage, b/c it is based on unequal economic, political, legal and social relations between men and women. Not women’s heterosexuality practices to criticize but the institution of heterosexuality… a system of MALE DOMINATIONSEXUAL ATTITUDES & BEHAVIOUR  No longer following tradition of love & marriage  Diverse sexual attitudes & behaviour  i.e. premarital sex 197532% Canadians say no to premarital sex 2010 approx. ½ of that  94% of youth agree with B. ctrl  43% of 15-19 yr. olds had sex o ¾ university students  Men are more willing than females when it comes down to intercourse  SURVEY DONE ON COUNTRIES  2/3 At least 1x/week Greeks 87%, Japanese 37%, Canada 59%  Satisfaction with sex Nigerians 67%, Canadians 48%, Japanese 15%  Sexual activity declines with age but elderly are NOT ASEXUAL!  Love standard females, Fun standardmales  French Canadians= agree more for casual sex than Anglo-Canadians do  1 intercourse: Women affection, Mencuriosity  19753/10 Canadians did not mind homosexuality 2005 6/10 o Quebec is more conservative and B.C. is less so o 1/10 North Americans are homosexuals Men Women Self-reported Heterosexuals 96.6% 97.6 sexual orientation Homosexuals etc. 3.4% 2.4 Total 100% 100% Attraction ONLY to opposite 88% 86.6% sex 12% 13.4% At least partial attraction same sex Total 100% 100% Sexual Fantasies Heterosexual 79% 74% thoughts Sometimes same sex 21% 25.8% Total 100% 100% Same sex Only with other sex 87.5% 92% intimate sexual experiences At least once with 12.5% 8.0% same sex Total 100% 100% * Prevalence of homosexuality depend on how homosexuality is measured Estimate is based on sexual identity = lower % than estimate focused on sexual orientation (where you derive pleasure from partner same or opposite sex) SEXUALITY IS COMPRISED OF 4 CONTINUA… 1. SEXUAL IDENTITY 2. SEXUAL BEHAVIOUR 3. SEXUAL ATTRACTION 4. SEXUAL DESIRE 197528% SOMETIMES disagrees w. sex with someone other than spouse 50% ALWAYS DISAGREE 199525% SOMETIMES disagrees w. sex with someone other than spouse 60% ALWAYS DISAGREE… BECOMING MORE CONSERVATIVE? Surveyed 13 countries… 30-39% Canadians between ages 16-45 committed sexual infidelities 40% --of Americans, Russians, French, Italians, Thais Why more conservative? Spread of AIDS and HIV Liberal 1960’s-70’s… growingly conservative world Youth counterculture of free love because of + sex with – reproduction consequences (B. ctrl and abortions etc.) Does sex determine destiny? Gender differences between human adopt 1 of 2 perspectives Sociologists call them: ESSENTIALISM—naturally evolved dispositions CONSTRUCTIONISM—Different social positions Essentialists Ξ observe sexual scripts differences, division of labour @ home, work, mate selection, sexual aggression, jealousy, promiscuity, infidelity etc.  Differences are natural and universal  Child bearing exaggerate sex differences BUT nature is the ultimate force shaping them  3 MOST POPULAR ESSENTIALIST VARIANTS… 1. Brain studies a. Testosterone in males causes yielding to development of left hemisphere  Men use more of the right hemisphere math art, music, visual abilities b. In females, bundle fibers connecting left and right hemispheres is bigger in women  Intuition, feelings, language GENDER DIVISION OF LABOUR IS STRUCTRED BY 2. Socio-biology  a. Argues that all humans instinct want to ensure that their genes are passed on to future generations b. Different reproductive status = overcome different adaptive problems & develop different adaptive strategies. Increased patterns of behaviour call MASCULINE AND FEMININE c. Most feminine females and Masculine males had better chances of surviving and passing down their genes to their offspring i. MASCULINE AND FEMININE behaviours became genetically encoded d. Genetic factors also triggered biochemical processes that further enhance sex differences through varying levels of hormone production in women and men e. DAVID BUSS (psychologist) 4 Adaptive strategies/ universal features of our evolved selves govern relations b/t sexes and contribute to preservation of human species i. MEN WANT CASUAL SEX WITH WOMEN ii. MEN TREAT WOMEN’S BODY AS PROPERTY iii. MEN BEAT/KILL WOMEN WHO INCITE MAKE SEXUAL JEALOUSY iv. WOMEN ARE GREEDY FOR MONEY Buss bases claims on women = bigger investment than men to ensure survival of their offspring MALES are Promiscuous yet possessive of their partners! To max their chances of only his offspring being produced
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