SOC101Y1 Test 2.docx

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SOC101Y1: Test 2 Study Guide
Chapter 4: Gender and Sexuality
BRENDA/DAVID REIMER
Born male but due to malpractice had sex reassignment to female (Dr. Money)
and @ age 7 went back into male
DEFINING MALE & FEMALE: SEX & GENDER
Biological sex Ξ born with distinct male or female genitalia & genetic
programming that released hormones to stimulate development of your
reproductive system
Humans have 46 chromosomes ¼ have unusual 46th chromosome pattern
14th week of conception= b or g
Chromosomal pattern
FEMALE
MALE
XX
XY
Gonadal
Ovaries
Testes
Hormonal
EstrogenAndrogen
Androgen +, Endogen - +
MIH
Sex Organs
Uterus, fallopian tube,
vagina, clitoris, labia
Epididymis, Vas Deferens,
Seminal vesicles, prostate,
penis, scrotum
NOT JUST BIOLOGICAL… ALSO FEELINGS Sex is not the same as gender!
Sex = Biological
Gender=Feelings, behaviours etc. Gender Identity
Gender role Ξ How M or F are supposed to act
Transgendered people Ξ gender identity ≠ biological sex (1/5,000-10,000
Canadians)
Transsexual Ξ believe that they in the wrong body (1/30,000 Canadians)
W.H.O. “transgendered people suffer from psychiatric disorder”
Sex Reassignment is sad to work up to 18 months of birth
Sexuality Ξ activities leading to erotic arousal & produce genital response
Sexual behaviour is guided by sexual scripts Ξ scripts are related to gender roles
& are entirely natural (comes from human physiology) Men want physical,
Women want emotional connection
HOMOSEXUALITY Ξ termed in 1860 & considered a serious psychiatric
disorder until 1974
Compulsory Heterosexuality Ξ People assuming individuals should only desire
members of opposite sex
FEMINISTS “heterosexuality puts all women at a disadvantage, b/c it is based on
unequal economic, political, legal and social relations between men and women.
Not women’s heterosexuality practices to criticize but the institution of
heterosexuality… a system of MALE DOMINATION
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SEXUAL ATTITUDES & BEHAVIOUR
No longer following tradition of love & marriage
Diverse sexual attitudes & behaviour i.e. premarital sex
197532% Canadians say no to premarital sex
2010 approx. ½ of that
94% of youth agree with B. ctrl
43% of 15-19 yr. olds had sex
o ¾ university students
Men are more willing than females when it comes down to intercourse
SURVEY DONE ON COUNTRIES 2/3 At least 1x/week Greeks 87%,
Japanese 37%, Canada 59%
Satisfaction with sex Nigerians 67%, Canadians 48%, Japanese 15%
Sexual activity declines with age but elderly are NOT ASEXUAL!
Love standard females, Fun standardmales
French Canadians= agree more for casual sex than Anglo-Canadians do
1st intercourse: Women affection, Mencuriosity
19753/10 Canadians did not mind homosexuality 2005 6/10
o Quebec is more conservative and B.C. is less so
o 1/10 North Americans are homosexuals
Men
Women
Self-reported
sexual
orientation
Heterosexuals
Homosexuals etc.
96.6%
3.4%
97.6
2.4
Total 100% 100%
Attraction
ONLY to opposite
sex
At least partial
attraction same sex
88%
12%
86.6%
13.4%
Total 100% 100%
Sexual Fantasies
Heterosexual
thoughts
Sometimes same sex
79%
21%
74%
25.8%
Total 100% 100%
Same sex
intimate sexual
experiences
Only with other sex
At least once with
same sex
87.5%
12.5%
92%
8.0%
Total 100% 100%
* Prevalence of homosexuality depend on how homosexuality is measured
Estimate is based on sexual identity = lower % than estimate focused on
sexual orientation (where you derive pleasure from partner same or opposite sex)
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SEXUALITY IS COMPRISED OF 4 CONTINUA…
1. SEXUAL IDENTITY
2. SEXUAL BEHAVIOUR
3. SEXUAL ATTRACTION
4. SEXUAL DESIRE
197528% SOMETIMES disagrees w. sex with someone other than spouse
50% ALWAYS DISAGREE
1995
25% SOMETIMES disagrees w. sex with someone other than spouse
60% ALWAYS DISAGREE… BECOMING MORE CONSERVATIVE?
Surveyed 13 countries…
30-39% Canadians between ages 16-45 committed sexual infidelities
40% --of Americans, Russians, French, Italians, Thais
Why more conservative?
Spread of AIDS and HIV
Liberal 1960’s-70’s… growingly conservative world
Youth counterculture of free love because of + sex with reproduction
consequences (B. ctrl and abortions etc.)
Does sex determine destiny?
Gender differences between human adopt 1 of 2 perspectives Sociologists call
them:
ESSENTIALISMnaturally evolved dispositions
CONSTRUCTIONISMDifferent social positions
Essentialists Ξ observe sexual scripts differences, division of labour @ home, work,
mate selection, sexual aggression, jealousy, promiscuity, infidelity etc.
Differences are natural and universal
Child bearing exaggerate sex differences BUT nature is the ultimate force shaping
them
3 MOST POPULAR ESSENTIALIST VARIANTS…
1. Brain studies
a. Testosterone in males causes yielding to development
of left hemisphere Men use more of the right
hemisphere math art, music, visual abilities
b. In females, bundle fibers connecting left and right
hemispheres is bigger in women Intuition, feelings,
language
GENDER DIVISION OF LABOUR IS STRUCTRED
BY
2. Socio-biology
a. Argues that all humans instinct want to ensure that their
genes are passed on to future generations
b. Different reproductive status = overcome different
adaptive problems & develop different adaptive
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