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3 pages73 viewsWinter 2011

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Irving Zeitlin

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Feb 28th 2011: Pareto, Mosca, and Michels
In the beginning of the 20th century there was a reaction against all of the principles
of the enlightenment
Important principles of the enlightenment:
Rational consciousness
Perfectibility of the human being, progression of human beings from lower stages to
higher stages.
Expressed itself best in Tocqueville and harriet taylor and john stuart mill, belief in
liberal democracy.
Liberal democracy: presupposes an educated citizenry that have a rational
consciousness that can distinguish between policies that are in their interest
compared to those that are against their interest.
Pareto is an anti-enlightenment movement, denied that human beings were rational
Argued that if human beings were rational beings, there wouldnt be war, etc.
The prince must do a bunch of stuff, read 260.
Main foils of Pareto: The enlightenment ideas (liberal democracy)
Democratic Socialism (social democracy)
Class Theory:
Prodhon: Class struggle in France made it inevitable that dictatorship would happen
Marx: disagrees with both prodhon and Victor Hugo, tries to show that the class
struggles in France made it possible for a pompous non-entity (Louis Bonaparte) to
take power.
Class in itself (analogy of potatoes in a sack, if you were to take a sample of potatoes
in sack theyd be pretty similar, some different but mostly the same.) is opposed to
class for itself (do the potatoes in a sack recognize that they have common positions
in society therefore have common interests) [Hegelian term]
Peasants of France supported Louis Napoleon, false consciousness. Louis agreed to
the land distribution to the peasants, so the peasants saw him as a charismatic
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