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Feb 28th 2011: Pareto, Mosca, and Michels
In the beginning of the 20th century there was a reaction against all of the principles
of the enlightenment
Important principles of the enlightenment:
Perfectibility of the human being, progression of human beings from lower stages to
Expressed itself best in Tocqueville and harriet taylor and john stuart mill, belief in
Liberal democracy: presupposes an educated citizenry that have a rational
consciousness that can distinguish between policies that are in their interest
compared to those that are against their interest.
Pareto is an anti-enlightenment movement, denied that human beings were rational
Argued that if human beings were rational beings, there wouldn’t be war, etc.
The prince must do a bunch of stuff, read 260.
Main foils of Pareto: The enlightenment ideas (liberal democracy)
Democratic Socialism (social democracy)
Prodhon: Class struggle in France made it inevitable that dictatorship would happen
Marx: disagrees with both prodhon and Victor Hugo, tries to show that the class
struggles in France made it possible for a pompous non-entity (Louis Bonaparte) to
Class in itself (analogy of potatoes in a sack, if you were to take a sample of potatoes
in sack they’d be pretty similar, some different but mostly the same.) is opposed to
class for itself (do the potatoes in a sack recognize that they have common positions
in society therefore have common interests) [Hegelian term]
Peasants of France supported Louis Napoleon, false consciousness. Louis agreed to
the land distribution to the peasants, so the peasants saw him as a charismatic