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Final Exam study guide with lecture and textbook notes

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University of Toronto St. George
Sheldon Ungar

Sociology Final Exam 2011 Chapter 1: Textbook Summary Perspective Who Level of Key concepts View of Analysis societygeneral statement Functionalism: Durkheim Macro Everything People in society Everything in works together share certain society serves to run values. The way some kind of smoothly= that social social function equilibrium institutions which has the function either higher goal of helps maintain maintaining or undermine social order. social order. Conflict Theory: Marx Macro -inequality Society based on Shows how -privileged and power struggle patterns of subordinate between power difference -class struggle privileged and in society subordinate produce people, both stability in some groups trying to instances and advance their social change in own interests. others. Lower class has to unite to get their complaints heard. Symbolic Weber Micro Attach symbols -Can only Interactionism George Hubert and meaning to understand Mead communication society by examining the subjective meanings that people create and use to motivate their behaviour. Feminism Margrit Eichler Micro and -gender Privilege and Macro inequality subordination -patriarchy associated with diff genders www.notesolution.comThe Sociological Explanation of Suicide -Durkheim- suicide rates strongly influenced by social forces -little relation between psychological disorders and suicide rates - (Jews high psychological disorder, low suicide rate) -greater social solidarity if group members share beliefs and values and frequentlyintensely interact -likelihood of committing suicide decreases with degree to which person is anchored in society Suicide in Canada Today -suicide among people between 15-64 more common and increase since 1960s -suicide rates DONT increase steadily with age in Canada today -suicide in Canada has risen because... 1) less people attend religious services 2) Unemployment high for youth 3) Increase divorce rate-social solidarity lower now than it was a few decades ago From Personal Troubles to Social Structures -Social structures- relatively stable patterns of social relations 3 levels of Social Structures 1) Micro structures 2) Macro structures 3) Global structures The sociological Imagination -sociological imagination- ability to see the connection between personal troubles and social structures -born with the construction of 3 modern Revolutions 1) Scientific Revolution importance of solid evidence 2) Democratic Revolution- humans can solve problems 3) Industrial Revolution- created social problems which attracted attention of social thinkers Theory, Research and Values tentative explanation of some aspect of social life that states howwhy certain facts are related -Research- process of carefully observing social reality to assess the validity of a theory -Values- ideas about what is rightwrong, goodbad Textbook Chapter 6: Social Stratification Introduction -Social stratification- persistent patterns of social inequality within a society -low rank= little power, little wealth, little prestige -high rank= opposite of low ranking Ascribed and Achieved Status Status- rank or position person has in a social hierarchy Ascribed status- assign to people, typically at birth, could be based on race, gender, age, etc. Achieved status- position in hierarchy achieved by virtue of how well someone performs in certain role. Meritocracy- everyone has equal chance to compete for high status positions, most capable would be awarded highest rank Social Mobility- more qualified people replace less qualified people Open and Closed Stratification Systems Open stratification system- merit not inheritance determines social rank and therefore social change is possible Closed stratification system- stratification system in which no or little social mobility occurs, because most of all statuses are ascribed Class and Structure Class- position in an economic hierarchy occupied by individuals or families with similar access to, or control over, material resources Class structure- overall economic hierarchy comprising all such classes, structure indicates the relative stability and prominence of this social ranking
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