soc101 lecture 20 research methods II : survey methods▯
voluntary response sample of a population (people who choose themselves for a
survey) are not representative as they might be highly motivated about the speciﬁc
subject of the survey.
representative sample is a group chosen so their characteristics closely match those
of the population.
㱺 in a survey, we get different responses from voluntary response sample and
representative sample as the former isn’t accurate
a convenience sample is easiest to reach.
so for an accurate survey, neither the population nor the one conducting the survey has
to choose volunteers for the survey, they have to be chose at random.
㱺 they constitute the probability sample.
a sampling frame is a list of all the people in a population.
a randomizing method minimizes inequality in the selection of people. (it’s a sampling
there is a 2.5% margin of error for the results gotten.
if the margins of error overlap in the responses of a survey we can’t conclude.
a properly conducted survey wouldn’t have overlapping margins of error.
Types of surveys:
a mail questionnaire is a form containing questions mailed to the respondents.
a face-to-face interview survey, questions presented to the respondent during a
a telephone survey, questions a presented to the respondent over the phone.
Threats to validity:
Undercounting due to an imperfect sampling
Nonresponse due to respondents not answering all the questions
Response bias when respondents do not answer the questions accurat