Chapter 8-addiction notes.docx

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Chapter 8- Addictions- Social Problems INTRO Addiction- behavior = uncontrolled, repeated or frequent, socially disapproved & possibly harmful have a medical label 2 most popular addictions = Drugs & alc other socially disapproved behaviors include sex, shopping , internet, eating addictions, gambling perhaps not exactly addictions but exhibit personal weaknesses Gambling = closet to proving itself that it is a new important form of addiction ADDICTION Medical definition- Addiciton- AMERICAN PSYCHIATRIC As. & WORLD HEALTH ORGN 7 criteria/questions to see if drug/alc addict saying yes >=3 means youre an addict. Says nothing about how often person uses drug or alc Addictive Behavior - T:8.1 - Tolerance - Desire to cut down - Withdrawl - Difficulty controlling use - Negative consequences - Putting off or neglecting activities - Spending significant time or emotional energy Issue = trouble controlling use, where negative impacts occur, whenever you do substance Social effects of addiction (by drugs,alc or gambling) huge in broken families, health consequences for addicts & their loved ones, lost work days, cost of treating & fixing addicts addition crime & safety issues at stake Get Sociological & public health approach by turning a side a purely medical, psychiatric or psychological understanding of addicts allows to see personal trouble into a public issuerecognition social causes of addiction Medical approach- focus attention on addicted individual & his/her personal pathology Sociological & public health approach- focus on social facores that increase the risks that certain ppl , or groups will develop addictions Understand our society, & our social policies, that promote harmful, additive behaviors & how we can change society to reduce those risks ADDITICTIVE GAMBLING Gambling = behavior on a continuum, ranging from non-gamblers to recl gamblers to problem gamblers in ay popn a fraction will progress across continuum CANADIAN PROBLEM GAMBLING INDEX(CPGI) 1/50 cdns has serious gambling problem out 32 million ppl 75% >=20 yrs 480000 cdns have problem ELEMENTS OF CPGI(T 8.2) 1. Behaviours - bet more than can afford - increased wages - returned to win back losses - borrowed money or sold anything to gamble 2. Adverse Effects -felt gambling problem - suffered criticism -feeling of guilt -financial problems -negative health effects *CPGI is a scale *Note the similarities between T 8.1 & T 8.2 There are physiological effects in drug/alc addiction but not gambling gambling focuses more on financial & social outcomes Like alc & drugs major source of revenue for organized crime = gambling 2 half 20 century government legalize gambling take share of profits promote gambling for even greater profit returns Some money reinvested in public goods even include research on problem gambling Gambling public health issue G has social causes & health outcomes it is behavior learned socially through observation, experimentation, reward & emulation learn to gamble in families during childhood Society features contribute to gambling problems game features design of lottery machine or video lottery terminals (vlt)makes gambling seem cool, fun, desirable Widespread & growing of gaming availability of gambling= increasingly availability, casino promotions & incentives, free buses, free meals, etc. Most social science work on gambling takes Psychological approach- focuses on the thinking & behavior of indivduals w/out considering their social enviro -ex. It views addtictive gambling as result of cognitive distortion bad thinking about odds of winning & value of chasing losses - Goal of psychological counseling = get gambles to THINK differently about what there doing & act differently Large body of research has identified link between gambling & mood disorders, including depression, anxiety & bipolar disorder people that are impulsive or display anti-social behavior, drink too much, & are lonely or socially isolatedCLASSIC WORKS- HOWARD BECKERS OUTSIDERS(1963) Sociologist Howard Becker- professional jazz musician outsiders- jazz musicians & weed smokers Book-Outsiders set groundwork for labeling theory social groups create deviance by making rules whose infraction constitutes deviance and by applying these rules to particular ppl & labeling them as outsiders Deviance = result of dominant group= insiders devising & applying moral rules to less powerful groups of outsiders ARE DRUGS & ALC SOCIAL PROBLEMS? DRUGS- any substance that causes a biochemical rxn with body what ppl define as legal or an illegal drug depends less on its chemical properties(less on the rxns w. your body) & more on surrounding economic, social & political factors. In cda use legal drugs(alc, tobacco, prescription) > use illegal drugs Members of society treat use of illegal drugs as major problem while ignoring harm done by legal drugs societys response to drug use is irrational Opium commonly used painkiller until early 1900s opium & cocaine were thought as dangerous & subjected to strict control, if not an outright ban reason is sociological, not pharmacological the chemical properties of drug did not change only publics opinion of their effects & those who used them
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