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SOC102 Test 2 Notes

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University of Toronto St. George
Lorne Tepperman

Structural functionalismAnything that upsets clear role expectations and situational norms is socially disruptiveSociety as being only as strong as its weakest membersSociety is like a living organism made up of interconnected parts that together work as an efficient productive whole Conflict theoryPeople usually seek to satisfy own goals not goals of society as a wholeMembers hold different interests and groups compete against the other to enlarge its share of societys resourcesWhose interests are served by the actions of dominant groups in society and their ideology Symbolic interactionismStudies the way people experience on an everyday basis Social constructionismStudy the ways social issues are brought to public attention or are submerged from it Homosexuality is an attraction physical and emotional to people of the same sex Sexual orientation is ones sexual attraction to people of a specific sex sexes Queer is an umbrella term to describe anyone who does not identify as heterosexualLGBTQ is an acronym for lesbian gay bisexual transgendered queeroften used to speak of the LGBTQ community Human sexual orientation lies on a continuum with heterosexuality at one end and homosexuality at the other Dr Alfred KinseyMost people are not entirely heterosexual or homosexual and sexual desires reside somewhere between the endsMost people do not act on sexual desires for fear of attracting censure or stigmaBelief that people are normally either heterosexual or homosexual Among 1859 1 consider themselves homosexual and 07 bisexual About 13 of men considered themselves homosexual twice the proportion among women 07Small number makes group particularly vulnerable to attack and victimizationIt is likely the concentration of homosexuals is greater in some communities than othersLGBT communities are typically located in large urban centresPeople in big cities tend to discriminate less than people in smaller cities and towns who are less familiar with people outside the sexual mainstreamWhile it may be as high as 10 in some communities12 of national populationMale homosexuals are more numerous than female homosexualsNonheterosexual orientation is generally associated with a higherthanaverage risk of substance use and substance dependenceUnclarity of definitions and measurementsRisk of substance abuse appear to vary by a factor depending on how sexual orientation is defined Transgendered is an umbrella term for any gendervariant personThey cannot identify with their birth sex and socially assigned genderInclude preoperative or postoperative surgical means to change their sex crossdressers transvestites intersexed people and people viewed as atypical of their genderMedical procedures so they can transition into the sex they feel they ought to beGender is considered a master status one of the two most important bases of social differentiation other is ageWhen someone does not fit clearly into one of the two categories members of society feel uncomfortableBisexual someone who is sexually attracted to people of both the same and opposite sexesHowever the attraction to both sexes does not need to be equal in strengthWhile many view transgendered people as part of the LGBT community some do not feel they belongFor example they must deal with medical and discrimination issues that may be different from lesbian and gay membersThey also deal with different identity issues Coming outThe most important step in the sexual career of an LGBT person is coming outdisclosing his or her untilthen secret sexual identitySexual identity is how a person self identifieswhether as straight gay lesbian or transgenderedAs much a statement a person makes to oneself as to othersUntil a person comes out he or she has difficulty fully entering into the LGBT communityMajor social transition from heterosexual world to homosexual world and often from old friends and activities to new onesPeoples identities are linked to the social roles they play and people cannot fully enter or endorse a new identity for themselves until they fully embrace the new role it entailsDisclosure is important in the organizations where individual lesbians or gay men work it is important they be known for who they really areHowever many fear this will jeopardize their relations with other workers and perhaps harm their job securityTherefore disclosure may not be the best policy and workplaces and families vary in this respectComing out also affects other people too include parents who have to deal with a reality that is new incomprehensible and perhaps even morally unacceptable to themThey must also put a good face on it for their friends and relatives There has been an observable shift in the attitudes of social scientists towards homosexuality with an increase in the quantity of psychological research on homosexualsIn the past they view it as a learned social behaviour but today majority of sociologists subscribe to the essentialist school which grants primacy to biological causesThat is homosexuality is the result of nature not nurture The beginning of the modern gay rights movement is usually traced to an enforcement event in New York Citys Greenwich Village in 1969Sexual protest in North America owed a great deal to the womens movement and to black power protestWomen and urban minorities taught gays and lesbians the importance of institutional completeness creation of communities that are fully selfsupporting and self aware and thatthrough that and group mobilization minority communities survive and through community survival minority identities survive Theoretical perspectives on sexual orientation Structural functionalism
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