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SOC102 Final Notes

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Lorne Tepperman

Crime and ViolenceCrime is a social activity with social causes and effectsMen are more likely than women to be involved in violent crimes both as victims and as offendersLaws rules of conduct that may provide for the punishment of violatorsIn other words the formal rules about what a societys members can and cannot doCrime any behaviour that in a given time and place is prohibited by applicable statutory lawWhat a law is violated a crime is said to be committedSocial order the prevalence of generally harmonious relationships used synonymously with social organizationThis condition exists when rules are obeyed and social situations are controlled and predictableRules serve not only to indicate which behaviours are acceptable but also to allow participants to anticipate the behaviour of othersOrder must be manufactured and protectedSocial disorder the uncertain and unpredictable condition in which rules are not obeyedThe environment is generally unsafe and the boundaries of acceptable behaviour have broken downAll of the sources relied on for crime informationincluding official statistics surveys etcare incomplete and possibly biasedSelfreporting the victim reports to authorities that a crime has occurredThis is the most direct method of measuring crime ratesHowever it is not the most accurate as changes in the crime rate reflect changes in victims willingness to reportVictimization surveys sample of people are asked how many times within a given time period they have been the victim of particular crimesConventional crimes the traditionally illegal behaviours that most people think of as crimeFor example homicide and sexual assault are given the most media coverage but account for only 12 of all crimesHomicide killing of a human being by another directly or indirectly by any meansMurder unlawful killing with malicious intent Manslaughter unlawful killing without sufficient intent to constitute murder67 of all victims and 88 offendeers are maleTend to kill and be killed by people close at handAssault accounts for nearly 90 of all violent crimes reportedVice crimes deviant behaviour that may be defined as immoral ex Gambling prostitution drug traffickingThese crime provide the greatest opportunity for organized crimeWhite collar crimes crimes committed by whitecollar workers and management in the course of their occupationsThey always are distinguished from conventional criminal offences such as robbery or murderWhitecollar crimes are performed in the course of normal work and usually occur in reputable organizationsFraud bribery insider trading embezzlement etcTake advantage of gaps in social structure to profit from crime loopholes etcOrganized crime a group or system of professional criminals who practice illegal activities as a way of life and whose criminal activities are coordinated and controlled through a hierarchical system of bossesGross value estimated to be 600 billion and 15 trillionOrganized crime in urban North America prospers under 4 key conditionsFlourishes under conditions of scarcity and inequalityPoverty and prejudice keep people from moving easily to find work elsewhereProvide protection in communities that lack access to welfare health care goodquality education and police protectionFlourishes among people who lack human capital and cultural capital
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