Glossary SOC103.docx

6 Pages
118 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Sociology
Course
SOC102H1
Professor
Teppermann
Semester
Winter

Description
Test 1 Glossary SOC103 Industrial Revolution - Forced individuals into harsh urban conditions and exploitive economic relationships French Revolution – Showed individuals new socio-political arrangements were possible and should be developed Multiple ParadigmApproach - Allows for a variety in sociological research and theory Fusion Approach - Provides an agreed-upon body of sociological knowledge Sociology – The systematic study of social behaviour, or the study of society Society – The largest-scale human group whose members share interaction, a common geography, and common institutions Moral Philosophy – Philosophical approach defined by ideas such as blame, guilt, sin, and wrong-doing Common-Sense Knowledge – The uninspected package of beliefs, understandings, and propositions people assume to be true Macrosociology – The study of social institutions and large social groups Microsociology – The study of the processes and patterns of personal interaction that occur among people within groups Structural Functional Theory – Views society as a set of interconnected parts that work together to preserve the overall stability and efficiency of the whole Social Institutions – One kind of social structure, made up of a number of relationships which are used to achieve intended goals Sociological Imagination – An approach to sociology that situates the personal experiences of individuals within the societal context in which these experiences occur Manifest Functions – Functions of social institutions that are intended and easily recognized Latent Functions – Functions of social institutions that are unintended and often hidden Role – The expected pattern of interaction with others Anomie/Normlessness - The condition of social institution failure in times of rapid social change (Durkheim) Critical Theory – Views society as a collection of varied groups – especially, social classes – that constantly struggles with each other to dominate society and its institutions Bourgeoisie – Elite owners of the means of production Proletariat – People who sell their labour in exchange for sustenance Symbolic Interactionism – Focuses on the glue that holds people together in social relationships: the shared meanings, definitions, and interpretations of interacting individuals Labeling Theory – Proposes that any given social problem is viewed as such because an influential group defines it so Intersectionality – The interaction of gender with other victimizing social characteristics to produce particular combinations of disadvantage Modernist Theory – Proposes that through science we can discover truth about reality and there is only one truth per situation Postmodernist Theory - Denies all assumptions and conclusions posited by modernist and Enlightenment rhetoric Egoistic Suicide – Suicide that occurs when people leave the social group they belong to, or when the groups’bonds are weakened by excessive individualism Altruistic Suicide – Suicide resulting from a sense of societal duty and excess of social integration Test 1 Glossary SOC103 Anomic Suicide – Suicide resulting from an absence of social regulation and norms, sometimes after a sudden social shock or disturbance Social Control Theory -All people are deviant and only follow rules to either benefit or avoid punishment Rational Choice Theory - people compete for desired social and economic resources to achieve dominant goals of society (E.g., success, wealth, power, respect, fame, etc.) Dominant Ideology – The beliefs that guide people’s interpretations of and reactions to external events as defined by the dominant social class Frankfurt School of Sociology - Attempted to develop a brand of Marxist theory that was distinct from the practice of political parties (i.e., communism) Stigma – Amark of low regard associated with a particular circumstance, quality, or person Passing - Hiding features of their stigma through impression management Covering - Deflecting attention away from their stigma Positivism – The scientific study of social life conducted in hope of discovering and stating general principles that apply across a wide variety of times, places, and settings (Auguste Comte) Parentification – Achild’s adoption of adult family roles by providing instrumental or emotional support for their parents Emotional Parentification – Family peace brokering, consoling, etc. Instrumental Parentification – Family decision making, financial control, adult behaviour, etc. Demography – The study of human populations including their growth and decline through births, deaths, and migration Positive Checks – Natural laws that prevent overpopulation by increasing the death rate (E.g., war, disease, famine) Preventive Checks – Human actions that lower birthrate (E.g., abstinence, abortion, delayed marriage, contraceptives) Demographic Transition Theory (Kingsley Davis) - Proposes that after a decline in death rates, modern industrial societies tend to lower birth rates within 1-2 generations Zero Population Growth (ZPG) – When births are balanced by deaths; a temporary solution to a rapidly growing population Common Conscience – Shared or similar values, norms, and identity; typically in a small town Mechanical Solidarity – The tight, homogenous social order in which lives interconnect; typically in a small town Organic Solidarity – The interdependent, though not necessarily intimate, social order in which lives interconnect; typically in an urban-industrial society Subculture – Agroup of people who have values, beliefs, norms, style of dress, and behaviour distinct from larger society White Flight - White people fled to suburbs as black populations increased in the cities Cornucopia View of Nature – Views nature as a storehouse of resources that exists only for the use of humans – especially, those humans currently living Growth Ethic – Alack of concern for the environment based on the notion that technology will easily solve all problems Tragedy of the Commons – Individualism over collective interest results in the selfish and unintended depletion of resources Greenwashing – Advertisement of products as environmentally friendly to appeal to consumer interests Ecofeminism – Theoretical work on how women can bring about an ecological revolution Test 1 Glossary SOC103 Global Equilibrium – Abalance of consumption and production Global Overshoot - When the population exceeds the long term carrying capacity Harm Reduction -Aconscious reduction of consumed energy and materials Population Composition – The makeup or mix of different social types in a population Human Capital – Askill or skill set, usually including educational attainment or job-related experiences, that enhances a worker’s value on the job Baby Boom – Asudden rejuvenation of a population through increased child bearing Population Pyramid – Agraphic depiction of the age-sex composition of a population Gendercide – The systematic murder of a particular gender in a society; includes femicide in Asia andAfrica Reflective Modernization – The shift in thought between the modern and postmodern eras on the social role of technology Human Geography - The systematic study of the location of human enterprises and characteristics Megacity -Ageographic locale with a large concentrated population, sometimes exceeding 5 million people Bedroom Suburbs -Aresidential area near a large city that provides housing and services for people who commute each day into downtown urban areas Disposable Theory - Empirical detail is more important than theorizing Collective Consum
More Less

Related notes for SOC102H1

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit