Glossary SOC103.docx

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Test 1 Glossary SOC103 Industrial Revolution - Forced individuals into harsh urban conditions and exploitive economic relationships French Revolution – Showed individuals new socio-political arrangements were possible and should be developed Multiple ParadigmApproach - Allows for a variety in sociological research and theory Fusion Approach - Provides an agreed-upon body of sociological knowledge Sociology – The systematic study of social behaviour, or the study of society Society – The largest-scale human group whose members share interaction, a common geography, and common institutions Moral Philosophy – Philosophical approach defined by ideas such as blame, guilt, sin, and wrong-doing Common-Sense Knowledge – The uninspected package of beliefs, understandings, and propositions people assume to be true Macrosociology – The study of social institutions and large social groups Microsociology – The study of the processes and patterns of personal interaction that occur among people within groups Structural Functional Theory – Views society as a set of interconnected parts that work together to preserve the overall stability and efficiency of the whole Social Institutions – One kind of social structure, made up of a number of relationships which are used to achieve intended goals Sociological Imagination – An approach to sociology that situates the personal experiences of individuals within the societal context in which these experiences occur Manifest Functions – Functions of social institutions that are intended and easily recognized Latent Functions – Functions of social institutions that are unintended and often hidden Role – The expected pattern of interaction with others Anomie/Normlessness - The condition of social institution failure in times of rapid social change (Durkheim) Critical Theory – Views society as a collection of varied groups – especially, social classes – that constantly struggles with each other to dominate society and its institutions Bourgeoisie – Elite owners of the means of production Proletariat – People who sell their labour in exchange for sustenance Symbolic Interactionism – Focuses on the glue that holds people together in social relationships: the shared meanings, definitions, and interpretations of interacting individuals Labeling Theory – Proposes that any given social problem is viewed as such because an influential group defines it so Intersectionality – The interaction of gender with other victimizing social characteristics to produce particular combinations of disadvantage Modernist Theory – Proposes that through science we can discover truth about reality and there is only one truth per situation Postmodernist Theory - Denies all assumptions and conclusions posited by modernist and Enlightenment rhetoric Egoistic Suicide – Suicide that occurs when people leave the social group they belong to, or when the groups’bonds are weakened by excessive individualism Altruistic Suicide – Suicide resulting from a sense of societal duty and excess of social integration Test 1 Glossary SOC103 Anomic Suicide – Suicide resulting from an absence of social regulation and norms, sometimes after a sudden social shock or disturbance Social Control Theory -All people are deviant and only follow rules to either benefit or avoid punishment Rational Choice Theory - people compete for desired social and economic resources to achieve dominant goals of society (E.g., success, wealth, power, respect, fame, etc.) Dominant Ideology – The beliefs that guide people’s interpretations of and reactions to external events as defined by the dominant social class Frankfurt School of Sociology - Attempted to develop a brand of Marxist theory that was distinct from the practice of political parties (i.e., communism) Stigma – Amark of low regard associated with a particular circumstance, quality, or person Passing - Hiding features of their stigma through impression management Covering - Deflecting attention away from their stigma Positivism – The scientific study of social life conducted in hope of discovering and stating general principles that apply across a wide variety of times, places, and settings (Auguste Comte) Parentification – Achild’s adoption of adult family roles by providing instrumental or emotional support for their parents Emotional Parentification – Family peace brokering, consoling, etc. Instrumental Parentification – Family decision making, financial control, adult behaviour, etc. Demography – The study of human populations including their growth and decline through births, deaths, and migration Positive Checks – Natural laws that prevent overpopulation by increasing the death rate (E.g., war, disease, famine) Preventive Checks – Human actions that lower birthrate (E.g., abstinence, abortion, delayed marriage, contraceptives) Demographic Transition Theory (Kingsley Davis) - Proposes that after a decline in death rates, modern industrial societies tend to lower birth rates within 1-2 generations Zero Population Growth (ZPG) – When births are balanced by deaths; a temporary solution to a rapidly growing population Common Conscience – Shared or similar values, norms, and identity; typically in a small town Mechanical Solidarity – The tight, homogenous social order in which lives interconnect; typically in a small town Organic Solidarity – The interdependent, though not necessarily intimate, social order in which lives interconnect; typically in an urban-industrial society Subculture – Agroup of people who have values, beliefs, norms, style of dress, and behaviour distinct from larger society White Flight - White people fled to suburbs as black populations increased in the cities Cornucopia View of Nature – Views nature as a storehouse of resources that exists only for the use of humans – especially, those humans currently living Growth Ethic – Alack of concern for the environment based on the notion that technology will easily solve all problems Tragedy of the Commons – Individualism over collective interest results in the selfish and unintended depletion of resources Greenwashing – Advertisement of products as environmentally friendly to appeal to consumer interests Ecofeminism – Theoretical work on how women can bring about an ecological revolution Test 1 Glossary SOC103 Global Equilibrium – Abalance of consumption and production Global Overshoot - When the population exceeds the long term carrying capacity Harm Reduction -Aconscious reduction of consumed energy and materials Population Composition – The makeup or mix of different social types in a population Human Capital – Askill or skill set, usually including educational attainment or job-related experiences, that enhances a worker’s value on the job Baby Boom – Asudden rejuvenation of a population through increased child bearing Population Pyramid – Agraphic depiction of the age-sex composition of a population Gendercide – The systematic murder of a particular gender in a society; includes femicide in Asia andAfrica Reflective Modernization – The shift in thought between the modern and postmodern eras on the social role of technology Human Geography - The systematic study of the location of human enterprises and characteristics Megacity -Ageographic locale with a large concentrated population, sometimes exceeding 5 million people Bedroom Suburbs -Aresidential area near a large city that provides housing and services for people who commute each day into downtown urban areas Disposable Theory - Empirical detail is more important than theorizing Collective Consum
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