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Sociology midterm 1 review.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Lorne Tepperman

Sociology midterm 1 review Starting Points Chapter 5 Sexism the perceived superiority of men over women ( the most likely situation) Gender - the expressions of behaviour or appearance that would describe someone as being masculine or feminine Sexual Double Standard - the expectation that women feel or behave differently from men in sexual matters Sex - the biological characteristics that make a person male or female : a biological fact at birth Glass Ceiling any sex based barrier Double Shift heavy daily workloads, both at the workplace and at home, that women are far more likely than men to experience Key Concepts & People Ways of Looking at Gender Functionalism What function does gender play for society for society as a whole? How does gender inequality contribute to the well being of society? Talcott Parsons gender division of labour is most effective and efficient way to carry out societies tasks of reproduction and socialization Critical Theory Who holds power from particular social situation? Who is best served by gender inequality? Marxism capitalist benefit from the working middle class men and women Feminists Look at the way that women are exploited by men Symbolic Interactionism Is gender inequality negotiated, symbolized, and communicated into our society Also want to understand the feminist double standard Ann Oakley Published a booked called the sociology of housework Housework = legitimate, difficult work Classic work drew attention to domestic inequality and its relation to other forms of gender inequality Women felt as if they had a responsibility to do the housework Conclusion women are disempowered and imprisoned to housework by beliefs about their roles in modern societies Gender Socialization Socialization the process of learning the traits of being either a male or female. The proper way of behaving in society Ex: Fathers expect their sons to become Men this is a socialization Socialization also takes place in school Reference groups peers who we hang out and develop our common behaviours Hidden curriculum is hidden teachings within school that help define gender stereotypes ex: schools develop gender regimes which associate masculinity or femininity with certain traits However, this is beginning to change, as men and women are entering into fields which were generally out of their line of work Mass Media Has a significant effect on society Creates stereotypical images of what the proper male and proper woman should look like and act like Also, mass media portraits women as sex objects and objectifies them Expect men to graduate from uni or college and work long careers Also creates a Beauty Standard - appearance norms which we are often trying to achieve, such as a certain body size or facial features Going away from these norms creates a sense of self worth or self discipline Accounting for male dominance Max Weber domination is the probability that certain specific commands will be obeyed by a given group of persons An exercise of power Domination and legitimacy Voluntary obedience Internalization of control How is it institutionalized? Religion plays an important influence Patriarchy The legitimacy of domination to men over women head of the household myth Sex as Domestic work Women unpaid servicer The contraceptive revolution Birth control pill determine the course of her own life Giving women control Women are having fewer babies a they are given this opportunity Husbands authority over their wives has declined Second demographic transition divorce Rosabeth Kanter classic work men and women of the corporation women have less of an opportunity for promotion, which forces them to act like women weak and unproductive behaviour comes from holding weak positions however the workplace is beginning to change womens wages are starting to be brought to equality, although there are still gender inequalities that exist Tokenism - The policy of making only a perfunctory effort or symbolic gesture toward the accomplishment of a goal, such as racial integration The Second Shift and Double Ghetto Pat Armstrong Wrote the double ghetto Women are in a ghetto in paid work and unpaid work The second shift occurs when women go home This double shift makes it hard for women to balance their lives this second shift can lead to more health problems in women, such as depression and migraines, which are more common for females than for males more depressed b/c they lead more depressing lives little time to sleep and exercise properly leads to poor health in women Conflicts between Sexes abuse more women face abuse from husbands Divorce Relationships endings Intersectionality the convergence and interaction of multiple identities and experiences of exclusion and subordination Chapter Summary Most significant differences is the power that men and women have in society Women are susceptible to abuse and lead harder lives Men still have an advantage over the women Chapter 7 Race - a set of people commonly defined as belonging to the same group by virtue of common visible features Ethnic Group - a set of people commonly defined as belonging to the same group by virtue of a common birthplace, ancestry, or culture Racial Variations - differences in behaviour which some people attribute to difference in race Racial Socialization - the process by which we learn to perceive and evaluate people according to presumed racial or ethnic differences Assimilation - the process by which an outsider or immigrant group becomes indistinguishably integrated into the dominant host society Imagined Communities social groupings, like race or ethnic groups, that are treated as real because they are widely believed to be real Ethnic Enclave - a neighbourhood that is mainly or exclusively populated by people who belong to the same ethnic group Institutional Completeness the degree to which a community of enclave has established services aimed at a particular ethic community, often in their traditional language
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