SOC102H1 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Ann Oakley, Combined Oral Contraceptive Pill, Talcott Parsons

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14 Nov 2012
Sociology midterm 1 review
Starting Points
Chapter 5
Sexism the perceived superiority of men over women ( the most likely situation)
Gender - the expressions of behaviour or appearance that would describe someone as being masculine
or feminine
Sexual Double Standard - the expectation that women feel or behave differently from men in sexual
Sex - the biological characteristics that make a person male or female : a biological fact at birth
Glass Ceiling any sex based barrier
Double Shift heavy daily workloads, both at the workplace and at home, that women are far more
likely than men to experience
Key Concepts & People
Ways of Looking at Gender
What function does gender play for society for society as a whole?
How does gender inequality contribute to the well being of society?
Talcott Parsons gender division of labour is most effective and efficient way to carry out
societies tasks of reproduction and socialization
Critical Theory
Who holds power from particular social situation?
Who is best served by gender inequality?
Marxism capitalist benefit from the working middle class men and women
Look at the way that women are exploited by men
Symbolic Interactionism
Is gender inequality negotiated, symbolized, and communicated into our society
Also want to understand the feminist double standard
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Ann Oakley
Published a booked called the sociology of housework
Housework = legitimate, difficult work
Classic work drew attention to domestic inequality and its relation to other forms of gender
Women felt as if they had a responsibility to do the housework
Conclusion women are disempowered and imprisoned to housework by beliefs about their
roles in modern societies
Gender Socialization
Socialization the process of learning the traits of being either a male or female. The proper
way of behaving in society
Ex: Fathers expect their sons to become “Men” – this is a socialization
Socialization also takes place in school
Reference groups peers who we hang out and develop our common behaviours
Hidden curriculum is hidden teachings within school that help define gender stereotypes ex:
schools develop gender regimes which associate masculinity or femininity with certain traits
However, this is beginning to change, as men and women are entering into fields which were
generally out of their line of work
Mass Media
Has a significant effect on society
Creates stereotypical images of what the proper male and proper woman should look like and
act like
Also, mass media portraits women as sex objects and objectifies them
Expect men to graduate from uni or college and work long careers
Also creates a “Beauty Standard” - appearance norms which we are often trying to achieve,
such as a certain body size or facial features
Going away from these norms creates a sense of self worth or self discipline
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Accounting for male dominance
Max Weber domination is the probability that certain specific commands will be
obeyed by a given group of persons
An exercise of power
Domination and legitimacy
Voluntary obedience
Internalization of control
How is it institutionalized?
Religion plays an important influence
The legitimacy of domination to men over women
“head of the household” myth
Sex as Domestic work
Women unpaid servicer
The contraceptive revolution
Birth control pill determine the course of her own life
Giving women control
Women are having fewer babies a they are given this opportunity
Husbands’ authority over their wives has declined
Second demographic transition
Rosabeth Kanter
classic work men and women of the corporation
women have less of an opportunity for promotion, which forces them to act like women
weak and unproductive behaviour comes from holding weak positions
however the workplace is beginning to change
women’s wages are starting to be brought to equality, although there are still gender
inequalities that exist
Tokenism - The policy of making only a perfunctory effort or symbolic gesture toward the
accomplishment of a goal, such as racial integration
The Second Shift and Double Ghetto
Pat Armstrong Wrote the double ghetto
Women are in a ghetto in paid work and unpaid work
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