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SOC102H1 midterm 2 test review.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Lorne Tepperman

SOC102H1 Test #2 Review Starting Points Chapter 6 Key Terms Sex - both the biological Characteristic that defines a person as a male or female and the action of sexual intercourse Sexuality feelings of sexual attraction and any behaviours related to them Prostitution the provision of sexual services for reward, usually money Sexual Scripts the guild lines that describe socially acceptable ways of behaving when engaging in sexual activities Double standard the notion that women are supposed to feel or behave differently from men when concerned with sexual matters Sexual infidelity sexual relations between a married person and some other than his/her spouse Pornography the explicit description or exhibition of sexual activity in literature, films, or elsewhere, indicated to stimulate erotic, rather than aesthetic, feelings Homosexuality a sexual or romantic attraction to people of the same sex; in males called homosexuality, in females lesbianism Heterosexuality a sexual or romantic attraction to people of the opposing sex Heteronormativity the social institutions, practices, and norms that support an automatic assumption that other people are/should be heterosexual Heterosexism a belief in the moral superiority of heterosexual institutions and practices Homophobia an over/covert hostility towards gay and lesbian people, sometimes stemming from an irrational fear or hatred of homosexuals Homosociality a social preference for members of ones own gender Paraphilia - any sexual deviation or departure from the norm Key Concepts The ways of Looking at sexuality Functionalism Although people look at sexual deviations negatively, they have an important role to play in society o Prostitution fixes the boundaries of acceptable morality in our society o It distinguishes between acceptable and unacceptable behaviour Sexual deviance also provides people with outlets for sexual interactions o Prostitution allows people to engage in sex with putting pressure on their partner Critical theorist Ask a main Question: Who benefits from the existing social order and who suffers? o Power groups in society define what is sexual normal and acceptable, what is illegal and legal o Men are the controlling class over the women They are the controlling minority, as the majority of prostitutes are women In essence, Prostitution is about poverty o Poor women result to prostitution - it recruits socially disadvantaged women Symbolic Interationism Sexual norms and values change within society over time changes take the form of sex scripts Homosexuality and lesbianism have increasingly become accepted practices within society o Also symbolic Interationism useful at studying the socialization of prostitutes Finally, also good for studying social construction of social problems around sexual activity Feminism Argues that Canadian Society is patriarchal: male dominated and where women are exploited for their bodies o Also sexual double standard Teenage male sexual activity acceptable over female sexual activity o Boritchs fallen Women a women who has violated her gender role, and therefore loses her culturally required purity through sexual looseness Sex work has also driven feminist thinking It condemns prostitution as a practice, yet it is chosen by the women Finally, it reminds us that women are portrayed as sex objects within our society Postmodernism This approach questions our thinking about normality of sexuality Michel Foucault & the History of Sexuality goal was to compare ancient pagans & Christian ethics to todays society o Early Christianity sexual pleasure was unlawful unlike ancient Greek Society o Faucet agrees that seeking pleasure need to be from regulation and self discipline o However, he believes that seeking pleasure should not be interfered with by the state The state intervenes nonetheless Marcuse and Faucet our goal should be the liberalization of bodies and pleasures from their imprisonment in conventional sexuality Postmodernism strongly supports the study of alternative sexual methods, including homosexuality The Social organization of Sexuality - Edward laumann Study began as a project to obtain more knowledge on behaviour associated with acquiring AIDS o The devised a scientific report that was devised into 4 parts o First part discussed the studies theoretical framework and design o Second series of chapters on sexual experiences and preferences o Third sexual satisfaction, sexual dysfunction, STDs, etc.. o Fourth teaching appendixes and questionnaire Study reveled many things o Revealed that Americans favoured monogamy in principle and practice The norm is to have more than 1 sexual partner o Also showed that people were engaging in more sexual diversity o Finally, the study shows that people are most likely to engage with other people who are like themselves The Sexual Double Standard There is still a sexual double standard present Both sexes have to take contraception seriously, and both parties have to practice safe sex o Attributes contribute to teenage sex as well o Children who are closer to their parents are less likely to have teenage sex Marital Infidelity Continues to receive widespread disapproval in society Poses problems for couples o Most people who seek marriage therapy result from cases of infidelity o Offended spouses feel abandoned and cheated Internet relationship have increased the probability of infidelity Marital infidelity is usually a sign of marital conflict Kingsley Davis The sociology of Prostitution o What does prostitution contribute to society ? o Although it is seen as a social evil, it fills the need for sexual satisfaction However, its ability to ruin marriages is what makes it a social evil Pornography Pressing issue pornographys effect on children The porn industry has become a multi-billion dollar business o It is seen by sociologist as easy sex: Sex without commitments o Media is to blame for the explosion of pornography Laud Humphreys American Gay study o His novel, the tearoom trade, revealed how publically straight men engaged in homosexual activities in public washrooms o Stephen Murrays American gay Discussed the formation of gay communities He is also concerned with the problem of gays setting up stable relationships Also looks at the sociological standpoint Gay people are often stereotyped in the media, which leads to them leading single lives and dying alone Homosexuality and Heterosexuality Valverde suggests that normalizing heterosexuality occurs to argue procreation and traditional family life o Also, by defining sex between man and women as the proper form of intimacy, it undermines society from trying various experiences key figures in helping change western thinking o Henry Ellis - challenged the accepted norms of England, argued that masturbation does not lead to illness, and that homosexuality was not a disease o Alfred Kinsley was critical of views towards heterosexuality, and said that non reproductive sex as not abnormal o Anna Koedt her book, the myth of the female orgasm, reaffirmed the goal of sexual pleasure, not reproduction Homosexuals like any minority worked hard to create self protective communities o After WWII, homosexuals established gay communities in new York and San Francisco Homophobia People remain homophobic because they are unfamiliar with homosexuality and dont know any homosexuals o Familiarity breeds acceptance o Rural areas are typically more homophobic because they are not exposed to gay communities Paraphilia Sexual disorders that are not norms Sexual disorders exhibitionism( showing yourself off),
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