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SOC 103 Test 2 Answers.pdf

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Sociology 103 Summer 2011 Term Test 2 Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. Indicate your answer by blacking in the relevant box on the SCANTRON sheet. Be sure to print your name and student number clearly on the answer sheet. 1. ____________ best describes “families” in Canada today. a. “Nuclear” b. “Extended” c. *”Highly variable” (303) d. “Civilized” 2. What best explains the decrease in the size of the “family unit” over the past century: a. *Families, in general, no longer need children to till fields and/or earn incomes (304) b. People are uncertain about parenthood and therefore avoid children c. Large families tend to cause more conflict, so smaller families are more cohesive d. Children from smaller families get more attention and are therefore healthier 3. Functionalist Linda Waite (2000) argues that cohabiting relationships are: a. The natural result of a market economy b. *Inferior to marriage (305) c. Just a phase in society d. The result of moral degradation 4. A Symbolic Interactionist would focus on ____________in the study of families. a. How capitalism has shifted the form of families over the past century b. How the function of the family unit has changed over the past century c. The role of the father in a family d. *The ways members of a family interact with one another (306) 5. What is one criticism of the “top-down” theory of socialization: a. It creates uncertainty b. *It may produce anger, prejudice, racism and homophobia (307) c. It worked well in the past, but does not today d. It does not produce enough conformity 6. The looking-glass self is best described as: a. *One’s self-evaluation based on how others see him- or herself (308) b. The self that one sees in the mirror c. An individual’s notion of the attitudes and expectations of society at large d. The self one develops by internalizing societal norms and values 7. According to the work of William Goode (1963), family patterns everywhere are moving towards: 1 a. The extended family model b. Increased cohesiveness c. *The nuclear family model (309) d. Decreased cohesiveness 8. Which of the following is true of adult relationships, as described by Goode: a. Marriages dissolve more frequently than do cohabiting relationships b. Cohabiting relationships are better-adapted than marriages to a market economy c. Cohabiting couples are more likely to break up than are married ones d. *In general, cohabiting unions last for a shorter time than do legal marriages (310) 9. Research shows that most people still think of ___________ as ideal. a. *The nuclear family (312) b. The extended family c. The cohabiting relationship d. The marriage union 10. When members of an extended family do not share a household but live close by and rely heavily on one another, this is referred to as: a. An extended family b. Co-dependency c. *A modified extended family (313) d. A nuclear family 11. Which of the following would be classified as a “census family?” a. A single parent with a married child b. Children living with aunts, uncles or cousins, with no parents present c. *Children living with grandparents with no parents present (313-314) d. Siblings living together, with no parents present 12. Secondary socialization through schools and the mass media: a. *Perpetuates social inequality through teaching people their “places” in society (315) b. Creates the “looking-glass self” c. Removes social inequality through class mobility d. Replaces the values of primary socialization with those of secondary socialization 13. Social institutions that are set up to resocialize their “clients” drastically are called: a. Dominant institutions b. *Total institutions (317) c. Mass media d. Job training 14. _______________ is NOT one of the components of the “authoritarian personality”, as outlined by Theodor Adorno et al? a. Conventionalism b. Preoccupation with sexual goings-on 2 c. Projectivity d. *Intraception (318) 15. Sociologist Tamotsu Shibutani criticized Adorno et al.’s study The Authoritarian Personality on the grounds that: a. it focuses more on situational variables than psychological variables b. the author exhibited bias c. *it focuses more on psychological variables than situational variables (319) d. the study’s sample size was too small 16. Sociological studies of gender socialization have found that: a. Differences between males and females are innate and unavoidable b. Differences between men and women result from differences in genes c. Gender identities are present at birth, but nurtured through socialization d. *Gender identities are largely absent at birth (320) 17. Which of the following statements about gender socialization is true? a. Most gendered socialization during childhood is intentional b. *Most gender stereotypes are well-established before children start school (321) c. Most gender stereotypes are formed through “the hidden curriculum” d. Women work in female-dominated fields due to innate preferences 18. According to the research by Hitlin, __________ attach the greatest importance to teaching their children independence and hard work. a. *Middle-class and immigrant families (322) b. Upper-class and middle-class families c. Lower-class and middle-class families d. Lower-class and upper-class families 19. Which of the following statements summarizes the work of Annette Lareau: a. Working-class American parents stress the systematic cultivation of their children, while middle-class families prefer to accomplish natural growth b. Upper-class American parents stress the systematic cultivation of their children, while working-class and poor families prefer to accomplish natural growth c. *Middle-class American parents stress the systematic cultivation of their children, while working-class and poor families prefer to accomplish natural growth (323) d. Middle-class American parents stress the systematic cultivation of their children, while upper-class families prefer to accomplish natural growth 20. Arlie Hochschild’s theory of “emotion work” investigates: a. The stresses on psychiatrists, psychologists and other mental-health professionals b. *The social “feeling rules” for what we can and should feel (324) c. People’s personal rules for their behaviours d. How individuals are taught how to conduct themselves in 3 21. Examining Hochschild’s concept of the “second shift,” Sayer et al (2009) find the following about the household division of labour in the United States and Australia: a. When the mother does not work outside the home, the father has significantly fewer hours of work than the mother b. Only when the mother does not work outside the home does the father have a number of work hours equal to the mother c. *When the mother does not work outside the home, the father has significantly more hours of work than the mother (325) d. In families with pre-school-aged children, the mothers do several more hours of work per week than fathers do, and even more when the father works full-time 22. Postmodern studies of family are more likely (than traditional studies) to focus on the: a. problems to society inherent in splitting up the traditional family unit b. effects of divorced parents on children c. ways in which the mass media distorts traditional values d. *positive aspects of divorce (326) 23. In interviewing grandmothers in Los Angeles and Berlin about their socialization goals, Keller and Demuth found that: a. *German participants emphasize relational closeness and healthy mental/psychological development, while American participants emphasize health, cognitive development, and soothing (327) b. American participants set out to teach independence while German participants set out to teach interdependence c. American participants emphasize relational closeness and healthy mental/psychological development, while German participants emphasize health, cognitive development, and soothing d. German and American caregiving practices were vastly different due to contextual factors like women’s participation in the labour force 24. A study by North-Jones found that: a. Both children and parents feel that they are unable to spend enough time with each other b. *Parents reported feeling rushed most of the time, though children felt their parents were able to spend enough time with them (328) c. Children felt that their parents were unable to spend enough time with them, while parents were less concerned about this d. Both parents and children felt that they spent enough time as a family 25. _________________ are noted by sociologists for protecting the children of vulnerable populations (like the poor) and helping immigrants to assimilate culturally to national standards of ethical behaviour. a. Canada and Western and Northern European countries b. The United States and Eastern and Northern European countries c. North American countries d. *Western and Northern European countries more than North American countries (329) 4 26. “Education” differs from “training” in that education: (p. 335-336) a. is formal, while training is informal b. takes place in universities, while training takes place in colleges and private homes c. *develops capacities for thinking, while training develops capacities for specific actions or behaviours d. typically requires the payment of high tuition fees 27. Functionalists who study schools and formal education focus on: (p. 335) a. the hidden curriculum perpetuated by capitalism b. how schools teach students to dress and behave c. *the manifest and latent functions of education d. all of the above 28. What is the hidden curriculum? (p. 336) a. the lessons parents teach children outside of school b. *the lessons schools unintentionally teach students c. the lessons the mass media teaches children d. the lessons children are taught through life experience, outside of the classroom 29. The subject of The Academic Revolution by Christopher Jencks and David Riesman is: (p. 336) a. the ‘homogenization’ of universities b. the ‘global stratification’ of universities c. the domination of Ivy League colleges d. *the rise of ‘research universities’ 30. In The Academic Revolution, the authors attribute the lack of true meritocracy in school systems to: (p. 337) a. ‘old boys clubs’ at the top of colleges and universities b. *the overall social inequality of American society c. Affirmative Action d. the better academic preparedness of recent immigrant children 31. According to Statistics Canada, roughly what percent of the Canadian population aged 25-64 has a university degree? (p. 338) a. 5 b. *20 c. 40 d. 50 32. Continuing gender differences in salary and rank, regularly reported each year, reflect: (p. 339) a. a failure of the educational system b. *the reluctance of women to enter and compete in higher-paid male venues c. the glass ceiling d. the wage gap between men and women 5 33. The key factors discouraging some racial and ethnic minorities from educational and occupational advancement are: (p. 340) a. requirement of foreign working experience deemed suitable in Canada b. discrimination as part of the hidden curriculum in schools c. *language barriers and financial difficulties d. both a and b 34. One reason children from poorer socio-economic backgrounds are less likely to gain a good education is that:(p. 341) a. their mothers tend to be on the ‘Mommy track’ b. children of poorer backgrounds like to work more than they like to study c. their parents do not value education and so are not willing to spend money on it d. *their schools are not as well funded as those in affluent neighborhoods 35. According to James S. Coleman, why does “the adolescent society” pose a problem for society? (p. 341) a. it encourages vanity, which is a useless human quality b. it alienates those who do not fit in, causing depression and lack of ambition c. *it undermines students’ preparation for the real world d. it is unfair, since not everyone is born good-looking or athletic 36. What social change, according to Coleman, gave rise to “the adolescent society”? (p. 342) a. urbanization b. *industrialization c. modernization d. the internet 37. Educational tracking or streaming can be best defined as: (p. 343) a. group division in which students are categorized according to their differential ability to handle new materials b. *group division in which students move as a block from one class to another, so they take all classes within a certain level c. group division in which different classes exist in each subject, and students are assigned to classes that cover the ground more or less rapidly, according to the level d. the same as ability grouping 38. One disadvantage of streaming is that it: (p.343) a. *reproduces social inequality b. makes it more difficult for teachers to teach c. reduces incentive to learn among brighter students d. sends the signal that schools favour brighter students 39. What was John R. Seeley’s original goal in the book Crestwood Heights? (p. 347) a. to explore the impact of schools on the mental health of children 6 b. *to study the mental health of children under pressures of conformity c. to understand the role of affluent parents in the education of their children d. to find out if neighbourhood affluence leads to a feeling of community 40. According to Seeley, what was Crestwood Heights’ most significant voluntary association? (p. 348) a. the Better Business Bureau b. the Student Administrative Council c. the Teacher’s Advocate Union d. *none of the above 41. Why do students experience a troubled transition from high school to university? (p. 348) a. universities expect a higher standard of dress and manners b. *grade inflation creates uncertainty about their abilities c. parents usually oppose their children going away for university d. professors tend to look down on first-year students 42. What is “cultural capital”? (p. 349) a. social connections through personal networks b. knowledge of cultural diversity c. *knowledge of high culture d. skills acquired through education and training at cultural institutions 43. The primary goal of a school bully is to: (p. 350) a. *humiliate another person b. obtain lunch money c. become popular d. take revenge 44. According to Erik Erikson’s ‘Human Development Stage Theory’, the conflict children face during early school age (6-12 years) is: (p. 353) a. initiative vs. guilt b. intimacy vs. isolation c. identity vs. confusion d. *industry vs. inferiority 45. A key finding in the US ‘Coleman Report’ on equality in education was that:(p. 354) a. black schools would help black children of lower socio-economic backgrounds to perform better academically b. *black children of lower socio-economic backgrounds would do better academically in racially mixed schools c. in terms of academic achievement, it does not matter whether black children of lower socio-economic backgrounds attend racially segregated or mixed schools d. children in general do better academically in segregated schools 46. The educational benefits of social capital depend on: (p. 354):
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