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Sociology 103 Summer 2011 Term Test 1 Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. Indicate your answer by blacking in the relevant box on the SCANTRON sheet. Be sure to print your name and student number clearly on the answer sheet. 1. Most people agree that sociology first emerged: (pg1) a. approximately 70 years ago, following the end of World War II b. in the early 19 century when Max Weber invented the term sociologie about 200 years ago, *c. in response to industrialization and political upheaval d. during the Enlightenment period in 14 century Italy 2. Present day sociology is concerned with how we know what we know, an ‘epistemological’ problem first introduced to us by: (pg2) *a. Max Weber b. Edward Said c. Émile Durkheim d. Karl Marx 3. Sociology can best be defined as: (pg3) a. the study of human culture, beliefs, and artifacts from prehistory onward *b. the systematic study of social behaviour, or the study of society c . the study of mental processes, especially in relation to behaviour d. the study of general and fundamental problems in human evolution 4. Which of the following is NOT considered a principle of present-day sociology? (pg5) a. social life is contradictory and paradoxical b. the use of common-sense knowledge to understand the world is inadequate c. everyone has free will, but everyone is also constrained and manipulated *d. moral philosophy is key to social theorizing 5. With respect to the unequal distribution of social rewards, sociologists believe: (pg6) a. people get what they deserve in life; winners deserve to win and losers to lose b. life experiences vary by intelligence, hard work, and personal values *c. what people get in life is largely the result of circumstances beyond their control d. unequal patterns of opportunity have little influence on the ways people live 6. The major microanalytical approach of sociology is referred to as: (pg6) a. structural functionalism b. critical interpretation c. socialization process *d. symbolic interactionism 1 7. Education is intended to provide students with the knowledge, skills, and values that will help them to work effectively in society. This is an example of:(pg7) *a. a manifest function b. an economic function c. a latent function d. a cultural function 8. According to Émile Durkheim, crime: (pg7) a. serves no function in society b. serves a manifest function by mobilizing popular sentiment c. serves a latent function by benefiting the lawbreaker *d. is universal 9. According to structural functionalism: (pg7/8) a. social problems of the modern age are due to capitalism *b. social problems of the modern age are due to industrialization and urbanization c. the best way to deal with social problems is to increase the pace of social change d. Karl Marx identified the key reasons why inequality was universal 10. What sociological approach explains social problems by focusing on the failure of institutions to fulfill their roles during times of rapid change? (pg7) a. critical theory b. socialization process *c. structural functionalism d. symbolic interactionism 11. Which of the following is NOT part of the critical theory approach? (pg8) a. there is an unequal distribution of power in society b. the economic base is a key source of social differentiation and power c. classes (or status groups) compete with one another for social dominance *d. social problems of the modern age are due to industrialization and urbanization 12. Which of the following is a method proposed by critical theorists to solve social problems? (pg8) *a. abolition of the class structure b. decrease the pace of social change c. strengthen social norms d. strengthen capitalism 13. Howard Becker (1963) argues that marijuana smoking is a social problem only because influential ‘moral entrepreneurs’ make it one. This is an example of: (pg9) a. anomie theory *b. labeling theory c. vertical mosaic theory d. critical theory 14. ______ proposed that social problems develop in stages that include social recognition, social legitimating, mobilization for action, and the development of an official plan. (pg9) 2 *a. Herbert Blumer b. Emile Durkheim c. Karl Marx d. Howard Becker 15. Which of the following is an assumption of feminist research?(pg9/10) a. only public spheres of life are gendered b. a woman’s social experience is similar to a man’s c. personal life does not have a political dimension *d. patriarchy structures the way most societies work 16. Which of the following is NOT one of the major focuses of feminist research on deviance and control? (pg10) a. the gendering of experiences *b. the separation of the private and public spheres of life c. intersectionality to produce combinations of disadvantage d. the problem of victimization 17. Proponents of modernism argue that:(pg10) a. religion shows us ‘the truth’ about reality b. there are multiple ‘truths’ about every situation *c. social ‘progress’ is possible if we take a positivist approach to social life d. social life will be continually harmed through the application of science 18. Which of the following does NOT characterize postmodernist theories? a. rationality is neither sure nor clear; our knowledge is situation-specific b. reality is fragmentary -- there is no single truth c. the media is largely responsible for the framing of ideas about normality *d. postmodernism is hegemonic and is used to find timeless laws of social life 19. What are the 3 primary techniques of control according to Michel Foucault’s picture of a modern ‘disciplinary’ society? (pg12) a. linear observation, instilment of fear, and occasional testing *b. hierarchical observation, normalizing judgment, and continual examination c. stigmatization, hierarchical observation, and instilment of fear in society d. nominal observation, normalizing judgment, and continual examination 20. According to Durkheim’s famous work Suicide (1897): (pg12) *a. suicides can be grouped into three main types: egoistic, altruistic, and anomic b. the Jewish community has the highest recorded rate of neuropathy and suicide c. there are no social patterns visible in suicide rates d. suicide due to insanity includes maniacal, melancholic, obsessional, and impulsive 21. Protestant faith is more individualistic than Catholicism, and has higher suicide rates because of the influence of: (pg12) a. anomie b. melancholy 3 *c. egoism d. altruism 22. Rates of suicide are higher among soldiers than among civilians, indicating the influence of ______ suicide. (pg12) *a. altruistic b. anomie c. impulsive d. egoistic 23. Anomic suicide is: (pg13) a. motivated by a sense of societal duty *b. due to an absence of social regulation and norms c. due to weak social bonds and excessive individualism d. due to insanity 24. According to social control theory: (pg15) a. normal people rarely have deviant impulses b. when people enter criminal careers, they uphold conventional rules *c. people conform to rules when they develop a stake in conformity d. social bonds have little impact on deviance or criminality 25. Rational choice theory does NOT hold that (pg15) a. normal people commit crime when an opportunity arises and they believe they will not get caught *b. most people commit crime as a way to rebel against norms and class-based social inequality c. ordinary people often engage in illegal work because of the low wages and poor conditions they experience in regular work d. most people weigh the benefits and costs of a criminal activity before engaging in it 26. Demographer Thomas Malthus proposed that two types of ‘checks’ (or limits) would keep population growth in line with food supply (p. 35): a. positive checks and population checks b. *positive checks and preventative checks c. progressive checks and preventative checks d. political checks and potential checks 27. In demographic language, what is carrying capacity? (p. 36) a. the maximum available food supply to feed a population b. the highest level of technology attainable in a given locale c. the amount of risk a given population can withstand d. *the number of people who can be supported by available resources 28. A sociologist who takes a critical theory approach would believe that: (p. 36) a. a social arrangement can benefit everyone equally b. the problems poor countries face today is the result of overpopulation c. protectionist tariffs have little to do with population issues 4 d. *a social equilibrium is unattainable or meaningless 29. Which of the following ‘checks’ plays the most important role in curbing population growth in a modern society? (p. 37) a. famine b. epidemic c. *contraception d. migration 30. As societies urbanized, people’s lives became more different and interdependent, a process Durkheim called the shift from ______________ to ______________ (p. 38): a. gemeinschaft; gesellschaft b. *mechanical solidarity; organic solidarity c. rural life; urban life d. community life; city life 31. The cornucopia view of nature holds that: (p. 39) a. *nature is an abundant source of resources b. nature is a threat to human population growth c. industry is the best part of a ‘risk society’ d. life takes care of people who have faith in God 32. What does ecofeminism link? (p. 40) a. patriarchy and the ‘risk society’ b. *exploitation of women and environmental destruction c. female virtue and the abundance of nature d. men and pro-environmentalists 33. The classic study The Limits to Growth (1972), by Meadows, Meadows, Randers, and Behrens concluded that….. (p. 41) a. the rapidly increasing human population will soon outgrow food supply b. humanity has already passed ‘the limit to growth’ and there is no going back c. *humanity will reach ‘the limit to growth’ sometime in the next century d. none of the above 34. A large population size is harmful because it means: (p. 42) a. the growth of megacities *b. worse relations with the natural environment c. a decline in the invention of new technologies d. a decline in food production 35. Human capital means: (p. 44) a. skills or skill sets attained on the job b. educational investments in large number of students c. aptitudes and experiences relevant to work d. *all of the above 5 36. Gendercide (p. 45-46): a. *sometimes leads to bride-kidnapping and trafficking of women in the long-term b. manifests as a large-scale decrease in both males and female of all ages c. always results in a disproportionally larger number of men in a given population d. happens only to women, never to men 37. Today, the world population is not growing as quickly as it was during the last century, because of: (p. 46) a. famine in developing nations b. HIV/AIDS in Africa c. gendercide in Asia d. *worldwide fertility decline 38. In the next few decades, the greatest fertility reductions will occur in: (p. 48) a. the most developed countries b. *the least developed countries c. the semi-developed countries d. Scandinavian countries 39. In Ulrich Beck’s classic work Risk Society: Towards a New Modernity (1986), the concept reflexive modernization signifies: (p. 49) a. an unconscious transition in the social uses of technology b. the conscious transition from technological caution to carelessness c. *a shift in thought to postmodern views about the role of technology d. societal self-improvement through a decline in risk-taking 40. The Chernobyl incident of 1986 demonstrates: (p. 50) a. that Thomas Malthus was right about his prediction for the future b. the effect of epidemics on population decline over the long-run c. *the uncertainty of living in a ‘risk society’ d. that technology usually works for the betterment of humanity 41. __________is the term for the systematic study of the location of human enterprises and characteristics. (p. 53) a. urban sociology b. *human geography c. economic humanity d. institutional mapping 42. ___________ made the growth of cities possible, according to the textbook? (p. 54) a. The development of technology that created a built environment b. The growth of a large-enough human population for factories c. The processing of natural resources to build roads and apartments d. *The availability of surplus food in rural areas 6 43. Cities have generally been the richer, more powerful neighbours of rural areas because: (p. 54) a. They have provided markets for neighbouring rural communities b. They have induced the smartest, most rural hardworking people to migrate c. Rural areas have provided urban areas with workers and food products d. *Both a and c 44. According to the Population Reference Bureau, in terms of urbanization worldwide 2008 was a landmark year because: (p. 55) a. urban areas finally surpassed rural areas in terms of overall quality of life b. *the world’s population was divided equally between urban and rural areas for the first time c. megacities outnumbered towns, villages, and cities with 500,000 residents or fewer d. the first city in human history passed forty million people in population 45. ______is a megacity mentioned in the textbook. (p. 55) a. London, England b. Dhaka, Bangladesh c. *Delhi, India d. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil 46. ____________ refers to a residential area near a large city that provides housing and services for people who commute into the downtown urban area for work. (p. 56) a. Urban periphery b. Suburban perimeter c. *Bedroom suburb d. Commuter fringe 47. ___________ is an example of Manuel Castells’ ‘space of flows’ mentioned in the textbook. (p. 58) a. A harbour b. *An airport c. A shopping centre d. A skyscraper 48. According to Castells, the Internet has influenced social networks by making them: (p. 58) a. more dispersed b. less dispersed c. more vertical d. * more horizontal 49. _______ is the term for varied systems of good behaviour and ethical conduct in cyberspace. (p. 59) a. ‘Interquette’ b. *‘Netiquettes’ c. ‘Webmanners’ 7 d. ‘Cybermanners’ 50. Castells’s term ‘The Fourth World’ refers to: (p. 59) a. the ten least developed nations of the world b. all the people who reject technology c. *the population excluded from global society d. hermits and people in hiding 51. __________ is an example of social form. (p. 65) a. Treating our parents with respect b. Acting politely in front of police officers c. Pretending to be a good student d. *None of the above 52. _________ are terms associated with the sociology of Georg Simmel? (66, 76) a. *Content, Form b. Social Form
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