1. Which one of the following is the BEST example of inadequate socialization?
a. Giving spare change to a homeless person
b. Giving up one’s seat to an elderly person on the bus
c. Saying ‘bless you’ when someone sneezes
d. Failure to thank the person who held open a door for you*
2. Merton argues that giving priority to some roles over others is a way to reduce role
strain. An example of this would be:
a. When principals are expected to defend and support teachers on a charge of
professional misconduct against a student
b. Separating the roles of parent and spouse
c. The role of prime minister is highly valued, so his wife would allow him to take
long diplomatic trips without her*
d. A teacher taking time off due to pregnancy
3. According to Archibald, a person of higher class may deliberately avoid a person of
lower class in the case of detachment generalization because:
a. He/she feels threatened*
b. He/she dislikes that person
c. He/she is shy
d. None of the above
4. In Nielsen’s (2007) study, the concept of ‘gaydar’, in which gays and lesbians signal
their identities to each other in public places by looking and dressing in a particular
way, serves what purpose?
a. It is part of a plot for world domination
b. It leads to feelings of solidarity and empowerment*
c. It doesn’t really serve a purpose
d. It is used to overcome shyness
5. Mismanagement of superfluous identities causes embarrassment when:
a. Old, discarded identities re-surface on the dominant identity
b. Subordinate roles and identities impose themselves on the dominant identity*
c. When an identity announcement is unsupported
d. A and C
1 6. The following are identified in the text as defensive strategies used by people to save
face and defuse embarrassment EXCEPT:
a. Verbal disclaimers
7. Helen Ebaugh’s study on former nuns focused on:
a. Role distance
b. Role embracement
c. Role exit*
d. None of the above
8. As described by Helen Ebaugh, those that wish to rid themselves of a role or identity
may first experience feelings of:
c. Mortal fear
9. Categories of people may not be of interest to sociologists because:
a. They share a common social structure
b. They are otherwise unconnected with each other*
c. They dramatize the meanings for their boundaries
d. All of the above
10. Networks lack all of the following characteristics EXCEPT:
a. Connections between members*
b. A collective goal
c. A collective identity
d. An awareness of their membership
11. Gemeinschaft differs from Gesellschaft in which one of the following ways?
a. It represents non-community life
b. It may refer to rural or small town life*
c. It is marked by a highly unconnected social structure
d. It is a German word
12. A spontaneous organization, such as a bucket brigade, is considered to be more of a
temporary, short term organization because:
a. Dissension within the group quickly causes its downfall
2 b. It has a relatively small amount of members, making it easier to manage
c. It disbands as soon as the goal has been achieved*
d. A and C
13. Which one of the following is not a characteristic of a clique?
a. It is made up of tightly interconnected members
b. Members may show contempt for outsiders
c. Members show loyalty to the leader
d. The main objective is to disturb the peace*
14. Which one of the following is not a characteristic of a bureaucracy?
a. Protection of careers
b. Division of labour
c. Formal system of rules
d. Hiring and promotion based on personal feelings*
15. Bureaucracies are considered to be imperfect systems for the following reasons
a. In reality, they do not function as rationally as designed
b. Administrative ‘red tape’ is a common inefficiency
c. A bureaucratic personality is often fostered
d. They are often not large enough*
16. According to Goffman, mental hospitals and prisons are examples of:
a. Highly informal organizations
b. Inviting and pleasant places
c. Total institutions*
d. Communist societies
17. Choose the INCORRECT statement:
a. Non-exploitive economic oppression is a mild form of exploitation.*
b. There must be an inverse interdependence between the two groups.
c. Exploiters appropriate the labour effort of the exploited.
d. The exploited are excluded from accessing certain productive resources.
18. Max Weber’s definition of class:
3 a. Presents society in dichotomies of haves and have-nots.
b. Has its basis in the inter-relationship between the bourgeoisie and the
c. Offers the opportunity for mobility between social classes.*
d. Agrees with Marxist views that means of production is the main organizing
19. Which one of the following statements is FALSE:
a. Status groups are organized to maintain their privileges against outsiders
by a mechanism of social closure.
b. Relations of domination can only work within associations or in situations
where an individual has an executive staff.*
c. Dual-systems theory in the feminist approach considers patriarchy and
capitalism as two systems that oppress women.
d. Radical feminists view patriarchy as a universal, trans-historical, trans-
20. The work of Joan Acker includes all of the following EXCEPT:
a. Taking social relations of distribution as well as social relations of
production into account.
b. Recognizing that wages are the essential component of distribution in
c. Emphasizing that personal relations, marital relations, and state relations
are the gendered processes through which distribution occurs.
d. Underlining the definition of personal relations of distribution as the
transfer of resources to the head of the family.*
21. _______________ conceptualize patriarchy as a universal, trans-historical, trans-
cultural phenomenon, whereas _______________ conceptualize patriarchy as a
system linked to household production.
4 a. Structural-functionalists, feminists
b. Dual-systems theorists, interactionists
c. Radical feminists, dual-systems theorists*
d. Feminists, interactionists
22. Qualitative approaches in research studies generally draw upon insights from
which one of the following:
a. Conflict theory
b. Symbolic interactionism*
c. Multivariate theory
d. None of the above
23. Qualitative historical work generally focuses on all of the following, EXCEPT:
a. Succinctly categorizing people into various classes.*
b. How class relations structure professionalization projects.
c. Processes of class formation.
d. All of the above.
24. Marx argued that as capitalism evolved, there would be an increased polarization
of workers. Which one of the following did he predict:
a. There would be a shrinking of the old middle class.
b. There would be more income going to large business owners.
c. There would be a continued deskilling of work, and increased alienation of
d. All of the above.*
5 25. With respect to Canadian society, Clement and Myles have reported:
a. A drastic decrease in proportion of capitalist-executives.
b. A long-standing trend of declining proportions of large business owners
c. A recent increase in the proportion of small business owners. *
d. None of the above.
26. Which one of the following statements is FALSE regarding poverty in Canada:
a. Poverty rates vary from province to province
b. Poverty is not a serious problem in Canada.*
c. Poverty rates vary on the basis of gender, family status, age, immigrant
and minority status, health, education, and labour-force attachment
d. In 2003, more than 30 per cent of families living in poverty were headed
by people who were employed.
27. With regard to paid work, which one of the following is CORRECT:
a. Working-class jobs are generally characterized by low skill-level required
and high levels of alienation*
b. New technology has allowed white-collar workers more freedom and
autonomy in their jobs.
c. With the increase in number and power of knowledge workers, the rate of
polarization of society into the two central classes, bourgeoisie and
proletariat, will also increase.
d. The proletarianization of the labour force in Canada is a recent
phenomenon that is gaining strength and speed.
28. Typically, ______________ educated people are employed in ______________
jobs that have relatively ______________ degrees of autonomy.
a. highly, well-paid, low
6 b. poorly, poorly-paid, high
c. highly, well-paid, high*
d. highly, poorly-paid, low
29. Working-class children are less likely to attain higher education because:
a. They lack the intelligence to do well in school.
b. They lack the social, economic, and cultural capital to gain higher
c. They suffer from a psychosocial complex that inhibits their learning.
d. All of the above.
30. Some factors that may act as barriers to educational attainment for youth include
all of the following, EXCEPT:
a. The tendency for working-class families to focus less on education and
education-related activities than middle-class families.
b. The need to work to help out with the family economy.
c. The lack of social capital, such as information.
d. The lack of ambition by youth from working-class families.*
31. Which one of the following trends regarding gender, education, and paid work is
a. The proportion of women with young children in the labour force is
b. The proportion of female university graduates increases with age*
c. A growing number of women work in non-standard arrangements such s
temporary and self-employed positions.
d. The wage gap between men and women is closing
32. Mommy-track jobs refers to:
a. the equivalent to female job ghettos
b. careers in low-paid, service-sector, dead-end jobs
7 c. Job positions invented exclusively for women
d. Both A and B*
33. Women spend less time on unpaid, domestic household work now than they did in
the 1960s because:
a. They have become lazier
b. Men have taken over as the main housekeeper in most households
c. Women have increased their participation in the labour force*
d. Women have more children now than in the past
34. According to functionalists like Parsons and Bales (1955), women were expected
to fulfill _____ roles, while men were expected to fulfill _____ roles respectively.
a. expressive, instrumental*
b. intellectual, hardworking
c. soft, hard
d. manual, intellectual
35. Conflict theorists have called attention to ______ in explaining gender inequality.
a. biological differences
b. individual differences
c. differences in power*
36. Which one of the following BEST describes the views held by liberal feminists?
a. Men and women are essentially the same and are entitled to equal rights*
b. Women are the exploited and subordinated class because men hold the
rights to private property
c. Highly critical of essentialism in other feminist perspectives
d. Combines Marxist and radical feminist views
37. Radical feminists mostly attribute which one of the following to gender
a. Capitalism and private ownership
c. Race, class, and sexuality
d. Discriminatory legislation
38. How would an Anti-racist/Post-modern feminist approach the problem of gender
a. Propose changes in legislation
8 b. Call for the abolishment of capitalism
c. Address differences among women in non-universalizing and non-
d. Call for radical changes in social structure
39. American biologist Alfred Kinsey made which one of the following arguments?
a. He argued against the ignorance of non-reproductive functions of sex*
b. Argued against homosexuals
c. Argued against feminist views that sex is male dominated
d. None of the above
40. The ‘Heterosexual-homosexual’ rating scale was introduced by:
a. Sigmund Freud
b. Alfred Kinsey*
c. William Masters
d. Oscar Hertwig
41. The studies of sex researchers William Masters and Virginia Johnson focused on:
a. Pleasurable aspects of human sexuality
b. Sexual arousal in men and women
c. Orgasmic ability in older women and men
d. All of the above*
42. As cited in the text, anthropologist Margaret Mead (1928) studied which one of
a. Sexual practices of Samoan women*
b. Courting rituals of homosexual men in Germany
c. Impotence in older men
d. All of the above
43. Denaturalization refers to:
a. The destruction of the rainforests
b. The increasing trend of surgical procedures to enhance sexual
c. A shift away from biological explanations of sex*
d. None of the above
9 44. At the time of Confederation, Canada:
a. Overtly denied immigration of Indians because they were a part of the
British Empire, and were seen as a threat to Canadian national identity.
b. Admitted Northern and Central European immigrants because they needed
cheap labour for the building of national infrastructures.
c. Encouraged immigration of Chinese and Indian peoples because they were
considered skilled workers.
d. Needed immigrants, because nation-building required the creation and
management of human populations, national identities, and citizens.*
45. Canada imposed the head tax in order to:
a. Limit Chinese immigration.*
b. Limit Indian immigration.
c. Encourage Northern and Central European immigration.
d. Halt Canadian emigration to America
46. Recent Canadian immigration trends have shown that:
a. The top source country is still Great Britain (13.2 per cent of all admitted
immigrants in 2006).
b. Immigration from traditional European source countries has diminished
c. Overall, immigration has decreased to near-zero levels.
d. Immigration from Asiatic countries has steadily declined.
47. Which of the following is FALSE:
a. Even as late as 1952, the Canadian government could still prohibit
immigration based on people’s nationality, ‘peculiar’ customs, habits,
modes of life, and methods of holding property.
b. Today, immigrants are divided into four major categories, often called
c. The infamous Chinese head tax policy was abolished at the beginning of
World War I.*
d. The continuous journey policy was aimed at barring Indian immigration.
48. Today’s four major categories of immigrants into Canada:
a. Include skilled workers, educational immigrants, family class, and
10 b. Are based on nationality, level of education, total wealth, and health
c. Are subjectively defined to include only people from certain areas of the
d. Include a group called skilled workers, which make up the largest
proportion of all immigrants.*
49. Sociologists distinguish between __________ assimilation (‘acquiring’ the values
of dominant groups) and _________ assimilation (the integration of ‘others’ into the
economic, social, and political life of a country).
a. behavioural, structural*
b. individual, cultural
c. ethnocentric, monolithic
d. primary, secondary
50. ‘Multiculturalism’ is an elusive term, but for sociologists, it means all of the
a. A demographic reality, which is part of a pluralistic ideology.
b. A harmonious society composed of various ethnic groups, in which
assimilation does not occur.*
c. A form of struggle among minority groups for access to economic and
d. A set of government policies and accompanying programs.
51. The basic principles of multiculturalism:
a. Depend on institutional assimilation of minority groups.
b. Make for a nation without a unified national identity.
c. Rest upon cultural relativism rather than ethnocentrism.*
d. Promote an ethnically and racially homogeneous society.
52. Which one of the following statements is FALSE:
a. In the first stage of multiculturalism as policy in Canada, multiculturalism
was seen as ‘celebrating our differences’.
b. Culture had become an issue of personal choice, as the era of Anglo- and
Franco-conformity had passed.
c. Multiculturalism became a fundamental and legally contestable
characteristic of Canadian society when the Charter of Rights and
Freedoms was included in the Constitution Act, 1982.
11 d. Multiculturalism has enormous benefits for Canadian economic relations
on the global stage because Canada has increasingly become one of the
only truly multicultural societies.*
53. The third stage of multiculturalism as policy in Canada:
a. Is known as ‘civic multiculturalism’.*
b. Has seen an increase in funding of folkloric programs.
c. Rejects institutional multiculturalism, while promoting folkloric
d. Focuses on multiculturalism as a tool for economic gain on the global
54. Which of the following is FALSE regarding Quebec’s intercultural linguistic
a. It is the ‘center of convergence’ for different cultural groups in Quebec.
b. It is responsible for the demise of the French language*
c. It serves as an indispensible condition for the creation of the culture
publique commune (common public culture).
d. When integrated into the education system, it may lead to social cohesion,
and a sense of ‘homeland’.
55. __________ leads to an individualist approach to culture, whereas __________
promotes a sense of collectivity.
a. Interculturalism, multiculturalism
b. Culture publique commune, multiculturalism
c. Multiculturalism, interculturalism*
d. Linguistic assimilation, culture publique commune
56. Choose the INCORRECT statement:
a. Prejudice and racism are based on preconceived notions of what people
are, not who they are.
b. Negative stereotypes are usually associated with minority groups, and
positive stereotypes are mainly associated with dominant groups.