SOC200H1 Study Guide - Comprehensive Midterm Guide: Shark Attack, Michel Chossudovsky, Qualitative Research

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Published on 5 Oct 2016
School
Department
Course
UTSG
SOC200H1
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Chapter 1
Ways of knowing: Tradition, Authority/ Personal Inquiry & Experience
Tradition and authority can bot assist and hinder human inquiry.
Errors in inquiry: Inaccurate observation/overgeneralization/selective
observation/illogical reasoning (gambler's fallacy
How to against these errors: Systematic & Conscious Observation, Replication
(repetition of research study in order to confirm)
Agreement Reality: What is known through the culture we share
Experiential Reality: What is known through personal experience and discovery
Scientific understanding must be logical (make sense) and empirical support
(correspond to what we observe)
Epistemology is science if knowing, methodology (subfield of epistemology) called
science of finding out.
Views of reality:
Premodern view: guided most human history, saw things as they really were,not see as
assumption
Modern view: accepts diversity as legitimate,accept different people have different
belief.
Postmodern view: all “real” are the images we get through our point of view, nothing
out there, it is all in here.
Three main aspects of social science: Social Theory (Reasoning about the workings of
the social world) Data Collection (observation) Data Analysis (Do the observations
correspond to the theory?)
Social science research:
Follows a logical method of inquiry and observation, Driven by theory and logic, not
belief or philosophy,Stresses what “is” NOT what “should be”
Finds patterns in social life, or patterns in behaviour attributed to social phenomena
The individual is not generally the primary focus
Draws on a language of agreed upon concepts and terms for doing research
Variable: logical groupings of attributes
Attributes: characteristics of people or things
Independent variable is the cause, dependent variable the effect
Quantitative: (numeric data) meaning may lost in the data, because it is only have
numbers, not the meaning, such as age, could represent the year people live or the
maturity.
Qualitative : (non-numeric data) the meaning is base on our own understanding and
experience, could not know the exactly.
Inductive: particular to general
Chapter 2
Paradigm: a model or framework for observation and understanding which shapes
both what we see and how we understand it.
Very powerful for us how we see the work and also limit how we see.
Social Science Paradigms Points of view grounded in assumptions about reality (a way
of looking at the world)
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(Social) Theory Interrelated statements intended to explain what we actually see
(according to the paradigm)
Macrotheory: Studies large aggregate entities
Microtheory: Social life at level of individuals & small groups
Six main paradigms: early positivism (French philosopher Auguste Comte coin the
term “Sociologie”, before social affairs often seen as reflection of God’s will, but science
will replace religion, the third stage of history)/conflict paradigm (Marxism,conflict
between classes, struggle among economic classes. Georg Simmel focus on small-scale
conflict, conflict among tightly knit group. Michel Chossudovsky world bank and
International monetary fund increase global poverty.Hoffman violence among
siblings)/symbolic interactionism(Cooley, primary group, looking-glass self. Mead,
generalized role, interaction)/ ethnomethodology (focus on everyday life,micro
things, make sense of life they experience)/ structural functionalism(social system
theory, Comte, society as organism, make up of parts. Durkheim, crimes and
punishment could reaffirm society’s value)/feminist paradigms
Asch Experiment: identify two lines that are equal length.
From paradigms to theories:
Social science paradigms()……..
Axioms or postulate: fundamental assertions, taken to be true, on which a theory is
grounded. (everyone desires material comforts)
Propositions: specific conclusion about relationship among concepts that are derived
from the axiomatic groundwork. (poor youths are more likely to break the law to gain
material comforts)
Hypothesis: specific testable expectation about empirical reality that follows from a
proposition. (Poor youths have higher delinquency rates than rich youths)
Main elements in traditional model of science: theory, operationalization (a step
beyond conceptualization. It is the process of developing operational definitions,
specifying exact operations involved in measuring a variable), observation
Operation definition: concrete and specific definition of sth in terms of operations by
which observation are to be categorized (earing A in this course could be answering
correctly at least 90 percentage in this course)
Disconfirmability: possibility that observation may not support our expectation
Hypothesis testing: determination of whether the expectation that a hypothesis
represents are, indeed, found to exist in the real world.
Traditional deductive model of science inquiry:
Walter Wallace represents the process as a circle, the wheel of science. Empirical
generalizations(induction)/theories/Hypotheses(dection)/observation….
3 purposes/types of research:
Exploratory: When examining new interest or subject of study is new, Typically the
problem has not been clearly defined beforehand
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Document Summary

Ways of knowing: tradition, authority/ personal inquiry & experience. Tradition and authority can bot assist and hinder human inquiry. Errors in inquiry: inaccurate observation/overgeneralization/selective observation/illogical reasoning (gambler"s fallacy. How to against these errors: systematic & conscious observation, replication (repetition of research study in order to confirm) Agreement reality: what is known through the culture we share. Experiential reality: what is known through personal experience and discovery. Scientific understanding must be logical (make sense) and empirical support (correspond to what we observe) Epistemology is science if knowing, methodology (subfield of epistemology) called science of finding out. Premodern view: guided most human history, saw things as they really were,not see as assumption. Modern view: accepts diversity as legitimate,accept different people have different belief. Postmodern view: all real are the images we get through our point of view, nothing out there, it is all in here.

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