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Chapter Summaries - Test 2

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University of Toronto St. George
Eric Fong

Chapter 7 Logic of Sampling Nonprobability Sampling Social research is often conducted in situations that do not permit the kinds of probability samples used in large-scale social surveys (i.e. homelessness) Although appropriate to some research purposes (qualitative research), nonprobability sampling methods cannot guarantee that the sample being observed is representative of the whole population There are four types of nonprobability sampling: - Reliance on Available Subjects: i.e. stopping people at a street corner or some other location - Purposive or Judgemental Sampling: sometimes its appropriate to select a sample on the basis of knowledge of a population, its elements, and the purpose of the study - Snowball Sampling: whereby each person interviewed may be asked to suggest additional people for interviewing - Quota Sampling: units are selected into a sample on the basis of prespecified characteristics, so that the total sample will have the same distribution of characteristics assumed to exist in the population being studied Probability Sampling EPSEM (equal probability of selection method) a sample design in which each member of a population has the same chance of being selected into the sample Probability sampling does offer two advantages: - Typically more representative than other types of sample because biases are avoided - Probability theory permits us to estimate the accuracy or representativeness of the sample Element that unit of which a population is composed and which is selected in a sample Parameter the summary description of a given variable in a population Statistic the summary description of a variable in a sample, used to estimate a population parameter Sampling error the degree of error to be expected in probability sampling Confidence level the estimated probability that a population parameter lies within a given confidence interval (i.e. we are 95% confident that between 35%-45% of all kids like smarties) Confidence interval the range of values within which a population parameter is estimated to lie There are four types of probability sampling: - Systematic sampling: involves the selection of every kth member from a sampling frame; this method is more practical than simple random sampling and is almost functionally equivalent
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