SOC200H1 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Tecmar, Paradigm Shift, Normal Science

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Published on 18 Dec 2015
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Introduction
A  is: about the,
 (non-normative), 
: the study of truth or knowing
: the science of !nding out; procedures od
scienti!c investigation
: what we "know" as part and parcel of the
culture we share with those around us
: what we "know" from personal
experience and discovery
: authority, tradition
: experience,
observation
Observation:
o!causal or semi-conscious
observation
o"!one danger led by
overgeneralization; we tend to focus on future events and
situations that !t the pattern and ignore those that don’t
o#$: we often assume that a few similar
events are evidence of a general pattern
o!
%&'!often we assume that a
consistent run of either good or bad luck foreshadows the
opposite
!empirical evidence or info gathered carefully according to
speci!c rules or procedures
: specialized procedures for drawing logical
conclusions from data
(: systems of interrelated propositions about causal
connections b/w concepts
Asking Sociological Questions
): a model of framework for observation and
understanding, which shapes both what we see and how we understand
it
*
(Structure of Scienti!c Solutions)
:
oCycle: paradigm => normal science => research !ndings
contradict assumptions => anomalies assumed to be error or
corrections are added to paradigm => errors and patchwork
corrections cumulate = crisis => paradigm shift
oAll scienti!c paradigms are based on 
o+paradigm replace old one by the end of the research
!to understand big picture of institutions, whole
societies, and interactions among societies, i.e. Marx''s class struggle
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: understand intimate level of individuals and their
interactions, i.e. gift o3ering behavior
"': each part of society exist to support
functioning of the system
oGood to explain stability but NOT change
oIgnores how di3. part of society have di3. interests
,-): society is built by struggles b/w people with
di3. interests
": how people interact with each
other
o./: others' reactions de!ne us
o%$: how people generally see things
!people are constantly creating social
structures through actions and interactions = creating realities
oFocuses on
': attention to aspects of social life that are
not revealed by other paradigms
)+"0"1":
oAssumptions are testable
oParadigm shift is a result of  something
oparadigms exist
) : we can scienti!cally
discover rules governing social life
oMost important to understand 2
: most important to understand
how people understand their world
(: systems of interrelated propositions about casual
connections b/w concepts
: characteristics of people or things
0: logical grouping of attributes
3)!fundamental assertions, taken to be true,
on which a theory is grounded
): speci!c conclusions about the relationships among
concepts that are derived from the axiomatic groundwork
4: a speci!ed testable expectation about empirical
realty that follows from a proposition
Three main elements of traditional model of science: 5
$5
o 6: the possibility that observations may
not support expectations
: using a general rule to make predictions => usually
used to test theories
: using observations to develop general rules =>
usually used to develop new theories
%/: Bernie Beck's Trick
oTake the speci!c !ndings from the data
oFind all the words that are about the speci!c !ndings and
forbid the use of these words
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oRestate the !ndings so they are more general but still
concrete
: examines a new interest by using a
/
: to describe situations and events, such
as people's views => 
: to explain things 78
9: (Gladwell): the cause of success as
perhaps have less to do with individual smart, talent, or ambition than
many might think
Thinking about Causation
;578
oAn approach to explanation in which we seek to 
the idiosyncratic causes of a particular event
oIdeographic causes are<but+#(
+;/55
78
oAn approach to explanation in which we seek to identify
/causal factors that in9uence a class of events
oisolates partial explanation
ogoal is to provide most explanation with lest variables
o provides a complete explanation
oDiscover =<
+!a condition must be present for the e3ect to
follow
"<! a condition pretty much guarantee the e3ect
BUT not the only cause
: X  lead to W
): W is more likely if X than not X; on average W is
higher when X than when not X
: examples collected from experience in a non-
systematic way
oCan appear consistent with a theory/ hypotheses BUT
cannot support/ discon!rm a probabilistic explanation
oSubject to all errors of observations (4)
oCan be a source of new hypotheses
,/!
oVariables must be !variation in all variables is
key here NOT !nding two things together
o(: the cause takes place before the e3ect
oVariables are 
oExceptions do not discon!rm a causal relationship
"9!a coincidental statistical correlation
b/w two variables that is shown to be caused by some  variable
oTo rule out spuriousness ideally:
Measure  variable possible
Hold the potentially spurious variable 
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Document Summary

A sociological question is: about the social world, empirically-testable (non-normative), theoretically-relevant. Methodology: the science of finding out; procedures od scientific investigation. Agreement reality: what we know as part and parcel of the culture we share with those around us. Experimental reality: what we know from personal experience and discovery. Selective observation: one danger led by overgeneralization; we tend to focus on future events and situations that fit the pattern and ignore those that don"t. Overgeneralization: we often assume that a few similar events are evidence of a general pattern. Gambler"s fallacy: often we assume that a consistent run of either good or bad luck foreshadows the opposite. Data: empirical evidence or info gathered carefully according to specific rules or procedures conclusions from data connections b/w concepts. Paradigm: a model of framework for observation and o understanding, which shapes both what we see and how we understand it.

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