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George H Meadwas an American philosopher sociologist and psychologist primarily affiliated with the University of Chicago where he was one of several distinguished pragmatists Wrote the self Explains the mechanics of the mind that fit well with other theories but are often left unexamined Benjamin Franklin One of founding fathers of United States Protestant ethicMax Muller was a German philologist and Orientalist one of the founders of the western academic field of Indian studies and the discipline of comparative religion Created theory called naturismE B Tylor Animism He believed that there was a functional basis for the development of society and religion which he determined was universalThe American Pragmatists Peirce James Dewey Theory and action like feurbach Certain things become habitual Pragmatism is a philosophical tradition centered on the linking of practice and theory Frederick Engelswas a GermanEnglish industrialist social scientist author political theorist philosopher and father of Marxist theory alongside Karl Marx In 1845 he published The Condition of the Working Class in England based on personal observations and research In 1848 he coauthored The Communist Manifesto with Karl Marx and later he supported Marx financially to do research and write Das Kapital After Marxs death Engels edited the second and third volumes Additionally Engels organized Marxs notes on the Theories of Surplus Value and this was later published as the fourth volume of CapitalEmile Durkheim much of Durkheims work was concerned with how societies could maintain their integrity and coherence in modernity an era in which traditional social and religious ties are no longer assumed and in which new social institutions have come into being His first major sociological work was The Division of Labor in Society 1893 Wrote The rules of the sociological method 1895 Suicide 1897 and the elementary forms of the religious life 1912 Early Durkheim is positivistfunctionalist later is the cultural analystMax WeberWebers main intellectual concern was understanding the processes of rationalization secularization and disenchantment that he associated with the rise of capitalism and modernity Weber argued that the most important difference among societies is not how people produce things but how people think about the world Wrote the protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism 190405 economy and society 1925 and from max webers essays in sociology 1946ConceptsInstinctualismpsychology perspective ideas in our head come from our instincts Nature programs ideas into our headsBureaucracy A bureaucracy is an organization of nonelected officials of a government or organization who implements the rules laws and functions of their institution Nominalism vs Realism Most nominalists have held that only physical particulars in space and time are real and that universals exist only post res that is subsequent to particular things ex Deskthe belief that reality exists independently of observers Has to do with the question of whether society exists Is it more important to study the whole society or the parts individualsMarx and Durkheim took societallevel social structure as their starting point Weber takes individuallevel social action as his starting point Pragmatism is a philosophical tradition centered on the linking of practice and theory It describes a process where theory is extracted from practice and applied back to practice to form what is called intelligent practice Behaviourismbased on the proposition that all things that organisms doincluding acting thinking and feelingcan and should be regarded as behaviors and that psychological disorders are best treated by altering behavior patterns or modifying the environment Blas attitude When the nerves are overstimulated for too long they finally cease to react at all An incapacity thus emerges to react to new sensations with appropriate energy This constitutes that blas attitude which in fact every metropolitan child shows when compared with children of quieter and less changeable milieus Metropolisa very large city or urban area which is a significant economic political and cultural center for a country or region and an important hub for regional or international connections and communications Organic groups vs rational groupsAccording to Simmel these are different criteria for group formationOrganic groups are formed on natural criteria age sex etcRational groups are based on common interestsVerstehenis an ordinary German word with exactly the same meaning as the English word understand the term is particularly associated with the German sociologist Max Weber whose antipositivism established an alternative to prior sociological positivism and economic determinism rooted in the analysis of social action We can accomplish something which is never attainable in the natural sciences namely the subjective understanding of the action of the component individuals Ideal types For Weber the conduct of social science depends upon the construction of hypothetical concepts in the abstract DisenchantmentThe concept was originally coined by Max Weber to describe the character of modernized bureaucratic secularized Western society where scientific understanding is more highly valued than belief and where processes are oriented toward rational goals Historic modes of production tribal ancient feudal capitalistTribalHowever the foraging mode of production still exists and often typified in contemporary huntergatherer societiesClassless society ie No ruling class Ancient Asiatic mode of production This is a controversial contribution to Marxist theory initially used to explain preslave and prefeudal large earthwork constructions in China India the Euphrates and Nile river valleys and named on this basis of the primary evidence coming from greater Asia The Asiatic mode of production is said to be the initial form of class society where a small group extracts social surplus through violence aimed at settled or unsettled band communities within a domain Exploited labour is extracted as
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