Durkheim and Marx - community- overview

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- You might take a look at how Marx and Durkheim identify the similar processes. - i.e. the rise of modernism leading to the break down in social ties, which leads to less social cohesion (Durkheim calls this Soli- darity, Marx calls it species being) - and finally alienation/anomie. - - But, then reach very different conclusions about how to remedy the problem. - - After all, Durkheim argues that the solution is greater is greater division of labor (to increase organic solidarity), - - while Marx argues that division of labor is one of the causes of this break down. - - - A good these would be something like "Why do Marx & Durkheim have similar conceptualizations of what is going on and both identify it as detrimental, yet the solution one advocates, the other identifies as a cause" - - they saw that society would maladjust with “advancement” ---> proof and as such, there is an attempt to conceptualize modernity, that is, modern industrial urban life, as distinct from earlier communal life ---political economy--organic society Marx: solution: expectation that capitalist society would overcome alienation and re-establish communal regulation and social solidarity materialistic origins of change - changes in technology led to changes in social organi- zation, and to changes in beliefs and values - -human beings are not able to maximize their potential, and are becoming increasingly alienated -ability to express yourself through work- species being - premise: human consciousness is a reflection of the modes of production - once peo- ple hold the same material interests- they will hold the same opinions and passions - we are alienated from our fellow man, we are begining to treat each other as objects/instruments --- characteristics of modernity, we are not interacting with each oth- er as human beings in person relationships, but we tend to treat each other as objects. - what breaks up society (vs Durkheim, what holds society together) - what breaks up modern society - alienation in labour - human beings begin their existence by making society and at some point feel society is an extensiion of their nature and being --- as modern society develops, human beings begin to feel that society is not of their own making/no longer reflecting their being/na- ture, thus, man changes with the historical development of the world - alienation comes from the nature of commodity producing commercial society - materialism and conscious being - theory of society and individual - wage, profit and rent and private ownership culiminating in alienation. It comes out of the nature of commodity producing commercial society, and thep roblem can only be fixed if you fix the problems of commodity producing societies. - rejects the political economy- production of commodities and accumulation of wealth - political economy as an ideology of the bourgeousie- and it is dull, with restricted uniformity--in a political eocnomy, individuals only reproduce themselves as isolated individuals - presents an ideal of community: cooperative, non-privitized, individuals sharing the common task of producing and distributing goods to meet social needs and this commu- nal nature of economic activity is reflected in other relationships too - social connected with the economic life, speaks of the human condition as an identity to the labour force - a community is working class solidarity, where a class in itself, becomes a class for it- self with awareness of common interests - a;lienation as over-regulation, problem comes from society, we are born in to society, we are social by nature, and if modernity would be removed, we would act socially and collectively - marx postulates: recognizes the relations individuals have, but with their labor, and each other, and resources. - the individual arose in civil society with certain rights and freedoms, but becomes seperate from society, developing an identity in a “private affair”, rather of the wider community - there is an inability to pursuit of private gain, thus isolation (durkheim agrees to a de- gree) - he isnt negating the social aspects of an individual but their indiviuals are connected in an antagonistic way - marx is against the specialization and division of labor, because it prevents people from realizing and expressing their human potential. the division of labour alienated per- sons from the product, and everything that happens after it is produced (wikipedia):first, he receives an object of labour, that is he finds work [as one says: 'I fi- nally found work!'], and second, he receives means of subsistence. He thereby owes it [to labour] the possibility to exist first as a worker, second as a physical subject. The last straw of this servitude [or serfdom] is that it is only his quality as a worker that permits him to continue to conserve himself as a physical subject, and it is only as a physical subject that he can be a worker". In other words, the worker relies on labour to find money to be able to live; but he doesn't simply live, he actually only survives, as a work- er. Labour is only used to create more wealth, instead of achieving the fulfillment of "hu- man nature". Species Being [17] Humans, unlike other animals are species beings in that they not only belong to a species, they make that species the object of thinking and acting.� This means, first, that human behaviour is intentional: Third, human beings determine what it is to be a human being.� Under feudalism, workers were �desultory� and worked by the light.� Under capitalism, they are regimented by the clock. So, human beings act for a purpose,
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