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SOC203H1 Study Guide - The Communist Manifesto, Liberal Democracy, Inuit Art


Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOC203H1
Professor
jackveulgers

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Jan 14 , 2013
SOC203 Lec #2 Inequality
Page 2 of the outline the important dates listed and no extensions are allowed in
this course.
There will be 2 TAs – jan 20 end of add drop period. After that he will divide us
in 2 TAs and give their email address. In 2 more weeks.
Bb will be posted in 3 more weeks but only for grades
6. Inequality in pre-modern societies:
hunter gather- we associate with native ppl prior to European contact- art gallery
of ontaario there is inuit art where there are a tusk from one animal, vertebrate
from another animal to create a mythological feature and these were popular in
post war – these ppl were nomatic because they travelled and stayed still in winter
that’s why their sculptures were small. The reason for survival their possessions
were small, very little of private property, no domestication of plants or animals,
societies in which ther are egalitarian in socioeconomic difference, there is a
sexual difference labour were males are to do in sorts of activity and women in
some cultivation like gathering and men hunters but not sexual differentiation
meaning little gender inequality even with gender diviosn of labour. Another term
is generalized reciprocity- this term from anthropology means a culture of giving
without receiving. In our society tomorrow is our birthday and tom we get a gift
but not expectation that you will give it back to me, not being looked at very
closely , no expectation of an immediate return but a circle that will come around
meaning I give and another will give back to me. Like hunter a skill of luck and
those who has been unlucky has been their contribution. Generalized- requires a
pooling of economic resources in society and we generalize it as goods are
distributed in a hunter gather society. Marx referred to primitive.
Tribal- are more associated with domestication of plants and animals,
leadership(women are subordinated politically-gender inequality) and the
economy is partly redistributive with families responsible for directing what they
produce to the chief which he distributes to how he sees fit and how he sees fit. Its
more to the tribal chief and less egalitarian, political economy and economic
inequality.
Early states: weber described ancient Egypt, ancient Rome , china,
Mesopotamia(Iraq), states society are associated with extreme inequality.
Economic, political power more with emporo an is supported by beaucrats, army,
irrigation, dams, building of wall of china all support him, Below his household
are the tremendous population meaning peasants.
Expression of Marx: if u want to identify the real power of means of production,

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weber saying the same language said we also have to look at who controls the
mean of violence. In a hunter gather we might look at sling shots- the means of
violence are all to males and are more egalitarian but in a tribal society most adult
males are warrior but everything falls in hands of chef for control, and early states
most are peasants and men aren’t the only control of power it’s the empress who
has a standing army(permanent professional soldiers) and the fact that empress is
standing with a army has a tremendous role of forcing a threat of violence for
those who disobey. Tremendous concentrations of the means of army which has
control of violence.
Referring to gender inequality- sociologists look at different society is. How does
variation I ownership of properties weather communist or capitalist affect gender
variation? A society with private property would you find more gander quality or
inequality because men pressure women to keep down. As a sociologist you must
look at how things hang together. Lets look at international relations for the last 2
decades there has been discussion on how liberal democracy hangs with
capitalism. This has to do with the kinds of friends the us makes, can we expect a
country more capitalist will become more liberal democratic? For a long time
there was this belief this is because we had a lot of fascist, the idea was that
societies went to series of capitalist development being a defense through
totalirian leader, well this belief is now in question by history. Look at china, a
democratic regime, a multi party regime which hold regular elections which is
idealistic for an opposition to win unlike china. Look at Singapore which is at the
margins leading a bit toward Canada and not totally like china. We are now
starting to have doubts that democracy and capitalism go together.
In 1 and 2 (French peasants before revolution) and French lords before
revolution- now we going to England. 3. Inequality is a social fact. 4. Some main
forms of inequality. 5. Some main sources of inequality. Today was 6.
7. Marx on work conditions in Britain- better conditions in the city to protect
work force. The bourgeoisie didn’t need to put such protections in place because
there was a reserved army in the city so as workers dimnesde new ones came in
replenishing the old one. _Marx- the excess of population. Marx describes it in
sociological language and emotional language too saying they were short lived
and stunted”. Very strong labours come to the city thinking that they would
benefit from growing in natural conditions but even they are eventually cut off.
He also answers the question saying that capitalist can rely on worker of labours
being replenished so they worried about losing labour. Another example taken
form 1863- max talks about the conitions that appals him. Death from someone
working in a milliner(dress factory). The women died from long hours, from poor
ventilation. Another factory that makes matches (leusofor)- since 1845 developed
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in England – the spread of disease and half the workers under the children age of
13 and most odour was there and widow women woud bring their children here.
In an examination 50 were under 10 5 were under 6 year old, kids were working,
with long working days, irregular meal times, and taken from rooms with lotsof
phosphorous.
This was all an introduction to inequality
Today’s leacture:
Toqville- what you saw from the reading tonight, (marx did a description from
extreme inequality- passion of how quality is lacking) you saw the difference
between master and servent. Wether you agree with toqville, you need to know its
aristocrtae, he saw some of the achivments of the aristocratic society in the 1830s
where he believed that increasing equality was inevitable and so he talked about
how these values can be cherished. He talked of physical inequality and physical
suffering and it was not a central concern for toqville, he creates a great deal of
attention to the native americans after arrival of European americans. His concern
was the threat of aptimization of society under conditions of extreme inequality.
Aptimization( we think of individuals) who are connected to their famalies.
Toqville demonstrated that the realtions between master and servent are somhow
are paternalistic and much more warmer with more carring and he talks about
master and servant in egalitarian society are contractual relations- meaning I will
keep on working for you as long as it serves my interest but if it does not keep to
my adavantage I will no longer be permenant and go. When you re read the
relations in toqville you have to see them as imblomatic-
From what extent are class and status (prestige) correlated? If I want to find out
is it enough for me to see how much they earned? In our contemporary society it
is more together in this society than previous ones- toqville has a little to say
about class differences but a lot about staus diffrences- he talked about the
missgivings they had because of the statuses, he talked about americans at home
and Americans at broad- he talked about statuses people understood at home and
when they interacted with others. Prof chose toqville since it is more realist, and
the handling of status will become more sophisticated when we look at marx
weber. We look at than when status and class work together.
Toqville:
Historical context of the communist manifesto (1848)
Marx wrote for different audiances at difference times and in 201 he talked about
alienation where he wrote for himself. So as he thinks he writes things and its
complex. The communist manifesto was written to give hope, a political trap for
large population. What marx imparts is that change is happening and so that more
radical change is coming and it’s a more radical to be expected. So we will talk
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