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University of Toronto St. George

Jan 14 , 2013 SOC203 Lec #2 Inequality • Page 2 of the outline the important dates listed and no extensions are allowed in this course. • There will be 2 TAs – jan 20 end of add drop period. After that he will divide us in 2 TAs and give their email address. In 2 more weeks. • Bb will be posted in 3 more weeks but only for grades • 6. Inequality in pre-modern societies: • hunter gather- we associate with native ppl prior to European contact- art gallery of ontaario there is inuit art where there are a tusk from one animal, vertebrate from another animal to create a mythological feature and these were popular in post war – these ppl were nomatic because they travelled and stayed still in winter that’s why their sculptures were small. The reason for survival their possessions were small, very little of private property, no domestication of plants or animals, societies in which ther are egalitarian in socioeconomic difference, there is a sexual difference labour were males are to do in sorts of activity and women in some cultivation like gathering and men hunters but not sexual differentiation meaning little gender inequality even with gender diviosn of labour. Another term is generalized reciprocity- this term from anthropology means a culture of giving without receiving. In our society tomorrow is our birthday and tom we get a gift but not expectation that you will give it back to me, not being looked at very closely , no expectation of an immediate return but a circle that will come around meaning I give and another will give back to me. Like hunter a skill of luck and those who has been unlucky has been their contribution. Generalized- requires a pooling of economic resources in society and we generalize it as goods are distributed in a hunter gather society. Marx referred to primitive. • Tribal- are more associated with domestication of plants and animals, leadership(women are subordinated politically-gender inequality) and the economy is partly redistributive with families responsible for directing what they produce to the chief which he distributes to how he sees fit and how he sees fit. Its more to the tribal chief and less egalitarian, political economy and economic inequality. • Early states: weber described ancient Egypt, ancient Rome , china, Mesopotamia(Iraq), states society are associated with extreme inequality. Economic, political power more with emporo an is supported by beaucrats, army, irrigation, dams, building of wall of china all support him, Below his household are the tremendous population meaning peasants. • Expression of Marx: if u want to identify the real power of means of production, weber saying the same language said we also have to look at who controls the mean of violence. In a hunter gather we might look at sling shots- the means of violence are all to males and are more egalitarian but in a tribal society most adult males are warrior but everything falls in hands of chef for control, and early states most are peasants and men aren’t the only control of power it’s the empress who has a standing army(permanent professional soldiers) and the fact that empress is standing with a army has a tremendous role of forcing a threat of violence for those who disobey. Tremendous concentrations of the means of army which has control of violence. • Referring to gender inequality- sociologists look at different society is. How does variation I ownership of properties weather communist or capitalist affect gender variation? A society with private property would you find more gander quality or inequality because men pressure women to keep down. As a sociologist you must look at how things hang together. Lets look at international relations for the last 2 decades there has been discussion on how liberal democracy hangs with capitalism. This has to do with the kinds of friends the us makes, can we expect a country more capitalist will become more liberal democratic? For a long time there was this belief this is because we had a lot of fascist, the idea was that societies went to series of capitalist development being a defense through totalirian leader, well this belief is now in question by history. Look at china, a democratic regime, a multi party regime which hold regular elections which is idealistic for an opposition to win unlike china. Look at Singapore which is at the margins leading a bit toward Canada and not totally like china. We are now starting to have doubts that democracy and capitalism go together. • In 1 and 2 (French peasants before revolution) and French lords before revolution- now we going to England. 3. Inequality is a social fact. 4. Some main forms of inequality. 5. Some main sources of inequality. Today was 6. • 7. Marx on work conditions in Britain- better conditions in the city to protect work force. The bourgeoisie didn’t need to put such protections in place because there was a reserved army in the city so as workers dimnesde new ones came in replenishing the old one. _Marx- the excess of population. Marx describes it in sociological language and emotional language too saying they were short lived and stunted”. Very strong labours come to the city thinking that they would benefit from growing in natural conditions but even they are eventually cut off. He also answers the question saying that capitalist can rely on worker of labours being replenished so they worried about losing labour. Another example taken form 1863- max talks about the conitions that appals him. Death from someone working in a milliner(dress factory). The women died from long hours, from poor ventilation. Another factory that makes matches (leusofor)- since 1845 developed in England – the spread of disease and half the workers under the children age of 13 and most odour was there and widow women woud bring their children here. In an examination 50 were under 10 5 were under 6 year old, kids were working, with long working days, irregular meal times, and taken from rooms with lotsof phosphorous. • This was all an introduction to inequality • Today’s leacture: • Toqville- what you saw from the reading tonight, (marx did a description from extreme inequality- passion of how quality is lacking) you saw the difference between master and servent. Wether you agree with toqville, you need to know its aristocrtae, he saw some of the achivments of the aristocratic society in the 1830s where he believed that increasing equality was inevitable and so he talked about how these values can be cherished. He talked of physical inequality and physical suffering and it was not a central concern for toqville, he creates a great deal of attention to the native americans after arrival of European americans. His concern was the threat of aptimization of society under conditions of extreme inequality. Aptimization( we think of individuals) who are connected to their famalies. Toqville demonstrated that the realtions between master and servent are somhow are paternalistic and much more warmer with more carring and he talks about master and servant in egalitarian society are contractual relations- meaning I will keep on working for you as long as it serves my interest but if it does not keep to my adavantage I will no longer be permenant and go. When you re read the relations in toqville you have to see them as imblomatic- • From what extent are class and status (prestige) correlated? If I want to find out is it enough for me to see how much they earned? In our contemporary society it is more together in this society than previous ones- toqville has a little to say about class differences but a lot about staus diffrences- he talked about the missgivings they had because of the statuses, he talked about americans at home and Americans at broad- he talked about statuses people understood at home and when they interacted with others. Prof chose toqville since it is more realist, and the handling of status will become more sophisticated when we look at marx weber. We look at than when status and class work together. • Toqville: • Historical context of the communist manifesto (1848) • Marx wrote for different audiances at difference times and in 201 he talked about alienation where he wrote for himself. So as he thinks he writes things and its complex. The communist manifesto was written to give hope, a political trap for large population. What marx imparts is that change is happening and so that more radical change is coming and it’s a more radical to be expected. So we will talk about some paradoxes. • 1. Slow change: there was a great deal of slow change. • persistence of monarchies- monarchies were persistence as king held power which is a sign that the old days were still wilth Europeans in 1840 • Persistence of old classes – they were still alive associated with monarchies (aricrostal) so across Europe except Britain most ppl were peasens but even in Britain, it was aristocrat for the wealthiest class- so old social classes when marx wrote this manifesto • Slow rise of new classes- lets start with the middle class. There is this old book and this historian used how many famalies were not aristocrats – he came with the conclusion that at this time the middle class were a minor proportion like bankers, civil service, merchants. In great Britain it was the most industrialized and this middle class was 2% of the population and else where this % was even smaller. Politarian- even in Britain that class was minute making it 4%(working on railroads) across Europe but after 1840 kings were back in power in france. In Britain new class was coming slow but small but when u reading manifesto it was written that ploetarian will become large overthrowing this whole thing. This than makes h
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