Short answer review

13 Pages

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Brent Berry

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Lecture 1 Immigrants do worse in the labor marketLower employment rateHigherwho are not in the labour forceHigherworking in part time than full time jobsLower average incomeExplain difference in economic achievement between immigrant and Canadian born populationSocial networks of immigrants are usually less extensiveForeign credentials and foreign working experience of immigrants are discreditedDifferential treatment of immigrants in the labour market in relation to job attainment and promotionPoorer quality of recent immigrant entering than those of earlier immigrantDue to structural changes in the citys economy in recent decadesVoluntary and involuntary segregationVoluntary segregation people choose to live in the same area as others with a common cultureInvoluntary segregation people are forced by lack of financial resources or discrimination to live adjacent to others of the same culture groupDifferent theories that have tried to explain changes in immigrant settlement patternsClassical perspectives Macro and Micro PerspectivesMacro general settlement patterns of immigrants at the city leveloConcentric zone model describes relationship between city residential pattern and immigrant adaptation processWhen immigrants move into a new country with limited resources and language skills they usually stay closer to other members of their ethnic groupBecause they have limited financial resources they live at zone in transition then move out to the outer zone when they increase their incomeMicro racial and ethnic composition within individual neighborhoodsoInvasion succession model A few minority families with socioeconomic resources move into the neighbourhood and the established groups move outEventually the ethnic composition change will lead to a stage of consolidation when the neighourhood has a large number of ethnic minority membersContemporary perspectives spatial assimilation model and place stratification modelSpatial assimilation model othe changes in patterns of immigrants neighbourhood with other groups over timeoaffected by socioeconomic resources and duration of time in countryoracial and ethnic residential patterns reflect economic difference and similarities among groups and their possible preference to stay together in a new country when they first arriveoracial and ethnic groups are more likely share neighborhood when they have similar levels of socioeconomic resources and when they have been in this country for a longer periodPlace stratification modelosuggests that groups are stratified according to locations in the city oAssociated with resources prestige and statusLecture 2Factors contributing to the new political economy 4 factorsFrom the order to crisiso1920s30s perception of breakdown of the moral order was studied by charting the physical form of the city and demonstrating how this influenced urban organization experience o1960sshift in paradigm to explain urban crisis explaining the growing incidence of civil disorders arising out of racial segregation and conflict inequality and poverty Policy changes influencing suburbanizationoAfter WWII sharp increase in suburban communitiesoMajor housing shortage faced by return of war veterans and postwar babyboomfinancial and government policies were changed in order to encourage suburb housing boomoAvailability of loans and tax incentives to developers and lowinterest mortgages requiring small or no down payments to purchasers Race Class and Lifestyle IssuesoPeople moving to suburbs to actively seek a distinct lifestyle characterized by a childcentered orientationoEscape from the city thesisshift of large proportion of white middleclass Americans to the suburbs as a means of escaping the waves of southern blacks and Hispanics that were flooding into the cities of the northeast in the 1950s and 1960s
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