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Chapter 9 +10 reading after test 2-1.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
William Magee

Chapter 9- control theories -assumes deviance will occur and looks at how we can control it -parental involvement and stake in conformity Introduction -can be traced back to Durkheim, hobbes and Aristotle -hobbes- people obey society due to fear -durkheim- suicide book- not human nature to put controls on our needs -bentham- based social and legal controls on principles of rational calculation -felicific calculus- assumed that humans have a capacity to align their actions with whatever course would maximie their pleasure and minimize their pain, this was opposed a lot- locking up doors at nght- opportunity in itself is a cause of crime -control theorist- ron Clarke- the theory still meets with indifference or hostility from criminologists. -haggerty- rather looking at social causationor individual pathology, situational criminology (CONTROL THEORY) concentrates on reducing crime through loss prevention, target hardening and enhanced visability, many criminologists don’t wnt to focus on fence height, lock strength, since its for security to focus on -the neglect of control theory may also have been due to the unpopularity in liberal sociological circles of work that appears to support discipline, punishment and regulation. -Gluecks- ttempted to predict delinquency in 1930s, 40s and 50s- associated with a stress on pathological, individualistic, and psychological 3 variables: mothers affection for child Mothers supervision of the child Family cohesion -all now modified by hirschi and harriet Wilson -gluecks work was neglected in 1960s -reckless elaborated the notion of self-concept as an ‘insulating factor’ in delinquency. Work was ignored, -1920s and 1930s- produced main sociological version of control theory: shaw and mckays conept of social disorganization -a lack of conformity and prescence of opportunities creates deviance -sykes and matza- argud that delinquents commonly adhered to the same set of avlues as everybody else. Deviants differed in their invocation of ‘techniques of neutraliztion’ which freed them from guilt and shame and which temporarily neutralized the social bond to emable them to engage in delinquent activities. -jackson toby- proposed more sociological version of control theory by asserting that delinquents were distinguished from non-delinquents by their minimal ‘stake in conformity’- stemming from family, school, work experiences -briar and piliavan- ‘situational inducements’ -homans and blau- model for individual in society, like control theorist- homo econmicus- human behaviour is explained by individual gratifications provided by exchange and that moral values emerge from ongoing exchanges.- close to symbolic interactionists theory -one of homans examples- from Westinghouse electrical company study- deviants were sanctioned om order to enforce group conformity- homans view of people is tuned to behaviourism -deviance and culture- crime and the full moon -lunacy – England 18 cent if crime was committed during full moon and hope to get lighter sentence -arnold lieber tested in Miami Travis hircshi -occur when persons bond to society is weak or broken -attachemnt, commitment, involvement, belief: these 4 controls interact to produce a non-delinquent -the conformist is bonded to others, the deviant is not -offending while on bail- involment and commitement -control theory is interested in why people don’t commit deviance -parental supervision is inversely related to delinquency -hirchis work is empirical Steven Box`s contribution -tried to match labelling theory with control theory -social class and ethnicity are not related to delinquency in self report studies but high in official statistics because self reports is primary (crime goes unreported) and statistics is secondary deviance -motivation to commit deviance is importsnt to box- depends on secrecy, skills, supply, symbolic and social support -status frustration (leads to reaction formation) is more important that resentment -against cohen -similar critiscm is made at matzas attept to restore the mood of humanism and rationalizing delinquency as a way of being `pushed around` box says these are incompatible, your either one or the other- either resoting the mood or being pushed around The contribution of harriet Wilson -study of socially deprive families- chaperonage- measure degree of protection parents gave their children -2 parent families more strict, more control over kids Lab and sampson -the criminal justice system can b criminogenic -human agency- interrupted- Control ad lay theories believe delinqucney is cause by inadequate measures Situational control theories- the controbtion of clarke -hoe some people are born or acquire a disposition to commit delinquent acts -positivist cirminlogy -focus of situational control theories is the opportunities for crime available in the environment and the risks attached to criminal activity. --clarke- policy-relevant research should focus on containment, deterrent sentencing, police effectiveness and crime prevention. The outcome was the commissioning of a series of research reports on small practical campaigns to modify crime. -offender is capable of rational choice -airline hijacking was revented by introduction of baggage screening in 1970s, graffiti on subways were eliminated by prompt removal of it as soon as it appeared. (Clarke) The Economist`s Angle -rational choice theory has come to have an important place in the arguments of control theory itself -Gary Becker: ``Crime and Punishment: An Economic Approach``- assessed the expenditure on control and punishment and on other hand, the social losses from criminal offences -economists assumption for becker: people wil offend if the utility of doing so exceeds the utility of not doing so. Offending was not motivation, but a matter of costs and benefits weighed by people- exception is crimes commited due to mental illnesses -organized by scripts and charts breaking down complex acts into `aggregations of simpler elements`` -shown by organized crime -the evidence of ethnographic studies of delinquency- strongly suggest that people are usually aware of consciously choosing to commit offences. -control theory relies on a model of rational choice -clarke- `standin decisions` can become changed norms and values -measures for crime prevention have two linked emphases: -reducing the physical opportunities for offending- can bear approach out with `target hardening`- led to a dcline in burglaries and pharmacies - and increasing the risk of an offenders being caught -neighbours are more important than the police in preventing break-ins -study of burglary in schools-hope had 2 different styles in school buildings in Britain- the large, modern, sprawling schools which were often set in spacious grounds and the small, old compact schools with only a modest amount of space around them. -large sprawling- burglaries were 4times higher than small compact schools -conclusion: differences in burglary rates can be attributed to features of DEISGN- small schools less accessible for predators and can be easily monitored by surveillance -the seoncd prong of the preventive approach builds on the assumption that there is a good deal of unrealized potential fr making sue of the surveillance role of employees who come into regular and frequent contact with the public in semi-official capacity. The contribution of newman -passive improvements in environmental design can reduce deviance -oscar newmans defensible space has been the most dicussed theory on passive controls that can be mobilized by imporvements in housing design, demonstrating the link between high-rise public-sector housing and increased rates of delinquency -jane Jacobs had laid its foundation in her classic lament for the rapidly disappearing intimacy and diversity of city life- no streets- urban for children to play -critism: high rise housing complex had plaed these features of urbannes and created areas of spac of an indefensible charcter- don’t know hwose safe through elevators- -another critism: newman neglected the social effects of communal reputation on the behaviour of those who lived in crime-ridden neighbourhoods, people who are part of a morally stigmatized area experience discrimination, impaired life chances, and unhelpful neighbouts. -newman was insensitive to the effects of different policing strategies and that the high crime rates of the problem housing development reveal police assumptios and policies as real variations in behaviour, some housing re under-policed -newman suumed that deviants do not belong to an area but are outsiders against whom space can be successfully defended -newman assmed that a sense of territoriality is a widespread human drive, however ppl may not variably wish to have a symbolic stake in space -HIS WORK- SITUATIONA AND SOCIOLOGICAL CONTROL VARIABLES -newmans concept of defensible space -criticism: focus of design neglects the influence of stigma, social organization and formal social control, cant only be controlled by manipulations of physical, its social and physical interactions that cause it Case study- situational crime prevention -situation crime prevention is an evidence-based approach that deters offenders through the use of architecture as a place-improvement process. -benefits- increase in sense of public ownership and decrease in public fear -filtering process -primary prevention- reduce deviance by correcting factors that have basic influenceon everyone like social disorganization lack of social cohesion, economic pressures -secondary prevention- focuses on indiiduals who are known to be likely to become involved in crimes- education ofr elderly about frauds -tertiary precention-prevent recidivism like modifying repeatedly victimied buildings, setting up rehab programs for offenders. The broken window hypothesis (Wilson and kelling) -first discussed by jane Jacobs then james Wilson and George kelling -broken windows grafiitis sign of neighbourhoods that were in decay, showed that social control had gone as families move out and unattached adults move in. -communal disorganization -sampson and raudenbush riticize this whole argument, sauig it mistakes symptoms for causes. – say should look at collective efficiency -structural disadvantage rather than disorder -controlling symbolic signs of public disorder such as graffiti and vandalism could reduce crime The idea of surveillance th -benthams panopticon- a design for a prison in 18 cent -foucault said power so perfected -focaults metaphore of surveillance is benthams panopticon -the panopticon metaphor suggested that social controls were being pushed, dispersed and exended by technological towards a growing dependence on surveillance, electronically generated information and calculations of risk -cohen; a deepr penetration of social control into the social body -surveillance is becoming more diffuse -the control of risk is the new control strategy -first influence – the analysis of the partial retreat of a now hollowed-out state and its formal agencies of control into core activities centred on maintenance of order over especially troublesome groups and spaces. new urban landscape where rich can afford to live in secutiry bubbles in a insecure space around them -shearing and stenning describe Disney worls as a private domain they control their visitors -second influence is growing emphasis on the importance of RISK -beck said they are phenomena mediated by ppls dependence on social institutions -populations are affected by risk -control becomes risk management Miscellaneous theories of a control character -labelling theories- controls are secondary deviation Psychology and control -psychodynamic controls -eysencks theory of crime and personality and tis social psychological variant, traslers concept of inadequate socialization -eysencks theory- extroverts are more resistant to conditioning than introverts and that in all contexts save a criminal sub-society, extreoverts will tend to be more open to crimi
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