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University of Toronto St. George
Jenna Valleriani

SOC212 Lecture on June 3 – Functionalism and Strain Functionalism · Emile Durkheim · A view which focuses on the idea that societies evolve, grow, or develop · Everything in society serves some kind of social function which has the higher goal of maintaining social order · How different parts are connected · To say that something is functional does not necessarily mean it is a good thing · Society is full of interdependent and interrelated parts · Key features:  Industrialization – specialized division of labour  Urbanization – movement of people from country to the city · Societies are simply organized to start with, but over time they grow and become more complex · Like an organism, societies have certain needs; needs are called “functional prerequisites”; needs like:  Food  Water  Shelter · All societies have these needs but they can achieve them in different ways; systems are developed to meet the needs Political system · The goals of the system must be defined, means of attempting to achieve these goals must be laid out, and then these goals must be achieved · Government will act as a guide to define our goals, and to define our systems to achieve the goals Education system · Creates social solidarity, transmits culture, and teachers specialized knowledge · Manifest functions  Consequences that are visible and intended  Teaching important skills, preparing students for jobs, evaluating individuals · Latent functions  Consequences that are less visible and often unintended  Reproducing existing class structure (i.e. wealthy families send kids to elite prep schools) Shared culture · The systems and the society are held together because everyone shares the same values · Transmitted through socialization into common norms and values · Core beliefs:  Stories, legends, heroes  Rules, policies  Languages  Symbols, artifacts  Unwritten expectations · We agree on what’s right and wrong, what’s acceptable and not · We set sanctions on ideas we do not approve of, maybe with the use of laws Industrial society · With a larger society, new ways have to be found to meet functional prerequisites · Need for specialized workers and professionals means the old system of aristocratic elites will not work · Industrial society therefore becomes meritocratic under functionalism Agency · Capacity of an agent to act Criticisms · It assumes value consensus · It generally has an inadequate view of power – everyone is not equal · People who start off with more capital, and in higher class, have inbuilt advantages · It seems deterministic – people still seem very much at the mercy of social structures Summary of functionalism · Most members of society share a common value system · As societies evolve, new systems of norms and divisions of labour replace older ones · Strain (anomie) arises when traditional norms are undermined without being replaced (Durkheim version) · Crime is functional – it reasserts common value systems · Common value systems teach us the things we should strive for (cultural goals) and the most appropriate ways (institutional means) to achieve them · If the goals and the means are not equally stressed, an anomic condition is created (Merton version) · In a disorganized society, goals and means are not equally distributed · Some societies place too much emphasis on success goals – everyone strives for goals but there is not enough access to means for all to achieve them · Without access to approved means, some people will find other ways to resolve the pressure to achieve (deviant adaptations) Crime and deviance · Crime is functional for society · Deviance is an inevitable party of society · Deviance lies in the nature of society itself rather than in psychology or biology · Example: prostitution as functional  A social service for those unable to achieve sexual satisfaction any other way  Acts as a safety valve against potential sexual aggression  Too much = promiscuity  Too little = sexual violence Functions of deviance · Deviance lets us define our roles, as it can help eliminate the grey area · Deviants will challenge the rules, like people who use marijuana who want to change the law rather than just break the law · Deviance gives people an outlet away from conformity for a short while · Boundary maintenance · Scapegoating · Early warning system Anomie · Durkheim  State of normlessness  Occurs when traditional normal are udnermind without being replaced  Absence of clear moral guidelines for behaviour leaves people with feelings of anxiety, aimlessness, purposelessness, disorientation · Merton  Lack of symmetry between culture and social structure  Living the American dream  Cultural goal above all others  Advertising, consumerism, capitalism emphasize accumulation, but limited opportunities for success Deviant adaptations · Conformity – accepts culturally prescribed goals through institutionally available means · Innovation – accepts culturally prescribed goals but doesn’t use institutionally available means (i.e. Merton believed they will turn to deviance to gain financial means so to embrace the same goals with limited access, they will turn to crime) · Ritualism – rejects culturally prescribed goals but accepts institutionally available means (i.e. telemarketer, customer service; won’t achieve wealth or status but are not deviants) · Retreatism – rejects goals and means (i.e. strained by expectations of social success through traditional avenues, they give up) · Rebellion – replaces everything (i.e. dangerous reaction mechanism; rejects the system; tries to overthrow it) Status frustration · Cohen · Male – lower class delinquency > strain between the middle class standards of the public school system + the resources lower-class boys bring into the classroom · Gangs are the result of status frustration – kids rely heavily on one another for guidance because of their broken homes · Lower SES youth tend to do poorly in school because the use of middle class standards of evaluation · Poor school performance leads to gang formation · Gangs provide these kids with an alternative status system · Values held by the bang and delinquent youth are oppositional to those taught in schools Differential opportunity theory · Cloward and Ohlin · Learning environments and opportunities are not equally distributed in our social system · Extends Merton’s anomie by discussing the concept of differential illegitimate opportunity · The type and form of criminal activity that people engage in is a function of their differential access to the opportunities or the resources needed to engage in that particular criminal act Three delinquent subcultures/gangs · Criminal  Monetary gain through crime and are an economic response to strain  Typically successful adult criminal activity leads to young boys able to see a viable career path toward criminal success · Conflict  Lack a stable pattern of successful adult criminal behaviour  Violence becomes a way to assert control in a disorganized environment, and earn respect and status · Retreatist  Unable to take advantage of either legal or illegal opportunities  Failed in school and failed as a criminal, so they may only end up doing petty things like minor theft General strain theory · Agnew · Mid 1980s · Range of stressors increased the likelihood for crime  When we fail to achieve goals  When we lose valued stimuli (i.e. respect)  When we are confronted with aversion stimuli · Not achieving goals, but also not being able to avoid pain, or losing things of value, or being surrounded by strain · Crime will only occur if the conditions of strain are coupled with a psychological state of negative affect · Not all strains lead to crime; they must:  Be unjust  Be high in magnitude  Be associated with low social control  Create incentive/pressure for crime Gender differences Male Female Concerned with material success thus Concerned with creating and high rates of property and violent maintaining close social bonds and crime relationships thus lower rates of property and violent crime More conflict with peers, more likely toNegative treatment, such as be victims of crime discrimination, high demands from family, and restricted behaviour Failure to achieve goals – violent and Failure to achieve goals – self- property crime destructive behaviour (i.e. eating disorders, depression) rd SOC212 June. 3 2013 Lecture5 Functionalism and Strain Functionalism:a view which focuses on the idea that societies EVOLVE, grow or develop like living organisms. Emile Durkheim - Focuses on – 1. Industrialization, 2. Movement of ppl from country to city. Societies grow and become more complex over time and have certain needs. - Needs are called ‘functional prerequisites, such as food, water, shelter. Systems are developed to meet those needs - Political system, means of attempting to achieve these goals at the end. - Edu system, good example for functionalism. -> view this as the things that create social solidarity. - Have 2 functions: manifest (visible and intended) e.g. transmitting culture to future generations, teaching important skills, also social skills, evaluating and selecting most competent individuals. - latent (not visible and often unintended) e.g. reproduce existing class structures. Functionalism: systems and the society are held together b/c of shared values, shared culture. - Is transmitted through socialization into common norms and values - There are consensus - Keeping society stable and social orders created through social sanctions. E.g. law. - As society changes systems become more complex. E.g. industrialized society have to find new ways to meet the needs - b/c the society is so complex, we needs specialized labours. = aristocratic elites wouldn’t work. - Society operates in meritocratic, with equal opp. -> School works the hardest on this way. - Functionalists would argue that anyone can make it if they have talents Criticism: assumes value consensus (assumes that everyone holds the same values and norms) - Inadequate view of power. But in reality, this isn’t true, since we don’t start from the same position w equal power and resources - Deterministic – ppl don’t have a voice, ppl lose their sense of agency (the ability of a person to act/ the capacity of an agent) Summary of Main Points 1. Ppl share a common value system 2. New systems of norms and divisions of labour replace the older ones 3. Strain (anomie) arises when traditional norms are undermined w/o being replaced 4. Crime is functional 5. Common value systems teach us the things we should strive for (cultural goals) and the most appropriate ways 6. Goals and means are not equally stressed, anomic condition is created (Mertonian ver) 7. In a disorganized society, goals and means aren’t equally distributed 8. Some societies place too much emphasis on success goals – everyone strives for goals but there isn’t enough access to means for all to achieve them. E.g. In university, a person who can’t pay tuition -> drug dealing 9. w/o access to approved means (edu, internship, scholarship), some will find other ways to resolve the pressure to achieve (deviant adaptations) Functionalism and Crime/ Deviance - looks a society as a whole – macro approach - Deviance lies in the nature of society itself rather than in psycho/ biology - Consensus abt crime observed in the law - Clarifies and reinforces the values of the society - Too little/too much is pathological - Crime rates too low -> unchallenged - Durkheim: crime in some amount is necessary for the society - Collective conscience – set of shared values which guide our actions. Shows where our boundaries lie, what are acceptable or not. - e.g. prostitution as functional - too much = promiscuity/ too little = sexual violence Functions of Deviance Positive consequences: 1. Clarification of roles – deviance cause unknown and unclear rule to be specific and clear. Conflicting rules become clear. 2. Testing of rules – use of marijuana in medical, ppl in court used to test it -> not to break the law 3. Alternative means of goal attainment – idea that something like organized crime -> material success, for ppl have no legitimate job opp 4. Safety value – deviance allows breaking away from the conformity. 5. Tension release and solidarity 6. Boundary maintenance – promotes responsibility, unification, integration will increase 7. Scapegoating – searching for somebody else to blame when things go wrong. (makes the prob being solved by this) 8. Raising the value of conformity – when deviance is punished, the value of conformity increases. We become relative to other rule breakers. 9. Early warning system – Deviance can serve as this warning sign of social order. 10. Protection of vested interests – e.g. criminal justice system Anomie (Durkheim review) Anomie = state of normlessness. - Focuses on disorganization Merton and Anomie (review) Anomie = Strain between the universal goal and means to attain the goal/ - Focuses on conditions of stress and tensions. - 5 adaptations to meet these goal DeviantAdaptations: Certain groups participate in different deviant behaviours - Some individuals are subjected to conflicts to attain these goals - These ppl have access to fewer legitimate channels - They adapt the strain in 5 diff ways. - Most are conformists, when unable to success, they blame themselves. E.g. univ students. Attempt to reach it by predetermined edu paths. - Innovations –Alot of criminal behaviour could be innovative. Ppl who continue to embrace the material success as a worthy goal, but who turn to crime b/c their social statue limits access to legitimate opp. E.g. Gangster - Not necessarily violate and serious offenders. - Ritualism – elevates the strain of anomie by lessening their desperations to where goals can be achieved. They accept the social status. Tend to avoid taking risks and breaking laws. - Retreatism – Make most dramatic response. Give up both the obedience to cultural goals and the social norms. E.g. Suicide, Homeless. - Rebellion – classified as most threatening and dangerous mechanism. Rebels not only discount and rejects, also intend to overthrow it. Reject the conventional idea and promote new goals and new means to success. Criticism: Ignores the victims of crime, cannot be understood by everyone - Difficult to test the theory, falsify. Empirically it’s less valuable than theoretically. - Functional for whom? - How does this theory account for conflict in consensus? - Fails to account for middle/upper class deviance. E.g. white-collar crime - Money success not the only goal Cohen – Status Frustration - Focused on the idea of male, lower class delinquency – strain btwn the middle class standards of the public school system + resources lower-class boys bring into the classroom. - frames gangs as a group solution to status frustration Assumptions 1. Assumed that lower class youth tend to do poorly in school b/c of these middle class standards of evaluation -> leave children disadvantaged. 2. Poor school performance leads to gang formation – rely heavily on peer groups and unsupervised a lot. 3. Gangs provide these kids w an alternative status system. 4. Values held by the gang and delinquent youth are oppositional to those taught in schools. - Youth reject the middle-class values and control of aggressive and violence, for more oppositional values. E.g. Cloward + Ohlin – Differential Opp Theory - Different variables like class, gender, ethnicity, make deviance easier/ harder to access - Illegitimate opp. -> extending the notion of unequal access in delinquent - View the delinquents as not independent deviance but rather the subculture of these rules. - Where you live and class -> make differential access to criminal activities - Focuses more on guys Three delinquent subcultures/gangs Criminal – most likely to exist in low income areas, seek monetary gain. Conflict – breaking down conditions, fight for to gain social status, reputation and honor. - Violence as a way to assert control in a disorganized environment Retreatist – don’t possess the skill to be a criminal gang - Neither have illegal nor illegal opp - “Double failures” General Strain Theory (GST) RobertAgnew (mid 1980s) - Popular revision of Merton’s idea - Proposed 3 forms of strain. - Have wide range of gender, ethnic, etc. different types of deviance as well. - Argues that there are ranges of stressors, it’s not simple and easy as one factor. 1. When we fail to achieve goals 2. When we lose ‘valued stimuli’(like respect) 3. When we are confronted w ‘aversion stimuli’(unpleasant situations) Crime happens when strain are coupled w a psychological state of ‘negative affect’like disappointment and anger. - Not all strains lead to crime: they must 1) be unjust, 2) be high in magnitude, 3) be asso w low social control, 4) create incentive/ pressure for crime Gender Differences - Conceptualizes the difference btwn male and female, Male and female are not equally explained. (Whereas Merton saw the same) - Male are more concerned w econ success, where as women concerned w creating and maintaining close social bonds and Rlat SOC212 June.5 2013 Guest Lecture byAmy Klassen, PhD Subculture and Learning Culture = “That complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, laws, custom and many and any other capabilities and habits acquired by mans as a member of society” (Tyler 1871) Subculture = a group of ppl within a culture that differentiates themselves from the larger culture to which they belong. - Common jargon / ‘argot’( 은은) - Vocabularies of motive - Distinctive clothing and body languages - Beliefs and norms. E.g. gangster = loyalty/ honorable - Mutually supporting networks. Deviance theory: the reason its not b/c you’re deviant but you’re in the deviant group Deviance as a behaviour/ ideas that are produced in subcultures and transmitted by learning Stereotypes: assumptions we make abt an entire group based on observations of some members – attribute observations to all members of the group whether it really applies to them or not. (Stigmatization) - E.g. Donald Marshall (17-yr-oldAboriginal person) -> Illustrates the ethnic/racial stereotypes that created the crime Youth subcultures Youth-based subculture w distinct styles, behaviours, and interests Offer participants an identity outside of that ascribed by social institutions 1. Leisure rather than work 2. Their peers rather than individual friends or family 3. Style rather than substance Lower-class gang subculktures Miller (1958) What creates deviance? The characteristics… - Trouble – more troubles you are -> tends to be viewed in gang. Esp lower-class have more troubles. - Toughness – Lower-class individuals are in more physical power, more male characteristics. Culture rejects weaknesses. - Smartness – promoting is not academic intelligence. Being able to survive on the street, control manipulating others, avoiding being out smarter. Savvy. - Excitement – high risks and high rewards project. - Fate – members more likely see the future as a matter of fortune and luck. - Autonomy - Above those concerns, gang members also share the belonging and status Theoretical Perspectives Differential Association Edwin Sutherland (U of Chicago, Symbolic interactionist) - Through interaction w others, individuals learn the values, attitudes, techniques, and motivations for criminal behaviour. -> explain why individuals deviate while others not. Ppl learn to become deviant. - Stresses the content of communication w others - Not just associations w criminals, but definitions provided by associates - The quality and weight of definitions. Main Tests 1. Criminal behaviour is learned 2. It is learned in interaction w other in a process of communication 3. The principle part of learning criminal conduct occurs within intimate groups 4. When criminal behaviour is learned, the learning includes techniques and specific motives, drives, rationalizations, attitudes. 5. The direction of motives and drives are learned from definitions of the law as favourable or unfavourable. (more norms and conformity = less likely to be in criminal behaviours) 6. Aperson becomes delinquent b/c of an excess of definitions favourable to the violations 7. DAmay vary in frequency, duration, priority and intensity 8. The process of learning criminal behaviour by asso w criminal patterns involves all of the mechanisms that are involved in any other learning. 9. While criminal behaviour is an expression of general needs and values, it isn’t explained by them since non-criminal behaviour is an expression of the same need and values. (it does not happen by your poverty, etc.) Criticism - Lack of ability to explain acts of devivance that aren’t learned and/ are spontaneous? - For e.g. how does one explain the upper class child who has a law abding family, is well to do, and has attended private school their whole life going on a shooting rampage (or less extreme stealing gum from the grocery store)? Differential Opp Richard Cloward and Lloyd Ohlin Merton – legitimate opps to purse culturally approved goals are socially structured and unevenly distributed - Context of deviant adaptations - Many ways for lower class youth to achieve aspirations - Illegitimate vs. legit opps - Subcultural patterns determine the form of delinquency. - E.g. higher gang opps where the neighbourhoods are in more deviant beviours - E.g. youth’s decision to commit crime since the conventional way for his own econ goal would not be achieved -> therefore look at other ways to achieve the goal (Anomie) Subculture Social Disorganization Opps Activities (Criminal) No Illegitimate Profit making; criminal enterprise; organized crime; tutelage (Conflict) Yes None Unrestrained behaviour; violence; property damage; weak social control;no successful criminal role models (Retreatist) Yes/No Limited (il)legitimate Drugs; crime to finance drug use - When individuals are double failures, can’t achieve the status - Not gonna make a crime and achieve social status = Drug use Critiques This theory focused exclusively on delinquent gans and youths from lower and working-class backgrounds, ignoring, for instance, middle class delinquent subculture - It is also unlikely gang members neatly ‘fit’into one of three categories. Drift and Neutralization Gresham Sykes and David Matza - Little diff btwn deviants and nondeviants, youth learn techniques to neutralize values and drift into crime. (They are either all criminal or all conventional.) - Delinquents move in/out from the delinquency - Society exerts more strong influence on the delinquents 1. Delinquents sometimes express guilt and remorse over their act. 2. Delinquents usually show respect to lawful citizens. 3. There is a line they don’t cross on who they victimize. 4. Delinquents are affected by their environment and are prone to conformity. (many delinquents attend the conventional communities such as church meanwhile doing criminal acts) Techniques of Neutralization Denial of Responsibility I didn’t do anything wrong Denial of injury They have insurance anyway Denial of the Victim They deserved it (mostly used as the justification in rape cases) Condemn the Condemners Hypocrites – they’ve done worse Appeal to Higher Loyalties I had to stick up for my friends Necessity (from the txtbk) (had no choice) Subterranean values: values revolve around the desire for enjoyment, aggression, excitement and spontaneity - Values co-exist alongside other, formal values such the desire to work hard Criticisms 1. Theories are difficult to test 2. Why/how the neutralization technique process begins? 3. Underpredicts delinquency? (Young man in/out of the crime = not in gang community) 4. Provide an excuse/ justification? Not explanation. Social Learning and Social Structure (SSSL) RonaldAkers - Current incarnation of DifferentialAsso - Integrated social learning, symbolic interactionism, and behavioural psychology. - Behaviour is acquired through psychological processes of conditioning, imitation and modeling. (More rewards you get from your action whether conventional/ criminal, more likely that behaviour repeated.) - Deviance is more likely if the individual associates w deviants who commit deviant acts, model them and support the behaviour - Social structure matters – it affects the probability that an individual will be exposed to deviance. (race, Rlg, ethnic etc.) Code of the Streets ElijahAnderson - The “code” : a set of informal rules that dictates the threat and use of violence in public interactions and prioritizes these displays as a means to achieve and maintain respect. - Spectrum of adherence to law - Law abiding ---------------------- Success through crime - Rlg Working father -------------- Gangs - Moral authority ------------------- Drug dealing - Dangers of the street demand coping through reputations or gang association. - Youth from lawful families must either 1) be imprisoned at home, 2) acquire street savvy - Must appear to subscribe to 2 cultures 1) Law-abiding family, 2) Law-violating street group. Birmingham School - Youth leisure (music, clothes, hairstyle) are often used to resist class inequalities - Deviance as a solution to status frustration - Style = revolt - Resist dominant normative order – disreputable, unemployable - Fads? Posers? American Juggalos Subcultures often exist to solve the prob of alienation, a prob created by the lack of social capital - Who are they? - How do they form their shared identity? - What characteristics define this subculture? June 5, 2013 SOC212 Lecture 6: Subculture and Learning Guest Lecturer: Amy Klassen · Tyler: culture: collective of all our knowledge, beliefs, skills, laws that brings us together as a collective o Composite of ALL the learned ways of thinking/behaving · Subculture: group of people within a culture that differentiates themselves from the larger culture o Argot: common INSIDER language -> ethnic/oppositionally-based o Vocabularies of Motive: use of specific words/phrases to JUSTIFY their involvement in deviance o Distinctive Clothing/Body Language o Beliefs/Norms: variation EVEN existed within subcultures o Mutually Supporting Networks: repeated interaction reinforces deviance o FORMS WHEN THE DOMINANT CULTURE FAILS TO MEET THE NEEDS OF THE SUBCULTURE Subcultural Theories · Deviance -> behaviour that is PRODUCED in subcultures and TRANSMITTED by learning o Learning takes TIME o Stereotypes: assumptions made about an entire group based on SOME members  Attribute observations to ALL members whether it applies to them or NOT  Mental illness -> stigmatized as having behaviours DANGEROUS to the mainstream o Donald Marshall: accused of shooting a black youth -> improper police procedures  Sentenced to imprisonment -> after 10 years, he was declared NOT GUILTY  A NON-ABORIGINAL man was then rightly convicted  Royal Commission: huge inquiry on the case -> found fault in the justice system  STEREOTYPES -> affects the ability of getting a FAIR trial & seeking JUSTICE Youth Subcultures · Youth groups with distinct styles, behaviours & interests o Provide participants with an IDENTITY outside of the society/social institutions o HIGH level of hostility towards the DOMINANT cultures o Ex. punk, ravers, goths · IMPORTANT TO YOUTH: o Leisure rather than work o Peers rather than individual friends/families o Style rather than substance -> not interested in creating a political movement Lower-Class Gang Subcultures · Miller: work was collected in the late 1950’s -> argued that the low-class culture PRODUCES culture o Trouble -> evaluated in terms of their actual/potential involvement in deviant activities o Toughness -> low-class males WANT to be seen as masculine -> rejects weakness o Smartness -> “street smarts” o Excitement -> involvement in high-risk/reward projects o Fate -> view the future as fortune/luck o Autonomy -> work in authoritarian environments to test authority · ALL THE ABOVE -> apart of delinquent gang culture o Belonging -> maintaining group membership in good standing o Status -> need for respect Differential Association · Sutherland: due to interaction with others, individuals learn values, techniques & motives for criminality o Only CERTAIN individuals become deviants under certain circumstances o Stresses the content of COMMUNICATION with others o Learn deviance in SMALL groups -> learn HOW and WHY to commit the crime  Goals are the SAME but the means are different · Main Tenets: o Criminal behaviour is LEARNED o Learned through interaction with others o Must be learned within intimate groups o Learning INCLUDES techniques & motives -> apprenticeship vs. justifications o Direction of motives are learned from definitions of the law as favourable/unfavourable o Delinquency is a result of an excess of definitions favourable to the violation of the law o DA may vary in frequency, duration, priority & intensity  Priority: associations formed early in life are MORE fundamental than those later in life  Intensity: association b/w the individual & members of the group [strength of influence]  Scared Straight: not an adequate amount of frequency/duration to work o Process of learning criminal behaviour involves ALL the mechanisms involved in other learning  Difference is WHAT is being learned, not how the learning occurs o Criminal behaviour is NOT explained by general needs/values  Saying “thieves are in it for the money” -> doesn’t explain WHY people steal  Exceptional in the MEANS, not the GOALS · Criticism: doesn’t explain acts of deviance that aren’t learned/spontaneous o HOW does one explain why an upper-class child goes on a shooting rampage? Differential Opportunity · Cloward/Ohlin: idea that opportunities to achieve one’s goals are NOT equally distributed o People JOIN subcultures because they are unable to achieve goals within the dominant culture o Delinquency can result from differential opportunity for lower-class youth · Three types of Gangs: o Criminal: form in lower-class neighbourhoods and are highly organized  NORMAL for one to be part of a gang  ECONOMIC response to strain  Adult criminals MENTOR the youth -> do the “dirty work” [supply motives/techniques]  Opportunities are ILLEGITIMATE -> profit making, organized crime o Conflict: form in neighbourhoods with weak stability/organization [state of FLUX]  Youth are NOT supplied with adult mentors -> lack PROPER skills/knowledge  NO opportunities -> VIOLENCE is used to gain respect o Retreatist: individual has a double failure -> no success in the legit/illegitimate world  Opportunities are LIMITED -> drug use is the PRIMARY form of offending · Critiques: theory FOCUSES on youth from LOW-CLASS backgrounds o Ignores middle-class delinquents o UNLIKELY that gang members fit “neatly” into one of the three categories Drift and Neutralization · Sykes/Matza: individuals are not ALWAYS deviant -> drift between conformity/deviance o Neutralization theory: some people HAVE to find rationalizations to explain their behaviour o Males are not ENTIRELY opposed to the dominant culture -> share the SAME values  Delinquents express remorse over their act  Delinquents show respect to lawful citizens  Line exists that delinquents don’t cross on WHO they victimize  Delinquents are affected by their environment & prone to conformity · Techniques of Neutralization: o Denial of Responsibility: “I didn’t do anything wrong” o Denial of Injury: “They have insurance anyways” o Denial of the Victim: “They deserved it” o Condemn the Condemners: “hypocrites -> they’ve done WORSE” [dog eat dog world] o Appeal to Higher Loyalties: “I had to stick up for my friends” [torn between social groups/law] o Necessity: “I had no choice” o Justification: “It’s not that big of a deal – everybody does it” · In a state of drift -> deviants MAY/MAY NOT commit deviant acts o Impulse to commit deviant acts is a RESULT of:  Subterranean values: desire for enjoyment, aggression, excitement & spontaneity  Matza believes people follow these values in INAPPROPRIATE times/places · Criticism: theories are difficult to test o Why or how the neutralization technique process begins? o Underpredicts delinquency -> drifters do NOT fit in organized crime o Doesn’t provide an excuse Social Learning/Social Structure · Akers: revision of differential association by INCLUDING the concept of reinforcement o Focus on MACRO LEVEL causes of crime -> environments INFLUENCE individuals o Behaviour is acquired through psychological processes like conditioning, imitation and modeling  HIGHLY REWARDED behaviour = behaviour that WILL BE imitated o Deviance is MORE likely if individual associates themselves with DEVIANTS  CLOSENESS of the interaction is the most important -> reinforce deviant behaviours o SOCIAL STRUCTURE MATTERS · Anderson: code of the streets: informal rules that dictate the use of violence to achieve/maintain respect o Black individuals in a racially segregated part of town -> sense of hopelessness spawns deviance o Spectrum of Adherence to Law:  Religious family with moral authority --------- -> gang, drug dealing family o Street danger REQUIRES reputation or gang association  Lawful youths must be imprisoned at home or become “street smart”  EVERYONE subscribes to one of two cultures -> law-abiding family or law-violating group Birmingham School · England: association of subcultures with groupings based on particular styles o Issue in the 1970’s over the growth of mod groups & punks o Deviance was a SOLUTION to status frustration o Resist DOMINANT normative order -> style = revolt American Juggalos · Subcultures exist to solve the problem of alienation -> LACK of social capital · Who are they? · How do they form their shared identity? · What characteristics define this subculture? SOC212H1 Lec#7 – June 10 th Interactionism (Symbolic interactionism) - Symbolic interaction perspective major frame work in sociology and these relies on the idea of symbolic meanings that ppl develop and they rely upon during the process of social interactions - Symbolic interaction theory analyses society by addressing the subjective meanings that ppl impose on objects, events, and diff. behaviours - Subjective meanings are given primacy in this theory b/c its belief that ppl will behave based on what they believe and not just on what is objectively true. - (distinction btw objective and subjective) - objective- more on facts, empirical evidence, subjective- meaning making, your feelings, experiences - this perspective views society as a product of everyday social interactions of individuals - also study how ppl view symbols to create meanings - in studying deviance, these theorists would look at how ppl find deviance in everyday situations, and how these can differ across cultures of settings · Interested in social worlds that make up society · Meaning that shape actor’s social reality, not meanings imposed by sociologists · SI takes us as far as possible into the actors own perspective · SI’s micro theory- we focus more on individuals and interactions between them - SI mean same acts can be interpreted in a lot of different ways, it depends on the rules of the culture to which it occurs, - depends on settings, characteristics of ppl in the setting · in this view, deviance is a human creation- a social construction that emerges out of interaction, becomes real, and affects subsequent events o these theories change the way we view deviance b/c it shows deviance is this outcome of social process of construction the particular categories that emphasize are not necessarily absolute- not final · SI argue deviance doesn’t really exist independently of the negative reaction of those who condemn it rather, they are deviant only b/c someone or some group responds to them in this fashion o Zero’s on process where by certain types of behaviour come to be viewed as unacceptable as well as which types of ppl are subject to corruptive rehabilitative machinery of social control while other ppl aren’t – idea of power that we are talking abt · Anything universal abt deviance except the process which definitions of diff. acts are generated and obeyed · Certain type of view becomes unacceptable · Focusing on process of labeling and defining deviance is what distinguishes SI from other bodies of theory. (functionalism, conflict, feminist thought, etc) · Lot of these theories pursue these · the social-historical development of deviant labels · the application of labels to certain types of people in specific times and places · the symbolic and practical consequences of the labeling process itself Defining Self Charles Horton Cooley & George Herbert Mead where ^ these ideas emerged, laid ground work for SI Cooley- best known for: · Looking-glass self o How ppl imagine they adhere to others, how they believe others judge them, how they develop these feelings that guide their behaviours · Three part to Looking-glass self: · What audience reflects shapes a person’s sense of self · We imagine how we appear to others, we imagine the judgement of that appearance, and we imagine that judgement of that appearance, and we develop our self through the judgements of others · A person’s sense of self grows out of social interactions and through the perceptions of others · Term literally mean- ppl shaping identities from the perceptions of others which leave ppl other’s perception on themselves · Idea that we present ourselves one way then we imagine how somebody will view us · Thinking about how other ppl will judge you and basing your idea on other’s judgements · i.e. when someone makes fun of your appearance, you would think automatically that you are not attractive, or poor sense of style · ppl are directly molded in reflection they see themselves in others George Herbert Mead · construction of social self: · I, me, generalized other · Action, contemplation, imagination · I=spontaneous component (response to community or society) · Me= social component, from environment (Knowledge abt the environment, their sense of self. Ppl learn to see who they are by observing the responses of others to themselves & actions) · “it is only after we have acted that we know what we have done…what we have said” – Mead · Ppl are not just these computerization, robots, they do not blindly follow rules. They construct response on bases of what they learned which is ME · I & ME form the person or the sense of him self – Mead argues · 1. Imitation (under 3), (3-6), and 3. Games (6+) · Children under 3 imitate what they see, 3-6 take roles of certain ppl (playing house) act specific ways, and age 6+ children take roles of different ppl. Learn to pick and choose role and develop sense of self through these roles · How meanings emerge in social interactions · How the self is produced in socialization and influenced thereafter · How the way we appear affects how others see us · How we see ourselves mirrored in others’ treatment of us · How interpretations of these realities can be revised · This theory important to deviant studies b/c it affects lots of other social theories that we are going to talk about. Base knowledge. Intellectual Background – Mead · Derived from the Chicago school · “If men define situations as real, they are real in their consequences” · SI is heir to the Chicago School · Prevalent in the 1960’s, after the dominance of functionalism Herbert Bloomer (Not sure about the spelling) – social interactionist · Student of Mead- ppl act towards meaning. · Ppl act towards things based on meanings Summary of Main Points 1. Society is characterized by multiple values with differing degrees of overlap 2. The quality of any indiv. Behaviour is determined only by the application of values. The identification of a behaviour as deviant occurs through a reaction to that behaviour 3. Deviance is a quality of the reaction and is not intrinsic to the behaviour itself. If there is no reaction, there is no deviance 4. Once behaviour is perceived by a social audience and labelled deviant, the indiv. who engaged in that behaviour is also labelled deviant. 5. The process of reacting and labelling is more likely when those labelled are less powerful that their audience is. Thus, deviance is more commonly ascribed to the less powerful in society. 6. Reactors tend to observe more closely those whom they have identified as deviants and therefore find even more deviance in those persons. Subsequent acts are reacted to more quickly and the label more firmly affixed (example Saints and Roughnecks) 7. The audience views an indiv. Once labelled, as being what the label say he is. A person labelled as a criminal is perceived to be, first and foremost, a criminal; other attributes that not covered by the label may be ignored. (Master status) 8. In addition to ‘becoming’ a deviant for the audience, an indiv. May begin to accept the label as a self-identity. Acceptance of the label depends on the strength of the individual’s original self-concept and the force of the labelling process. 9. A change in self-concept results in an internalization of the deviant character 10. Further deviant behaviour (secondary deviance) is a product of living and acting within the role of the deviant label, often as part of a deviant subculture Dramatization of Evil · Frank Tannenbaum (historian) · Looked at gang studies and noticed, only some are caught and considered as deviants · Making a criminal is a processing of tagging, defining, identifying, segregating, describing emphasizing, making self conscious, stimulating, emphasizing and evoking the very traits that are complained of = called these the dramatization of evil o Those who are treated as criminals are kind of forced to associate with other criminals and more experienced criminals in the correctional systems. o Here they come to see themselves as ‘true’ delinquents who don’t have hope for and legit. Career o The policing of these juveniles was causing crime rather than reducing it o Those caught and labelled deviant are lot likely to become deviants o Provide them with a lot of learning opportunities, especially for youth in correctional setting o This is what perpetuates their criminal behaviours after they are relased · Youth engage in acts that many adults find objectionable and which are illegal · Severe sanctions = dramatization of evil · May stimulate youth to engage in more of the same deviance · “…it becomes a way of stimulating, suggesting, emphasizing and evoking the very traits that are complained of.” · His ideas were not picked up immediately until Edwin Lemert Primary and Secondary Deviance · Edwin Lemert · Challenged Tannenbaum’s ideas, stating that despite involvement with deviance, not everybody is caught or labelled as deviants and not everybody internalizes a deviant label · Lemert recognize two type of deviance and differentiate them by: Primary Deviance · Unnoticed (neutralized, rationalized by the indiv, or others) · Often not part of one’s self image. · Rule breakers do not self-identify as deviant · Any kind of general deviance before the deviant is labelled as such · Primary deviance is not as important as secondary deviance b/c it doesn’t have real affect in individuals or society · Ex. Tommy is 8 yrs old, steals candy from the shop, gets in trouble with his mom, and as he grows up he brushed it off, stealing candy regarded as childhood behaviour Secondary Deviance · Ex. Tommy steals car from a local dealership, gets caught, gets sent to prison, when he comes out, he is known as the thief that stole that car. Hard for him to get a decent job in his community. B/c it is hard for him to make living, he joins a local gang and continues to commit crimes o More crime caused by societal reaction o Society regarded Tommy as nothing but a thief this idea of “thief” becomes Tommy’s Master Status o Goes through self concept crisis. Tommy does not know how to fit into community any more, feels ostracised o Tommy fulfills his label as criminal, thief o Joins community that accepts his label. o Basically, he reverts back to crime as a consequence of label o When one is ostracised, they may incorporate deviant concept to the “Me” and begin to engage in act appropriate to this kind of new identity · Any action that takes place after primary deviance as a reaction to the institutions · Result of labels to the sanctions · Acts noticed by others and labeled deviant · Stigma = recast ID around deviant status Both audience AND individual react to the label Labelling Theory · Howard Becker · Views deviance as creation of social groups and not the quality of inherent behaviour · Studying the act of individual is not important b/c deviance is simply a rule breaking behaviour that is labelled deviant · Ppl in power label particular act as deviant · “social groups create deviance by making the rules whose infraction constitutes deviance, and by applying those rules to particular people and labelling them as outsiders” Action  Reaction Label ‘Deviance’ · Rule breaking of behaviour is constant but the labelling of the behaviour varies · What is deviant changes according to time and place · One thing that is constant is the rule breaking behaviour but the labelling of this behaviour varies · Rules are reflection of certain social norms held by the majority of the society whether formal or informal · Enforced rules are applied differently facilitates certain favourable consequences for those who apply the label · Members of the rule making society make different rule breaking actions as deviant depending on the degree of reaction over time · Ppl who are prone to break the rules as a bit morally in odds with the members of the rule abiding society – “outsider” used to describe and label rule breaker/deviant · Important to study why certain ppl conform while other ppl give in to their deviant impulses · Reactions to behaviour create deviance · Deviance not intrinsic to behaviour · Power- official agents target lower class o Less power o Different values o Socially isolated o Treated as deviant; few legit opportunities Deviant Careers Deviance · Acceptance of deviant label · Becker- certain rule breakers come to accept the label “deviant” as their Master Status · Master status- the role to which the one most relates the view of themselves · The rule breaker that identifies themselves deviant as their master status becomes an outsider and is denied the same means as going on with their everyday life · Their master status may make it more difficult for them to get a job… etc · Not every rule breaker progress in this manner, lot of ppl make alternitative path, · Outcome of moral enterprise · Moral entrepreneur: a person that takes the initiative to crusade for a rule that would right a society evil o Those with vested moral and economic interest · Create and apply rules against those with less power Marijuana Users- outsiders · Observed the progress of these users · The beginner · The occasional user · The regular user · How marijuana users come to be labeled as social deviants? · To deter use, we need to change individual’s view on marijuana use · He comes to look at how these M. users come to be labelled as deviants Saints and the Roughnecks Chambliss · Example of how labels of deviance can be applied differently by different groups · The saints = white, middle-class, suburban teenagers, viewed as good guys · The Roughnecks were poor and came from disenfranchised neighborhoods · Despite the fact that these 2 groups committed similar crimes, they were given different punishments · Labels of deviance applied differently to different groups · Ppl’s view on these boys determined their future. Most of Saints went on to college Most Roughnecks did not · Your appearance, background, environment can influence ppl’s perception of you and the likelihood that they are going to apply deviant label to you Criticisms of symbolic interactionism 1. Unscientific formulations and approaches 2. Falsifiability and testability 3. ‘more sinned against than sinning’ (view ppl as victims of process) 4. Politics of labelling 5. Failure to explain Primary deviance (why ppl commit crime in the first place) Erving Goffman, Stigma and Dramaturgical Theory Stigma- is an attribute, behaviour, or reputation which is socially discrediting in a particular way Stigmatized ppl are those that don’t have full social acceptance constantly trying to strive for their social identities. (mentally ill patients, drug addicts, prostitutes etc.) Goffman studied how stigmatized ppl think of themselves and their relationships with normal ppl · Places emphasises not on deviant traits, but on the perception and the marking of certain traits as deviant from second party · Dramaturgical theory- connected to stigma b/c lot of how we present ourselves can be affected by how we try to hide of cover our stigmatizing traits and try to present ourselves in the best possible light · All communication is a “performance” · Performances serves to deliver impressions to others and information is exchanged to confirm ppl’s identities · Actor may/ may not be aware of their performances, however audiences are always attributing meaning to these performances Interaction = a “performance,” shaped by environment and audience · Front stage- knows being watched, formally performs, act accordingly · Backstage- truly themselves, be themselves, act differently, get rid of roles they play when they are in front of ppl · Impression management- perception of his/her own image · Contemporary ex. Facebook Goffman- Asylums (book written by Goffman) Total institutions: isolated, enclosed social system whose primary purpose is to control most aspects of its participants’ lives Resocialization is a two-part process: 1. The staff of the institution tries to erode the residents’ identities and independence 2. Resocialization involves the systematic attempt to build a different personality or self Depersonalization- i.e. takes away belongings, uniforms in army Guest lecture - We are not ourselves without our mask. We act differently based on our surroundings - Interaction, adjust to what goes on around us - Used Ethnography method to conduct study on strippers in Toronto - Ethnography- qualitative research method, used personal experience, informal interview, observation - “Carnal sociology”: how well can you really understand something that you don’t do? - Strippers do whatever to draw ppl in - They need to project confidence, regardless the case, regardless of their insecurities - If one’s financially insecure ppl will push you for intimacy, you would take it - Stripper with history of sexual abuse, club persona doesn’t allow you to show it SOC212 LECTURE 7 NOTE Interactionism  Interested in social worlds that make up society  Meanings that shape actor’s social reality, not meanings imposed by sociologists  SI takes us as far as possible into the actors own perspective  Relies on the idea of a symbolic meanings that people develop and rely upon during the social interaction  Analyzes society by a
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