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Final

guide for final exame Part 1

10 Pages
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Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOC246H1
Professor
William Magee

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Historical perspective on aging
Hunting and gathering societies/ as people grew older their ability to work declined...
they were more likely to be ignored... those who could not work were encouraged to
make decision to leave community... sometimes the group would withdraw support and
abandon them
The basic of modernization theory : mass education leads to higher rate of literacy/
there is a cult of youth and the young are pushed to the labour forces and the parents
and the ages forced to spend their final days in institutions
Pre-industrial societies
The idea of veneration is borrowed by modernization theorist from the non-western
cultures
The elderly were often accorded great respect and esteem/ the veneration of the old is
linked to Confucian values
In china as women ages their position in society improves/ in 1949 responsibility of the
elders shifted from the family to the government they now provide pension and health
insurance
Some critic that western history indicates that people have always held ive views of the
aged
In colonial times: the puritans wanted to separate the church from politics... the elderly
occupied positions at the pinnacle/ they were guides and leaders in all matter/ they were
uniquely qualified to serve as moral guide for the young
Colonial society were a gerontocracy (a community ruled by the aged ... but reserved for
men only)
Retirement was possible through the transition of property to ones heirs- primogeniture
9 the right of the first sun to inherit- in Canada up to the 1850s women had few rights
to land)
Women were kept in subservient position to their husband/ they had very low status as
they aged... put in boarders by their children.... they had a ive perception about them
For slaves their value decline with age and generally became ive after 75... owners
would free a slave so as to not have to provide food, clothing, housing and medical care/
slaves among their own community were venerated and very respected
www.notesolution.com
In the 1770 the veneration of the aged gradually disappeared as a social value/ the old
were described with pejorative terms... social commentators speak of the uselessness of
the aged.... this stimulated the growth of retirement and poverty rate rose
The cause of this transition: 1) the idea of equality and liberty destroyed the
hierarchical concept of the word on which the authority of the aged has rested- as
society became more individualistic, the ties of obligation between members of a
community weakened. 2) The revolution instituted a new value system that promoted
loyalty to the nation over the local community and rejected ideals of hierarchy or
aristocracy on favour of government based on the will of people. 3)broader acceptance of
the authority for science over traditional authority
Industrial and post-industrial eras:
The decline of skilled craft labour/ machinery began to replace traditional tools/ older
workers had difficulty keeping up and many were laid off
Aged were seen as a social problem- predominant stereotype as being poor, frail and
deserted by their children.
Recently a new stereotype has replaced the older view of the aged- seen as prosperous,
selfish and politically powerful group and takes advantage of resources- poverty among
the aged dropped by 40%
Critiques of the myth Golden age: there has always been much cultural variation in
valuation of aged/ the aged who were poor were usually not held in high esteem/ the
ages rarely had a lot of authority over extended family because extended families have
been rare/ trend in living arrangement do not neatly map onto the idea that elderly are
devalued in families
Modernization:
A core premise of modernization theory is that industrialisation destroyed the economic
basis of the extend family by removing production from the home- extended family
replaced by the nuclear family
Generally posits that various forms of modernization lead to progressive social change/
posits that change associated with economic development under capitalism will lead to
greater social justice
Individualization thesis 1) modernization is accompanied by greater opportunities and
freedoms for shaping social relations, including family relations 2)social structures and
www.notesolution.com
institutions are arranged in way that enjoins individuals to shake off ties and act in
their individual self-interest
Industrialization : include production by machine rather than by hand
Urbanization destroys extend family household and isolates the aged as children leave
rural areas
Living arrangements:
In the old world, children were not living with their families because the estate was to
small to support more than one generation/older parents were taken in because they
provided care for younger children
Research from the USA show that urbanization may have actually drawn families closer
together and not destroy family bonds/ a lack of job opportunity combined with a
housing shortage meant that adult children were forced to live with their parents
Historical evidence- extended households was only rarely the predominant household
type/ they were typically formed when parents were retired and passed their property
onto their children/ those who had no property lived alone/ they were also formed when
a crisis forced two generations to share a household
According to modernization theory the ultimate consequence of the breakdown of the
family and the increase in retirement is the abandonment of the aged in institutions
Before there was a certain responsibility of the poor and elderly on the community and
local government with the Elizabethan time- during this era the boundaries between
family and community was blurred.
A distinction was made between deserving and undeserving poor- designed to restrict
the need to those who truly are in need.
Then we saw the creation of Almshouse,... their conversion into old-age homes
culminated to the modern nursing homes industry
Labour force:
Suggest that a decline in agricultural and skilled craft production is associated with
increased retirement and unemployed among the aged... decline in farming reduce work
for people in rural areas...
skilled craftsmen lose autonomy in the workforce as technological advances encourages
mechanization and give rise to factory production
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Historical perspective on aging Hunting and gathering societies as people grew older their ability to work declined... they were more likely to be ignored... those who could not work were encouraged to make decision to leave community... sometimes the group would withdraw support and abandon them The basic of modernization theory : mass education leads to higher rate of literacy there is a cult of youth and the young are pushed to the labour forces and the parents and the ages forced to spend their final days in institutions Pre-industrial societies The idea of veneration is borrowed by modernization theorist from the non-western cultures The elderly were often accorded great respect and esteem the veneration of the old is linked to Confucian values In china as women ages their position in society improves in 1949 responsibility of the elders shifted from the family to the government they now provide pension and health insurance Some critic that western history indicates that people have always held ive views of the aged In colonial times: the puritans wanted to separate the church from politics... the elderly occupied positions at the pinnacle they were guides and leaders in all matter they were uniquely qualified to serve as moral guide for the young Colonial society were a gerontocracy (a community ruled by the aged ... but reserved for men only) Retirement was possible through the transition of property to ones heirs- primogeniture 9 the right of the first sun to inherit- in Canada up to the 1850s women had few rights to land) Women were kept in subservient position to their husband they had very low status as they aged... put in boarders by their children.... they had a ive perception about them For slaves their value decline with age and generally became ive after 75... owners would free a slave so as to not have to provide food, clothing, housing and medical care slaves among their own community were venerated and very respected www.notesolution.com
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