SOC281 FInal Study Guide

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Bonnie Erickson

SOC281 Study Guide Long Answers Compare and contrast (a) the impact of class on culture with (b) the impact of age and generation on culture. Maycee W The similarities between the impact of class on culture and the impact of age and generation on culture are that they produce stratifications.  Class position can be defined as the common “location” certain individuals hold in the economic and power structure of a given society.  Social locations can be intersected with physical appearance, which is a source of ageism o In class structure, Bourdieu would classify economic capital priority. However, attractiveness could be a boundary for whether you have the ability to attain such economic capital or not.  When it comes to age in North American culture, there is a cult of youth that favours young over old and that suggests being young is to be vibrant, happy, and energetic whereas to be old is to be tired, unattractive, and grim o These cultural views do not take away from the status and power of the middle aged, however they are detrimental to older adults. o Just like dominant groups can define their culture as superior, those of middle-age „attractiveness‟ can also define their culture as superior as well. o Age structure serves the interest of dominant social classes o Power does not seem to be derived from relations between age groups but rather from relations between classes. o They too can use „attractiveness‟ to legitimate their superior positions with greater life chances 1  The reason why ageism based on physical appearance occurs is very much related to power relations because „attractiveness‟ matters. o For example, women are considered as old earlier in their lives because their value is based on their attractiveness to men and their reproductive abilities. Women age more quickly than men in workplaces where they deal with money, power, and public achievement. This is especially true if they work jobs that deal with the public or working for (predominantly white) male supervisors. o Whereas, for men, attractiveness stems from other sources. Sometimes age can enhance a man‟s attractiveness especially if associated with public achievement, money, and power.  Note that these issues are shaped differently in different societies. Youtfulness in Finland and attractiveness in Finland is not as important for women as they are in the U.S.  Class plays an important role in another way as well. Through economic resources, lass can play a critical role in denying or providing resources that allow the old to choose the ways in which they will manage growing old. o Remodelling and stalling an adding body is expensive and time consuming, hence, beyond the reach of the working-class or poor. o Just like within class structure, if you have more money, you have more choices. For instance, the more money you have, the more choice and freedom you have to get a „face lift.‟ If you are at the bottom of the level, you get the most grief. o However, if you look at the situation on the basis of diversity and you are more diverse (i.e. having grey hair, wrinkles), there tends to be less life chances in Western culture. However, those with more diverse sets of culture in class structure, like both high and low-brow culture, you have a higher chance of advancing in your social or economic situation  Hagar Shipley recognizes that certain privileges in society are distributed on the basis of age. 2 o Distinctions are made between the old, the middle-aged, and the young o Observes a connection between the young and the old because of their relationships to the more privileged “middle ones”  There are also more privileges and more social solidarity for people at the with higher class status than those are the bottom. These people tend to be in the middle class. However, you cannot discount those who are older.  the privileges that are distributed on the basis of age relations extend to ____ in North America o status and power and wage scales are established for teenagers not on the basis of their maturity, intellectual ability, but by their chronological age  People and roles are differentiated by an age structure, the elements of which are age strata, age-related acts, age structure of roles, and age-related expectations and sanctions.  Moore and Lowe shows the importance individuals assign to age norms in determining appropriate behaviour is a function of the age of the respondent. o For example, older adults tend to hold stronger convictions about age norms than those younger than them. o However, some argue that boundaries between culturally specified age categories are becoming increasingly blurred as active lifestyles, and related consumer products are being marketed to the aging baby boomers. o The usefulness of this conceptualization comes from the idea that age distinctions are fundamental in our society and that they influence patterns of resource distribution for the youth, the middle-aged, and the old.  The fundamental processes in age stratification theory are cohort flow, individual aging, allocation, and socialization. 3 o Allocation and socialization are the processes that intervene between the social structures relating to people and those relating to roles.  Like social networks in class structure, cohorts play a crucial part in further stratification. Cohort centrism is a term that refers to the error of assuming that older cohorts age in the same way as ones one. o Age tends to be treated in static rather than dynamic terms. Hence, most literature on the cultural meanings that individuals attribute to age casts doubt on the assumption that there are clearly defined age norms for different age strata.  However, in the class structure some people are mobile, upward or downward.  Cohort differences in education have strengthened the age stratification system. o For example, baby boomers started their lives early after WWII. Therefore, the majority did not enter post-secondary education, instead they had families. When their children grew up, economic times were a lot different. Post-secondary education became more important, thus the increasing levels of education and better jobs. Not to mention the time of industrialization and commerce (You‟re welcome to expand or use different ideas) o Within a class structure, people use their superior knowledge of kinds of culture defined as relevant to doing their jobs well. It may not necessarily be education, but it could be part of education. People tend to use culture as a tool kit. Those who have higher class families tend to have a better toolkit that can advance their life chances.  In class structures, people with better education and higher class work careers build up much more diversified networks and social capital, both on and off the job.  With the rise of industrialization and the state, labour-force entries and exits are allocated by age, both directly through labour laws and indirectly by educational criteria, for job entry, and by perceived age-related performance abilities, for job exit. o People of different ages also influence the kinds of jobs people hold. 4 o Younger workers tend to work more bad jobs that are poorly paid and have few benefits. Therefore, very rarely are young children or teenagers afforded higher levels of status and power than middle aged adults  In contrast, the dynamics of class relations play out with minimal interference from government policies and rules  The political-economy organizes Western capitalist societies on the basis of whether one is old, middle-aged, or young.  Some are advocating that the terms teenager and adolescent and the corresponding lack of legal rights and citizenship privileges be eliminated entirely.  Instead of assuming your chronological age determines what you are capable of, if we recognize the social construction of age like we recognize skills in the workforce or mastery of culture, there will be less inequality between age structures. Jordan Romano Impact of class on culture those of the dominant class are granted the power to determine the culture most valued in society. People in different social locations will get different degrees of exposure to different of the cultural scene. Impact of age and generation on culture: Mannheim, discusses stratification of consciousness: the things learned very early in life are deeply embedded and very hard to change. Just like Bourdieu‘s definition of HABITUS. Mannheim goes on and says that we learn culture at different life stages. He argues that people form their worldviews during the transition from youth to adulthood because this is the period of fresh encounters with the wider world of history and politics. Before this children live in a homogenous social world. They learn more about the wider world through the transition to bigger schools. Thus, with age comes a wider range of cultural understanding. Much is new to them; culture is generally not fixed yet. Generationally- they are likely to pick up orientations prevalent at the time. Mannheim argues- like Bourdieu with habitus that once our views are formed they stick with us and shape our later 5 reactions. Though Mannheim puts more of an emphasis on how these views are subject to change with time. Age and culture- McMullin- structural and relational forces- Young (or mid aged) people encompass the culture, which is most valued in society- older people are then disadvantaged. Chronological age means a lot in society culture changes over life course stages. Think older people and high culture tastes. Though there are certain cultures that remain constant throughout generations, think BABY BOOMER culture. Generational differences- Generations are not homogenous People react to cultural elements of their time in different ways. People are divided into generational units, which are related to subgroup cultures and generational experience. FB study- counters Mannnheims approach in defining generational units. ―our fav melodies reading‖ -little impact of family class on musical taste- contrary to what Bourdieu would expect- contrary to the more SES based understanding he creates. Culture of the workplace- age is a huge factor here. Age structures in industries- different composition of young, mid aged and old, this will shape the culture in the organization. Education- changing over generations, we see now an education expansion, education is becoming increasingly important also increased involvement over time. Different classes and different ages both create different cultural exposure. They are both subject to change over time. Age is a definite change in a single direction, where class may or may not change. Compare and contrast (a) the impact of class on culture with (b) the impact of gender on culture. Ramah Sharma The impact on class and culture in regards to the impact on gender and culture: weber- property classes -status- unequal groups of people because they are unequally rich, not all about wealth, its about standing in society -status group -different ethnic groups can be seen as status groups and all these groups are unequally ranked -position in the life course -bourdieu said cant think of it as homogenous class groupings 6 -fundamental thing is class -what did Bourdieu do with class? -people acquire their fundamental cultural orientation (their habitus) through their families, shapes their culture, middle class parents, you start soaking up middle class culture from an early age. -when did people start learning about gender? -babies pick up more and more of the existence of men and women -you can change your ideas what men and women are like, but you cannot unlearn that there are not men and women. Learned it so long ago it sticks to you -parents act differently themselves- domestic division of labour -many different ways of being a man/woman in society- masculinities and femininities - Masculinity- hegemonic- dominant idea of what a man is and should be like; among more powerful -manly- being able to work with your hands- being physically strong and powerful -disadvantage of being a female adds up -a lot of different ideas about what is typical in a man and what is typical in a woman -little girls less physically assertive -girls are outsmarting guys in high school and etc -in schools, schools are dominated by what’s considered worthy -art- harder for a woman artist to get critical respect/to get fame even if she’s really good -embroidery and quilt making have been called just crafts -West and Zimmerman state that “gender is constructed through psychological, cultural and social means.” West and Zimmerman conducted a study on hermaphrodites and concluded that by age five, gender was fixed. Also, they found that certain structural arrangements i.e., work and family, enable women to possess a distinct motherly quality with how they behave with their family. “In one sense, of course, it is individuals who “do” gender. But it is a situated doing, carried out in the virtual or real presence of others who are presumed to be oriented to its production” (West and Zimmerman). Social institutions play a vital role in how women and men are perceived such as hospitals with male doctors and female nurses being apparent. This shows how gender is socially constructed and how society determines what gender the person is and the roles associated to that particular gender. Tairei Natsuki (Paid Work: Chapter 9) Inequality in types of job: women are more concentrated in service, clerical and social work.  Early childhood gender culture: girls are encouraged to be more obedient, quiet and helping others while guys are learned to be more bossy and active  this feminine/masculine culture plays in their later lives when they pick their occupations Unemployment: more women unemployed than men. A lot of women call themselves 7 housewives.  Early childhood gender culture: girls learn that woman should stay at home, man goes to work. Habitus shapes their gender experience. Inequality in income: Women earns less than men  Masculine culture dominates workplace. Men are more likely to do better (move up higher in their status, etc.) than women because of the better access to masculine culture.  Feminine culture, which is picked up in family and at school, encourages women to pursue the lower-status jobs such as social work and nurse. (Education: Chapter 10) Underperformance of boys in comparison to girls in schools: boys less likely to complete high school than girls  Early childhood gender culture: Girl’s are taught to be quiet, obedient while boys are taught to be active and bossy  their different characteristics lead to their different performances at school. Feminine culture is more fit to education than men. Lower educational returns for women than men  Occupational segregation: feminine culture encourage low paid jobs for women  Feminine culture encourages housework.  Stay at home, men will work Alessandro Ruberto Impact of Gender on Culture Impact of Class on Culture Causes differences in cultural attainment, Causes differences in cultural attainment, amounts of culture, and types of culture. amounts of culture, and types of culture. Leading to differential life chances Leading to differential life chances between men and women. between classes (high-class and low-class). Men and women are considered Specific Classes are considered independent status groups, which are independent status groups, which are ranked or ordered on the basis on culture. ranked or ordered on the basis on culture. Causes identification of groups and again Causes identification of groups and again differences in cultural attainment (less differences in cultural attainment (less culture for those ranked lower). culture for those ranked lower). This system is built on stereotypes, which This system is built on class relations. directly influence an individuals cultural Higher classes suppress the culture of attainment levels. Men and women try to those lower classes and use culture as a “fit into” their stereotype. means to control. Women  more arts centered culture High-class  more arts centered as well as (stereotypically feminine) omnivores (highbrow culture) Men  more sports (stereotypically Low-class  limited to popular culture like masculine) sports (low-brow culture) Gender causes cultural differences within The class system causes differences socio-economic classes. between socio-economic classes. 8 Cultural differences based on gender Cultural differences based on class can be cannot be escaped. escaped/changed. Cultural implications of gender are learned Cultural implications of class are also early in life. Children often learn in school learned early in life, yet not as over what males and females are good at or bearing. Differences between classes are like. Causes direct categorization. not directly visible to children. Greater categorization begins later in life. Cultural differences cause differences in Cultural differences cause differences in education to be emphasized. education to be emphasized. Compare and contrast (a) the impact of class on culture with (b) the impact of ethnicity on culture. Miho Sasaki - Ethnic inequality is related BUT distinct from class inequality - Similarities: - Wimmer hypothesized that those who were in elite groups try to define themselves as members of distinct (and superior) ethnic groups and thus, try to emphasize the difference between themselves and other ethnic groups- which supports their higher position - By doing so, they legitimize their power and maintain their social positions - Thus, ethnic stratification, within society, affects the accessibility to cultural capital that impacts one‘s ability to move into higher social classes - As mentioned, those who have higher social positions use their ethnicity as a weapon in legitimizing their status. The ethnicities of the powerful become a form of high culture. Thus, individuals who are enriched with such forms high culture have better chances for upward mobility and attaining high statuses. - Therefore, while the powerful ensure that their ethnic cultures are superior and valued in society values, lower classes strive to get ahead in the working world by becoming familiar with the dominant culture set by the powerful - Different societies have different ethnic hierarchies - The culture of society thus impacts the ethnic status of individuals which affects their life chances in socioeconomic achievements. - Typically, when one ethnicity is classified as inferior, it jeopardizes their chance of socioeconomic status and upward mobility - This can lead to culture of poverty like demonstrated amongst the First Natives in Canada. - The promotion of high culture in social institutions can inhibit upwards mobility and thus affect their class positions. - E.g., schools teach dominant views and thus, children of working class populations have a harder time learning or doing well in schools because they are not accustomed to such culture (e.g., difference in habitus/cultural/social capital) - Differences: - Ethnicity is only one of the many factors that contribute to the cumulative advantage/disadvantage hypothesis 9 - Thus, other factors, asides ethnicities, contribute to culture such as gender, class, age that provide each individual differing life chances - The effects of ethnicity in the culture of society does not only impact their chances of socioeconomic achievements, but also relates to the discrimination and oppression in society - This is portrayed in Bonnie‘s lecture where she describes the conditions of Aboriginals that were driven out of their lands and their kids were kidnapped for residential schools - E.g., attempt to annihilate their culture by converting their children‘s cultural heritage to white, European culture through residential schools. Loss of land, power, etc. - Effects of marginalizing ethnic minorities are far beyond just those relating to economic success - Cultural loss, Psychological trauma, powerlessness - Also, ethnicity has played a role that is mutually exclusive to class on culture - That is, it heightens social solidarity and ethnic identity among members of an ethnic group. - This is done through living together and institutional completeness (which refers to institutions implemented within a community that provides individuals of the same ethnicity to come together and interact. E.g., work, churches, schools, etc) - Therefore, ethnic minorities may take on a popular cultural strategy called cultural bilingualism - They take on both high culture as well as the culture from their own heritage for different purposes. - The former helps them with upward mobility, do better in school and class attainment while the latter helps maintain relationships and social standing within one‘s ethnic group - Pierre Bourdieu explains efficiently the role of class on culture (RECALL) - Habitus/social/economic/ cultural/ symbolic capital maintains class positions - Ethnicity is only of one fragment that affects one‘s class position - Thus, other factors come into play that help maintain dominant social positions - Dominant social positions play a role in shaping what culture should be valued within the society and the criteria necessary for prospects of upwards mobility - Based on differing societies, they can formulate high culture or cultural omnivorism to maintain their social positions - These are the kinds of culture within society that is valued highly of and largely represented within social institutions Consider some of the important AGE inequalities described and discussed in McMullin. What roles does culture play in these inequalities? Ziyao Tian 1. inequality 1.1 general theories 10 Certain privileges in society are distributed on the basis of age. The age distinctions are made between the old, the middle-aged and the young. The middle-aged occupy a more privileged position while the young and the old are underprivileged, thus a connection is built between the young and the old. Power relations result in some groups being more likely to become dependent than others. For example, the teenagers depend on their middle-aged parents to pay for their education and living expenses while the older depend on middle-aged policy-makers to provide them with enough pensions, physical care and other services the powerful middle age offer. 1.2 examples of inequalities The inequality is especially distinct in labor markets and families. (1)First, wage-scales are established for teenagers not on the basis of what they do, but by their chronological age. For example, a 17-year-old working at the same job as 20-year-old can legally be paid less for doing the same work. (2)Also, young workers participate in the workforce less and are less well- represented in all job categories except consumer services. (3) Moreover, when older workers lose their jobs, they are unemployed longer than younger workers because the younger averagely receive more education than the older (admittedly, this is more like a generation perspective) and also because older workers will encounter more difficulties participate adult training and education as they are less intelligently competent and bear more family burdens than their younger counterparts. (4)In families of precreation, parents have more power and economic control than their children. And paid employment in the families (the middle-aged) are more valued than the other two groups. Besides, physical appearance is also critical source of ageism. Older people are more likely to be seen as deviant as a more conservative dressing culture is expected among them. Generally speaking, the culture of age assigns different age groups different age-related acts, expectations and sanctions. 2. culture’s role 2.1 culture in a social sense In North American culture, there is a cult of youth that favors the young over old and that suggests that to be young is to be vibrant, beautiful and happy whereas to be old is to be tired, unattractive and grim. These cultural views do little to take away from the status and power of middle-aged people. They are, however, especially detrimental for older adults because, combined with loss of youthful appeal and the resultant difficulties with self-image and self- esteem. *From a political economic view, age inequality is constructed in the distribution and allocation of resources and opportunities for the middling is considered more contributing to the 11 society and to the maintenance of social order whereas the old is no longer productive. Specifically, the capitalist culture leads to the perception that the paid family members (the middle-aged) are considered valuable while the young and the old are devalued. Anthropologically speaking, health and fitness is valued cross-culturally. Therefore, the younger group and especially the older group who are more likely to encounter diseases and disabilities are culturally unvalued and thus strengthen the age inequality. 2.2* culture as in cultural capital In terms of culture acquired by individuals rather than societal culture, culture can affect the kind of youth, middle age, or old age that you have. Consider education, which expands cultural capital greatly: (1)more highly educated people do everything later: they are older when they start work, start a family, stop working, develop old age disabilities, and die. (2) they have longer and pleasanter periods of youth, mid-life, and old age. (3)they are much healthier in old age. In this way, the age inequality can be reduced if people gain more cultural capital. Besides, class, race and gender also play important roles in age inequality. For example, middle class people have more resources that allow them to choose the ways in which they will manage growing old. *not closely related to topic or to the textbook Consider some of the important GENDER inequalities described and discussed in McMullin. What roles does culture play in these inequalities? Hailey Uruhart - McMullin explains that all aspects of daily life, whether it be the family, labour market, or states are gendered - Males and females have different experiences and opportunities in most institutions - Taking on the work of feminist sociologists, McMullin illustrates that inequality begins with the simple definitions of ‗sex‘ and ‗gender‘ - Whereas sex is a term differentiating biological makeup of individuals, gender focuses on the cultural and social construction of what it is to be male or female - With the definition of gender applied to individuals, comes the basis of adopting a cultural repertoire - Gender is constructed around an individuals sex, which inevitably pushes them to abide by a certain type of lifestyle - Since McMullin addresses gender as a social construct, our opportunities, constraints, advantages and disadvantages are all put into place by our gender Work - One of the main areas where gender inequality exists is in the workplace 12 - The labour market segmentation perspective holds that men tend to be concentrated in jobs that are characterized by higher salaries, more benefits, and higher statuses - McMullin calls these male-dominated professions ‗core sector‘ jobs which are powerful companies that have little competition for their products - On the other hand, there are ‗periphery sectors‘ of the economy that are much smaller firms and have a lot of competition within them - McMullin holds that women have such a hard time keeping up financially with their male counterparts because they are segregated into these lower-level industry sectors; creating further inequality among men and women within the labour force - For those women lucky enough to be in the same work industry as men, they are still met with another form of gender inequality - Women experience the ‗glass ceiling‘ in their careers meaning that they are much less likely to progressive economically compared to their male counterparts - Erickson says that this is because male forms of cultural capital (things such as sports knowledge and interests) create more advantage in the workplace - Because men master this dominant culture more often than women, this creates an inequality in regards to the upward mobility within the work environment - Those women who are too aggressive in trying to associate with male culture run the risk of being seen as gender inappropriate by participating in things not normally associated with women Domestic - Unlike other forms of inequality, gender disparity, according to Erickson, is pervasive within families - Childhood is the most important time for acquiring culture related to gender inequality. Young children learn that all people are divided into two categories: male and female. - Children learn what men and women are supposed to be like from watching their parents. Parents model the differences between men and women. Women on average do more housework and fathers earn more money for the family. The idea of a gender based division of labor is subtly transmitted to children. - Parents also influence their children‘s acquisition of gender in more obvious ways by teaching their children different skills. For example, mothers teach their daughters skills that revolve around housework, while fathers more readily teach their sons more aggressive disciples such as sports or how to be tough. - Moreover, the biological family, according to McMullin, plays a key role in creating inequality within the domestic sphere - Biological families are characterized by four aspects: - Women reproduce and carry offspring, and as a result are dependent on men for survival - When children are born they take a long time to become independent - Mothers must spend time with their kids to create bonds, and focus much more on emotional values as apposed to economic values - Therefore, what creates a gap in power between men and women is the reproductive biology of women itself. Due to the fact that women are assumed to spend most of their lives around nurturing kids, it is up to men to provide economically for the family. This in turn gives males more power because they 13 are the providers, and allows them to exercise their power and dominance over the women they support - Another theory related to domestic gender inequality is the dual-systems theory, which suggests that patriarchy and capitalism interact and influence the oppression of women - Patriarchy holds that men create inter-dependence and solidarity with one another, which enables them to unite over the common goal: to regulate women - In this sense, McMullin shows that the dual-systems theories main premise is that because men hold all the economic and domestic power, they control how women structure their lives - Men are in control of women‘s economic and sexual activity, which leads to women in a sense, working for men - They raise the kids, clean the house, and cook for the males, who in return bring home the money needed to support the family - Inequality is driven by many factors, one of the main ones being gender. Gender drives inequality in the workforce as well as domestically. Gender influences the culture which we acquire from a young age, and these cultural differences further drive inequality. Sarah Yuen Class and culture Gender and culture Similarities Determine by birth Cultures are classified into gender and class (omnivore-masculine or feminine activities) Learn from parent- habitus and masculine/feminine activities (also see the differences) School curricula emphasize forms of culture valued by the dominant groups that have influence over education. People with similar class background tends to stay together while outside the classroom, boys hang out with boys and girls hang out with girls  further develop class and gender differences Connection with cultural capital- male often dominate upper status jobs where women are excluded from workplace conversation- Erickson security industry Differences People can grow up without knowing People grow up with gender and what classes are like, what their class categorize other into the gender positions are binary. It is hard to escape gender Bourdieu: cultural orientation is Children learn how male and female formed early in life, in one’s family should behave and they learned the and shaped by the family’s class expectations attached to gender. situation- parents unconsciously Parents treat boys and girls passed their habitus to their children differently- activities, skills and domestic works Relationship Think men and women as status group- class as status group Members of same group share sense of hounour and what is good or bad Men are ranked higher for the same performance and their cultural capital 14 brings them advantage in the workplace –Erickson’s security industry McMulin’s gender inequalities and culture: - Gender typical culture learn from parents- male should be involved in masculine activities while female should be involved in feminine activities- learned from a young age - We categorize people into the gender binary system and its hard to escape from it. We learned how to behave according to our gender - Sex-based gender is the most original and basic form of oppression. Unequal gender power relationships make women economically dependent on men  material based of patriarchy is the control of women’s labour power by men Gender is socially constructed. It is used to express the view that there is nothing innate about men or women that makes one sex more suitable for performing a particular task than another. It refers to the social construction of difference that is largely organized around biological sex. We were taught at a young age that the world is divided into two different kinds of people, male and female. We learned to categorize everyone and have different expectations on men and women in different aspects of social life including education and work. Gender differences in education: - Girls tend to do better in primary and secondary education and more often go to postsecondary education because they are better at reading, sitting quietly, following the teacher’s instruction (learn from their parents or the society that girls are more passive and quiet). - The society also teaches that male and female are good at and like different subjects. Male are good at science and math while female are good at art subjects and social science- affect by traditional ideologies and student pick subjects according to it - The school curricula emphasizes forms of culture valued by the dominant groups that have influence over education- great historians or scholars are mostly male and activities associated with men are more likely to be on the curriculums- embroidery vs. oil painting. - Outside the classroom, boys play with boys and girls play with girls- further develop class differences in all sorts of culture. - The textbook: 70 of young women and 60% of young men were expected, by their parents, to complete a university degree  girls are rated very well more often in all areas 15 In work - Social network- same sex - Male domination and women are unable to participant in workplace conversation because they do not know much about sports - Female earn less than men at all levels of education because of occupational segregation and child-care responsibilities where women tend to participate in part- time and other non-standardize employment Consider some of the important ETHNIC/RACIAL inequalities described and discussed in McMullin. What roles does culture play in these inequalities? What makes it easier or harder for minority ethnic or racial groups to resist cultural domination by more powerful people? Jasmine Jim Education and elite cultural capital are the most active and effective tools groups may possess or use, in order to resist domination from more powerful people. Education can be seen in Shively‘s example of movie stereotypes of aboriginals. She showed Indian men on reservations, Indian men who are in college and white men, a John Wayne movie. John Wayne is highly racist toward the Indians in the movie. The viewers interpreted the movie differently and enjoyed different aspects of it because they viewed it through their different cultural frameworks. The Indian men were more inclined to code characters as good or bad guys, and went with the good guys, accepting the narrative frame of the movies, not understanding that the bad guy portrayed in the movie was ―them‖. However, when shown to the college Indian students. The college Indians were much more critical than Indians on reserves. -they complained that portraits of Indians are often negative, e.g. shown as faceless savages -they noted John Wayne‘s sometimes racist remarks off the screen -they criticized inauthentic details, e.g. speaking the wrong language or wearing the wrong kinds of clothing for the tribe they are supposed to be -college Indians also liked Westerns, but preferred ones that show an Indian point of view, or that show Indians more accurately and positively -their resources and education gave them more skills to be critical and conscious of the movie Education teaches both more accurate information and more conscious and astute critical skills, and hence is a powerful means of individual resistance. Elite cultural capital is another tool in determining the ability for a group to resist cultural 16 capital. An example is black identity in art. Black people are using their skills to change the nature of upper status, to include black people in fine arts. By emphasizing the demand for black cultured art pieces through formal organizations such as museums and galleries; for example donating distinguished art works to major museums and museums deliberately collecting black artist work for display. Also, emphasizing the demand for black cultured art pieces through informal networks such as collectors, artists, and gallery owners. The more involved these social networks are in dominant culture, the more they are able to change or validate the ―low status culture‖ into the dominant culture. The resistance from the domination of other more powerful cultural groups is possible by education and elite cultural capital. It was shown in the examples between aboriginals on reserves and educated aboriginals and also successful black Americans promoting black identity. Susan Hwang People in higher status groups emphasize ethnicity and their differences with people in lower classes to protect themselves and exclude lower status people. This also includes the cultural differences between themselves and other ethnic groups. This can be seen in Canada, with Aboriginals and other immigrants. Even non-English Europeans were racialized and were seen as racially distinct and inferior to white English people in Canada. An example is the Irish. Although what ethnic groups are does change over time, people in inferior ethnic groups have a difficult time achieving socioeconomic success and thus an upward re-evaluation of their ethnic group‘s status. Because people in higher status ethnic groups becomes higher status culture, according to Bourdieu, they dominate powerful institutions and more powerful social positions, and this becomes cultural capital. Resulting from this, the higher status culture shapes the curricula in schools, and children from lower classes have a hard time achieving success because they were not naturally given the type of cultural capital that is needed in these schools at home. Therefore, it becomes important that these children learn both their own ethnic culture and the culture of the higher status ethnic group in order to succeed. Moreover, education is a powerful means of individual resistance but because it is heavily influenced by the higher status ethnic group culture, it is significantly less effective for children in lower statuses. Because there are negative stereotypes that are associated with the struggle for cultural capital and higher status, people in lower ethnic classes have to work to change the Eurocentric nature of North American dominant cultural capital, using their own command of that very dominant cultural capital. This is hard because it is not learned naturally at home. An example of this is Bank‘s study of Black Americans and the art work displayed in their homes. 17 Discuss the findings from the study of musical tastes among Toronto teens by Tanner, Asbridge, and Wortley. Discuss these findings in the context of the debate over the nature of cultural capital today: highbrow exclusiveness versus cultural omnivorousness. Sarah Kotsopoulos  Musical tastes can be used to measure status characteristics and cultural dispositions  Bourdieu believed that music (a form of culture) was a way of representing social stratification and a way that people exhibit distinctiveness o Music is a resource used by powerful groups to establish, maintain and reproduce their social status. Music is used by oppressed groups as a form of resistance and a way of distinguishing themselves from the elite o Saw that there were distinct differences in music preferences of the different classes and a clear definition of elite/highbrow musical tastes and lowbrow/common/popular tastes. Ex. Highbrow music included classical and opera while lowbrow music was folk, country, rock. o Saw sharp, distinct boundaries between the classes as well as between their musical tastes (upper classes did not associate with lower class culture and vice versa) o Cultural and ethnic inequality is created when the culture of higher status ethnic groups becomes higher status culture, and comes to dominate powerful institutions and more powerful social positions, and hence becomes cultural capital - a form of cultural capital that provides advantages to the dominant ethnic groups that have better command of (their own) culture. (the culture of the elite becomes high status culture and a form of cultural capital).  Peterson saw the distinctions between upper and lower classes in terms of omnivorism vs. univorism o Omnivores like many types of culture, in Petersons case they enjoy both high status and low status culture, in Ollivier’s case they enjoyed many forms of low status culture but no forms of high status culture. They tolerate all forms of music and don’t hate other types. Their cultural variety is what makes them distinct and exclusive. o Univores only like a certain type of culture and reject all others (narrow tastes). Univores tend to be lower status people and only participate in low status forms of culture  Tanner found that although there was a cultural hierarchy in musical preferences (dominant and subordinate tastes), the musical tastes of the higher status students were not completely aligned with either Bourdieu’s or Peterson’s classifications if cultural capital o Students were classified as either high or low status by their level of educational achievement and expectations (level of school absences, suspensions from school, expectation of high grades). High levels of educational achievement showed greater levels of cultural capital  High cultural capital was found in New Traditionalists, Ethnic Culturists and Hard Rockers. High levels of cultural capital (high educational 18 expectations) did not mean that they were all cultural omnivores though, so it does not completely correspond to Peterson’s model. o Although higher status students in Toronto tend to display a cultural omnivorism when it comes to musical tastes (engage in typically highbrow and popular forms of music) they also exclude and reject some forms of music (opposing Peterson’s and Bryson’s belief that higher status people have greater tolerance for all forms of music/culture)  Ex. New Traditionalists enjoyed a multitude of different music genres (enjoyed typical highbrow genres like classical and opera, as well as popular culture genres like blues, pop and country) but did not like rap. They displayed the highest amount of cultural omnivorism and also the highest academic success o Lower status students (depicted mainly by their lack of academic achievement and educational futures) tended to be more of cultural univores  Ex. Black Stylists liked mainly lower status music (rap, hip hop, reggae, soul) and disliked all other types and had low educational expectations and achievements and high levels of peer group delinquency (suspended from school, skipped school, didn’t get high grades) o But the omnivorous model doesn’t quite work on some groups  Ex. the Hard Rockers exhibit musical univorism by having a very narrow taste preference, but continue to have high levels of educational attainment and low delinquent peer activities  The actual group labelled as the Musical Omnivores did like all 11 genres, but they were the smallest group (other than the musical abstainers). They also had no real definable educational achievement characteristics, and so did not exhibit high cultural capital and could not really be considered high or low status groups.  Overall I would say that Toronto students display a more omnivoristic style of music preference and are more open about enjoying different types of music. This may be because they have not formed a concrete identity that will later guide their decisions and tastes, and may be playing around with different ones. Also, with the wide range of diversity in Toronto, there is greater exposure to different types of music, and so people end up have greater amounts of likes and dislikes.  That being said, having greater cultural capital does not necessarily mean that you will be a cultural omnivore. The groups that had high cultural capital (greater educational achievement and expectations) still had varying degrees of musical preferences, ranging from broad and omnivoristic (New Traditionalists) to narrow and univoristic (Hard Rockers) Gender differences in education  Since girls are socialized from birth to accept a more docile and subordinate role, they are more aligned with the dominant way of education and schooling (the student is in the subordinate role and follows the teacher’s rules and curriculum)  Girls are socialized in a way that their cultural habitus matches the one of education and 19 so they are better primed to get more from the education system and actually learn o Girls exhibit a greater “readiness to learn”, displaying stronger communication skills, abilities to use symbols, independence, self-control and attention. Girls are also seen to exhibit more pro-social behaviour  Boys are now being seen as underrepresented and are viewed negatively in the school system o Many boys are viewed as hyperactive and inattentive, and are more likely to be classified as “at risk” or special needs (ex. ADHD/ADD). This means that they are problemized and do not fit well with the education model, and so do worse in school o Boys are now more likely to drop out of high school than girls  Educational policies have historically emphasized women’s caregiving roles, reinforcing the subordinate placement of women and barring them from entering many of the educational programs available to boys o Nowadays, women’s access to post-secondary education in Canada is equal to that of men’s o The level of education for women has surpassed men’s at every level but the doctoral one o But, women are still underrepresented in certain male-dominated programs such as: technical trades, math and engineering  Women entering post-secondary education still adhere to traditional gender roles. Some fields of education are feminized, and seen as the proper place for girls (education is not gender neutral, and it acts to stream children into careers based on their genders). These are typically extensions of the homemaker’s role; like teaching, nursing/health or the humanities (caring and nurturing positions). Some positions also represent the dominant view that men are dominant and women are subordinate, so the pink collar jobs such as secretaries and welcome desk positions are typically occupied by females because they act to reinforce gender stereotypes by putting women into roles where they are under men (subordinate)  Despite earning the same degrees as men, women continue to experience occupational segregation and receive less for their educational investments than men o Women still earn less than men in the same jobs, are less likely to be picked for a promotion or raise and are less likely to occupy higher up supervisor positions (glass ceiling effect) o Women still enter health care and caring jobs in higher percentages than men, and tend to not enter occupations based on the applied sciences or math Discuss the findings from the study of musical tastes among Toronto teens by Tanner, Asbridge, and Wortley using Mannheim’s theory. In what ways do the findings support Mannheim’s ideas, contradict them, or suggest modifications and additions to them? Han Lee Mannheim‘s definition of generation 20 - a group of individuals of similar ages whose members have experienced a noteworthy historical event within a set period of time - social consciousness and perspective of youth reaching maturity in a particular time and place is significantly influenced by the major historical events of that era - major historical event has to occur, and has to involve the individuals in their young age (thus shaping their lives, as later experiences will tend to receive meaning from those early experiences); a mere chronological contemporaneity is not enough to produce a common generational consciousness - Mannheim in fact stressed that not every generation will develop an original and distinctive consciousness.Whether a generation succeeds in developing a distinctive consciousness is significantly dependent on the pace of social change Mannheim notes also that social change can occur gradually, without the need for major historical events, but those events are more likely to occur in times of accelerated social and cultural change. Mannheim did also note that the members of a generation are internally stratified, thus they may view different events from different angles and thus are not totally homogenous. Even with the "generation in actuality", there may be a differing forms of response to the particular historical situation, thus stratifying by a number of "generational units" Mannheim argues that, once our views are formed, they stick with us and shape all our later reactions -for example, once a person has a taste for diversity, he/she will pursue and value culturally diverse experiences for the rest of her/his life If so, different generations have different typical cultural repertoires, with the possibility of cultural conflicts between generations. Though Mannheim also notes that people of different generations interact, and there is a lot of inter-generational taste transfer too. Critics towards Mannheim‘s idea 1) People in different social locations will get different degrees of exposure to different parts of the current cultural scene -e.g. those with more education will encounter more of the kinds of culture that schools encourage, such as current literature and avant-garde cinema 2) People react to the cultural elements of their time in different ways. Mannheim argues that generations are divided into ―generation units‖ or sets of people, who interact, react and discuss, and gradually build up their own orientations in different ways specific to each subculture. 21 -historical example: the 60s generation stereotype features ―sex, drugs, and rock and roll‖ plus political activity for civil rights and against the Vietnam War. Some young people in the 60s were doing all that, while others were doing the opposite. Musical Taste among Toronto Teens by Tanner, Asbridge and Worley - Tanner and other 2 authors identify several kinds of musical taste, and then report on the age/gender/ethnicity and class of the students who share each taste package. - They find little impact of family class on musical taste, contrary to what Bourdieu would expect. - They have a wonderful sample of Toronto high school students and can show their different patterns of tastes, and which students tend to have which taste patterns. Since, this is a survey so we do not have any information on HOW all this happens - In the conclusion, the authors ask whether high school subcultures have implications for success in later life – including success in education and work. - Initial analysis thus suggests that musical tastes are largely differentiated by race and ethnicity and to a smaller degree by gender and age - Unsure whether to question Bourdieu‘s emphasis on social class as a differentiator of musical taste or to flag its waning influence - The socioeconomic status characteristics of parents are not particularly noticeable predictors of their children‘s musical preferences - Students‘ own educational achievements appear to exert a stronger influence on their musical preferences. Divided sample into 7 categories Club Kids - above average enjoyment of techno and dance, mainstream pop, and hip-hop and rap. Black Stylists - enthusiastic listeners of soul, rhythm, and blues, hip-hop, and reggae and dance hall, and are considerably less enthusiastic about everything else New Traditionalists - above average liking of classical music and opera, jazz, soul, rhythm, and blues, country music and mainstream pop Hard Rockers - sizeable number of heavy metal and hard rock, alternative, punk and grunge fans Musical Abstainers - no specific interest in music genres 22 Ethnic Culturists - dominant preference for a quite wide range of ethnic music, as well as a greater than average liking for soul and R&B, jazz, classical music and opera, country music techno and dance, and mainstream pop Musical Omnivores - composed of those who have an above average appreciation for all eleven musical genres - Black Stylists and Club Kids are relatively unambitious, planning for no more than an undergraduate education. Likewise, they were the only two groups for whom musical taste and educational plans correlated significantly - Partial support for this proposition is found when we examine links between cultural capital, our final independent variable, and musical taste. We find that students in possession of cultural capital are significantly more likely to be Musical Omnivores, New Traditionalists, and Hard Rockers; those bereft of cultural capital are likely to be Club Kids and Black Stylists, while being an Ethnic Cultureless or Musical Abstainer is unconnected to cultural capital This suggests that at least some of our respondents‘ cultural capital resources had been acquired from parents, and that therefore some of the relationship between cultural capital and musical taste can be understood as an indirect parental legacy. At the same time, the link between students‘ cultural capital and their musical tastes are net of their status origins – suggesting relatively autonomous effects of cultural capital as well Overall, findings confirm that musical preferences give focus and definition to certain peer group activities. Black Stylists and Club Kids are heavily involved in peer leisure and hedonistic leisure, whereas New Traditionalists and Ethnic Culturalists are comparatively uninvolved. Some of this activity has the potential to influence the course of school to work transitions. A criminal conviction for illicit activities or drug use, for instance, is likely to lead to lowered educational and occupational attainments. In this regard, it is interesting to note the willingness of the Hard Rockers, a group reasonably well stocked with academic and cultural capital, to jeopardize their – and their parents‘ – investment through their pursuit of risky leisure practices. Findings suggest that the musical preferences of Toronto high school students are both varied and structured, though not necessarily in ways envisaged by theoretical sources, and are linked to forms of, and degrees of, involvement in peer group activity. Bourdieu is primarily concerned with the impact of social class on cultural consumption. Among our adolescents, however, their own educational experiences and cultural capital are more important immediate influences on musical taste The weak direct effects of parental social class and stronger independent effects of schooling and cultural capital suggest that current musical preferences more likely foreshadow their future status destinations than reflect their status origins, and that the school is therefore not just a site of class reproduction, as Bourdieu supposes. Moreover, while race and ethnicity play little part in 23 Bourdieu‘s analysis of cultural stratification, those factors emerge as important determinants of taste in their research A limitation of the present research is this research has a little firsthand information about how young people acquire knowledge about, and evaluates, different musical genres – in a word, how they use subcultural capital. Questions of this sort are probably better addressed with more qualitative research designs; and indeed more recent studies of young people, music, and youth culture have employed qualitative methods Bevlyn H Tanner, Asbridge and Wortley hypothesize that high status origins, academic achievement, educational ambition and cultural capital lead to preferences of socially acceptable for adult approved musical genres. On the other hand, low status origins, academic underachievement, modest educational plans and lack of cultural capital, will result in music preference that the adult world and school devalues and disapproves. They also mention that peer group activity is linked to musical taste. Findings suggest that the musical preferences of Toronto high school students are both varied and structured, though not necessarily in ways envisaged by our theoretical sources, and are linked to forms of, and degrees of, involvement in peer group activity. Adolescents own educational experiences and cultural capital is a more important immediate influence on musical taste than social class. That parental social class shows a weak direct effect and schooling and cultural capital show a stronger independent effect suggest that that current musical preferences more likely to foreshadow future status destinations than reflect their status origins, and that the school is therefore not just a site of class reproduction. Mannheim mentions that as a child one lives in a culturally homogenous world. Relatives, friends and school mates have similar social and cultural statuses than the wider society; as one ages and starts to enter the larger society (bigger schools, work force, etc.) do they learn new things. That one‘s high school musical preference is in accordance with one‘s peers and cultural capital rather than one‘s parent‘s makes sense as these kids are in larger schools compared to elementary schools and are thus exposed to a more diverse peer group allowing them to develop culture and tastes they are otherwise not exposed to. Even those that did show a liking for classical music and opera, while they are the academic elite, their taste in music cannot be classified as highbrow as they like popular music more and there is no evidence of distancing or rejection from popular music. Omnivores in this study like all musical genres equally, with the exception of country music. These students, while well-resourced with cultural capital, are not part of the academic elite. Studies of musical preference should be conducted as these students‘ age into their university and work force careers, as according to Mannheim individuals continue to learn throughout the life course and one‘s preferences really grow and change as an individual grows into adulthood (roughly the ages of 17-24). During this time individuals may pick up different social groups, and culture that 24 influences their musical taste, which may then project future social status to a greater extent. Mannheim argues that people form their world views during the transition from youth to adulthood, because this is a period of ―fresh encounter‖ with the wider world of history and politics Tim Kaps Mannheim is primarily concerned with the impact of generation (time-specific social locations that are similar to social-class locations and that might give rise to group conflict and consciousness) on cultural consumption. In the transition to adulthood, young people encounter the wider world (bigger schools, meet a wider range of people, learn about a wider range of cultural possibilities; acquire more rights and responsibilities, so paying attention comes to seem important and worthwhile; interest in politics begins to grow; will get a job, so the economy and the worlds of work attract new attention; can consume more and more, more at one‘s own will, so consumer tastes develop at an accelerating rate). --Generations are heterogeneous: -People growing to adulthood at the same time are potentially exposed to the same prevailing cultural climate, but: 1) People in different social locations will get different degrees of exposure to different parts of the current cultural scene (e.g. those with more education will encounter more of the kinds of culture that schools encourage, such as current literature and avant-garde cinema) 2) People react to the cultural elements of their time in different ways. -Mannheim argues that generations are divided into ―generation units‖ or sets of people who interact, react and discuss, and gradually build up their own orientations in different ways specific to each subculture (e.g. the 60s generation stereotype features ―sex, drugs, and rock and roll‖ plus political activity for civil rights and against the Vietnam War. Some young people in the 60s were doing all that, while others were doing the opposite) DIFFERENT TASTE GROUPS IN TANNER ET AL. STUDY: The largest group (n = 616) is composed of those who report an above average enjoyment of techno and dance, mainstream pop, and hip-hop and rap. We refer to these adolescents as the Club Kids. Next is a similar-sized (n = 605) group of adolescents who are enthusiastic listeners of soul, rhythm, and blues, hip-hop, and reggae and dance hall, and are considerably less enthusiastic about everything else. We refer to them as Black Stylists. Then there is a fairly large (n = 482) grouping of youth who have an above average liking of classical music and opera, jazz, soul, rhythm, and blues, country music and mainstream pop. Because classical music and opera are constituents of this cluster, we refer to this group as the New Traditionalists, although it is the Omnivores, to be discussed in a moment, who are the most appreciative of those genres. The fourth largest (n = 425) group comprises a sizeable number of heavy metal and hard rock, alternative, punk and grunge fans – designated by us as Hard Rockers. Then there is a surprisingly large (n = 384) group of adolescents who are generally only marginally interested in any kind of music. Needless to say, not much attention has been paid to Musical Abstainers, as we will call them, in previous research, the usual assumption being that music is a uniformly high priority for all adolescents. The group we call the Ethnic Culturalists are so described because of a dominant preference for a quite wide range of ethnic music, as well as a greater than average liking for soul and R&B, jazz, classical music and opera, country music techno and dance, and mainstream pop. 25 The smallest group (n = 338), referred to here as the Musical Omnivores, is composed of those who have an above average appreciation for all eleven musical genres. --As Mannheim might predict, people tend to share tastes with their friends. The overlap is not huge, but the tendency is very strong statistically. -Overall, their findings confirm that musical preferences give focus and definition to certain peer group activities. Black Stylists and Club Kids are heavily involved in peer leisure and hedonistic leisure, whereas New Traditionalists and Ethnic Culturalists are comparatively uninvolved. Some of this activity has the potential to influence the course of school to work transitions. A criminal conviction for illicit activities or drug use, for instance, is likely to lead to lowered educational and occupational attainments. In this regard, it is interesting to note the willingness of the Hard Rockers, a group reasonably well stocked with academic and cultural capital, to jeopardize their – and their parents‘ – investment through their pursuit of risky leisure practices. - High school is a catalyst for adolescent peer group activity What additions or modifications to Mannheim’s ideas do the findings suggest? Their findings suggest that people tend to share tastes with their friends because the activities they are involved in with their peers are likely to affect their academic achievement, educational ambition and cultural capital, which in turn lead to preferences for musical genres. (e.g. low status origins, academic underachievement, modest educational plans and lack of cultural capital result in a preference for musical forms that school and the adult world disapproves of and devalues). Musical taste is linked to peer group activity. Musical consumption is related to subcultural behaviour. There is an inverse relationship between musical clusters that include legitimate or respectable genres and peer leisure activity, particularly its most delinquent manifestations. Preference patterns that revolve around rap are directly related to peer leisure activity, especially its more disreputable versions. Students‘ own educational achievements appear to exert a stronger influence on their musical preferences. Table III demonstrates that this is particularly the case with those students least likely to be regarded by the school as good ones. Black Stylists report school suspension, frequent absence from school, and a paucity of ‗A‘ grades, more so than other musical clusters. --The dynamics of taste formation seem to be different in different subgroups. In what ways do the findings contradict Mannheim’s ideas? --While race and ethnicity play little part in Mannheim‘s theory (more so interested in world events and trends, and politics), those factors emerge as important determinants of taste in Tanner‘s, Asbridge‘s, and Wortely‘s findings. Club Kids are younger, mainly white, with smaller numbers of black and Asian students. Black Stylists are also younger, largely, though not exclusively, black, with some South Asian representation. New Traditionalists are older, more likely female than male (in fact, they are the musical cluster most dominated by females), with a substantially high proportion of Asian students. Ethnic Culturalists have a similar profile: older, but with a significantly larger Asian and South Asian membership. The Hard Rockers are younger, predominately male, and overwhelmingly white, with Black students conspicuously absent from this group. Most studies of young people and music note that music devotees tend to be male (Frith 1978b). However, our findings suggest the opposite pattern as well: abstainers are predominantly male and largely white, though not significantly so. 26 Discuss the findings from the study of musical tastes among Toronto teens by Tanner, Asbridge, and Wortley How are musical tastes related to gender, ethnicity, and school success? What do we learn about gender, ethnic, and scholastic boundaries? Angel Yeh Bourdieu depicts culture as a resource used by powerful individuals and groups to establish, maintain, and reproduce their social status. High school is a competitive, status conscious arena where rank and standing matter Cultural capital (important for school success) is less strongly tied to parental background than Bourdieu supposes Gendered media usage – girls like teeny bop boy bands, romance, softer mainstream; boys like to reinforce masculinity Musical Taste Ethnicity Gender, School Success Age Club Kids White young -Modest with goals, Techno/dance, Some Asians and unambitious mainstream pop, Blacks - Higher rates of absence hiphop/rap -Greater involvement in Dislike everything else delinquency - unlikely to be “A” Black Stylists Black young -Modest with goals, Likes: Hiphop/rap, Some South Asians unambitious reggae/dancehall, soul/ -Higher rates of suspension and r&b absence Dislike everything else -Greater involvement in delinquency - unlikely to be “A” - More likely to have working mom New Traditionalist Asian Female -uni-educated mom Classical, opera, jazz, Older -Possesses cultural capital soul/ r&b, country, -“A” students mainstream -No delinquent activities, never skips, never suspended Hard Rockers White Male Possess cultural capital Heavy metal, rock, No Black Young -don’t get good grades but alternative, punk, think education is important grunge Dislike everything else Music Abstainers White Male -Good attendance 27 (marginally interested -no connection with cultural in any music) capital -Less likely to have uni- educated mom Ethnic Culturalist Asians and South Older -less likely to have a working Ethnic, soul, r&b, jazz, Asians and uni-educated mom classical, opera, -no delinquent activity country, techno, mainstream Omnivores Asians Older Possess cultural capital Above average appreciation for all Club Kids and Black Stylists were the only groups where education correlated significantly. School variables have a scattered taste for remaining group. Can’t use school to predict other tastes, especially for omnivores and ethnic. Criminal conviction for illicit activities is likely to lead to lowered educational and occupational attainment. CK and BS engage in the most leisure time and hedonistic activity like drug use. Parental effects are not salient, but they exert some influence. Alannah Berry Tanner, Asbridge, and Wortley Paper; This is used as a prelude to the actual study and is relevant to the discussion  Musical likes and dislikes are usually understood as matters of personal taste, connections between social stratification and cultural stratification have been made  Most famous proponent of this position is now Pierre Bourdieu o Depicts culture as a resource used by powerful individuals and groups to establish, maintain, and reproduce social status  Paper is concerned with the sources of variation in musical tastes among young people and takes Bourdieu‘s ideas and legacy as a starting point  Sample of 3400 highschool students in Toronto  Stratifying effects of music may be especially pronounced among young people (prime consumers of popular music), and those most attuned to the often quite nuanced stylistic differences between and within musical genres  According to Bourdieu, schools are shaping highschool student‘s musical tastes  This paper provides the observation that peer groups provide their members with an identity and sense of belonging different from, and sometimes in conflict with, that bestowed by the family or sponsored by the school o Academically successful students eschew peer group activity or orient themselves towards adult approved versions of it 28 o Less successful embroil themselves in anti-school subcultures in which popular music is used as a symbolic expression of rebellion or resistance  Historically o British research on social bases of adolescent musical taste cultures began in 1960s and 70s o Class background and school experiences were crucial influences o Findings:  Older, academically oriented, middle class students preferred progressive rock  Younger, ordinary adolescents from varied backgrounds and academic abilities preferred mainstream pop o The same patterns were being reported among Canadian adolescents  Identification of an association between a taste for heavy metal rock and low school achievement  These findings indicate an emerging cultural hierarchy within popular music – a legitimate preference for progressive rock juxtaposed to a more oppositional interest in heavy metal  Consistent with Bourdieu‘s depiction of dominant and subordinate cultural tastes  Roe has deployed Bourdieu‘s ideas to chart connections between young people‘s status origin‘s, educational experiences, and patterns of media use  He reports in this study: o Students who anticipate and achieve more education, align themselves with classical music o Those whose background and especially school experience had worked to suppress educational ambition preferred heavy metal  Musical preferences and occupational expectations are similarly linked  Adolescents who envisage high status as adults prepare for that outcome by aligning themselves with the cultural traits they believe are most appropriate for their future status destination – a process that happens in reverse for heavy metal fans Recasting Bourdieu: omnivores and univores in North America  Michelle Lamont found in a comparative study of the US and France, that, Americans, instead of restricting themselves to traditional elite culture, they display their superiority by a willingness and ability to engage with both highbrow and popular artforms o As a result, the boundaries of legitimate culture have broadened  Richard Peterson‘s work best illustrates this: o As well as supporting the aforementioned, he contends that low status individuals and groups, rather than immersing themselves in an undifferen
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