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SOC336H Study Package #1 (1).docx

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LECTURE 2 January 14Racial group vs ethnic group basic definitions racial group group that is set apart from others because of visible physical characteristics Henslin and Nelson 1996 ethnic group group that is set apart from others because of national origin or distinct cultural patterns schaefer and smith 2004important to recognize how race shapes and forms our life evolve deconstructing race will let us understand race and detail form see that canada was constructed on ethnocentrism and racial exclusion look at interactions between groups of people and how they unfoldethnicenglish french Canadianfrench important to note that racial categories are very ambiguous Minorities in the New World Wagley 1958Members of minority group experience unequal treatment members of a minority group share physical or cultural characteristics Voluntary people are born into it Tend to marry within the group have a greater difficulty to achieve equality socially segregation and extermination strong sense of social cohesion between members gender dimension to how this unfoldsdominant the most privileged and powerful to define values within societyQUOTE race has no basis in science montagum 200610problematic because it is based on assumptions and ambiguous perceptions dont want to incorporate prejudice and meanings where they dont exist term in the 19th century that refer to a certain type of person everything stirred into onerace race as a concept is not very oldskin pigmentation hair type size of pbrain ex of physical features race is increasing seen as a biological type of human being and we see the emergence of a hierarchal relationship the bio characteristics of each grouping is then linked to the range of psch and soci capacities by which they can be ranked emerged in the 16ht century and not put into use till the 19th century cultural meanings that were associated will continue to shift due to social and economic factors no biological reality to race but there is a claim to a social significance race shouldnt deny the physical differences and the cultural experiences they have but at the same time one shouldnt make the assumptions to intelligence and politics of these ethnic clans each society determines what qualities are important and used Read aloud of Dr Seuss the Sneetches stars and distinguished dominant power and access to all of the resources the ability to make distinctions and what separates us then rather what brings us together skin color big difference socially economically etc different societies have different measurements to how important they are those in power define a societies valuessee how individuals come together Ethnicity 1 handed down from one generation to the next 2 ascribed status 3 structures of an ethnic group evolve ability to take care of members of the group independent communitybetter chance of ethnic group going 4 institutions need to be distinct and different enough socially constructedcan become indistinguishable over generation racial minority group harder time blending into the dominant group Dont need to be apart of the min group to feel marginalizedFranz Boas no logic or systematic correlation between the physiological inheritance of individuals and their intelligence 1940 at the time of his writing large discussion differences in successes and failures cannot be explained through biology debunked social Darwinism no bodily evidence to link bodily form to evidence culture was more important that peoples biology of successes paradigm shift to cultural explanations which can shift and change school of Chicago and sociology department Assumptions of Assimilation 1 Ethnicity as a cultural phenomenon 2 Variable and could change 3 Projected a general process of assimilation where minority identities would eventually disappear parks and burgess 1921 735 could be eventually incorporated into a common cultural life the assimilation of a model of ethnicity as society moved on society will move away racial and ethnic centralism individuals described by their merits Two major world developments 1 post independence experience of new emerging nations one of the major objects was the building of the modern nation state 2 experience in industrialized national of emerging intergroup conflicts merging increasing racial conflicts see a reemergence of racial identities 1960s and 1970s see the collapse of this assimilation model and ties rise of racial tension in settler countries artificial boundaries ethnic identities important because emerging as a nationPrimordialism Harold Isaacs idols of Tribe 1975 Ethnicity as an example of basic group identity Listed eight elements which contribute to a persons basic group identity personal physical body including size shape skin color etc a persons name the history and origins of group one is born into ones nationality or other group affiliation the language one first learns to speak the religion one is born into the geography and topography of the place of birth ethnic attachments have a great deal of emotional charge assumption that society has marginalized became a challengenew identitiesnew ties that were based on class assumptions that were challenged by crime ties and new identities when individuals attached to each other soft ties are more symbolicbelonging to that group of people Tonnies 18551936 and Durkheim 18581917 Ferdinand Tonnies 18551936 Germinschaft close knit community small scale effective past society self interest little need for consenus modern society Gesellshaft impersonal city modern societypeople held together through moral obligations and personal self interests Shills 1975Durkheim the division of labour mechanical solidarity emphasis is on primacy of group or community sentiments over the individual organic solidarity emphasis on dependency based on peoples roles collective consciousness collective consciousness automatically leads individuals to love their country as a collective it comes togethersocial cohesion based on a shared collective consciousness people come together binds people together but also creates distances that dont from this bondage humans dont learn quite as quickly as it is needed OVERALLTHINK about how the experience of minority groups impacts assimilation projects of nation states Meanings and importance of race linked to time and place Describe the basic elements of ethnicity Franz Boas Understand primordialism and strength of primordial ties
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