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1 SOC363H1F Sociology of Mental Health Test 1 STUDY GUIDE 1 Pearlin Leonard I 1999 The Stress Process Revisited Reflectionson Concepts and Their Interrelationshipspg3 2 Mirowsky and Ross Social Causes of Psychological Distresspg17 3 Wheaton Blair and Shirin Montazer 2009Stressors Stress and Distress pg224 Mirowsky and Ross Social Causes ofPsychological Distress pg33 5 Mirowsky and Ross Social Causes of Psychological Distress pg 41 6 Horwitz Allan V 2007 Distinguishing Distress from Disorder as Psychological Outcomes of Stressful Social Arrangements pg 56 7 Wheaton Blair 2007 The Twain Meet Distress Disorderand the Continuing Conundrum of Categories comment on Horwitz pg62 21 Pearlin Leonard I 1999 The Stress Process Revisited Reflections on Concepts and Their Interrelationships Pp 395415 The Stress Process RevisitedFranoiseSociologist are in one mind about stress and its consequences Stress the circumstances that gives rise to a particular set of stressors and the condition that regulate the impact of the ppls well being Certain key assumption underlines the notion of stress diverse factors hat converge on ppls well being are interrelatedAmong these converging factors are social status of the individual the context that envelops their daily lives their exposure to stressors and the way stress is manifested in their psychological and bodily functioning Interconnections among these factors is that a change in one can result in changed in the others Social stress is not about unusual ppl doing unusual things and having unusual experience It is distinguished from other disciplineConcept and their interrelationships1 status and inequality Social and economic statuses of ppl are superimposed on the stress process These two characteristics signals the linkage btw status placement of ppl in the larger system of society and their health and well beingStatus hierarchically organized and inherently entail inequalities in the possession of power privileges and prestige Ppl standing in the stratified orders of social and economic class genderracehave the potential to pervade the structure of their daily existence and the experiences that flow from it The status if ppl is connected to every component of the stress process Status has the potential to impact on well being indirectly through their influences in shaping the context of ppls lives the stressors to which they are exposed and the moderating resources they possessNeighbourhood context being homologous sharing same status will also experience similar hardship and therefore will respond in similar way with similar resources Neighbourhood can give rise to its own distinctive stressors ambient stressors Ambient stressors surround the daily life and activities of ppl residing in the neighbourhood eg personal securitylack of easy access to needed program and service Those kind of ambient problems labelled as daily hassles2 Stressors 3 The status characteristics and neighbourhood contexts of ppl may also heighten the risk of exposure to other stressors The risk of exposure to many stressors varies with the social and economic characteristics of ppl and the social context of their lives Eg women are more likely that men to be objects of sexual violenceEven when there are no clear connections btw status placement and contextual factors and exposure to stressors the way in which ppl are able to deal with the stressors once it occurs may be closely related by these background characteristics Eg natural disasters then way in which ppl are able to manage recovery sensitive to their social and economic characteristicsStressors appear in 2 general forms life events and chronic repeated strainEventevent happen in an identifiable point in time at which it occurs Whereas chronic stressor are likely to emerge more insidiously and be more persistent Many critical event are episodes that bubble up along the trajectory of chronic stressors Certain kinds of life events can exert a powerfully disruptive effect on ppls lives and have a deleterious effect on their well being eg loss of a loved one which takes greater forces as stressors Traumatic events may involve loss are distinguished from other events by their suddenness and the magnitude of horribleness The harmful effects on mental Heath tend to be persistent The consequence of trauma early on affect adult life course Ppl who are exposed to trauma may be at greater risk of exposure to other stressors as they traverse the life courseNon event results from the failure of an expected or desired occurrence One problem about stressors concern the validity of their measurements which are often based on reports of subjective states The reliance on such reports raise the reasonable question as whether the assessment of the stressors is too heavily dependent on the cognitive concept of ind as they reflect upon their own livesMeasurement of chronic stressors example ppl reporting both a high level of marital strain and access to supportive social relationships are less depressed than those with the same level of reported strain but having limited social resources 3 Stress proliferation and the creation of secondary stressorsWe refer to the initial sets of stressors as primary and those that follows as secondary It doesnt imply that one is more important than the other or more instrumental in creating harmful outcomes They are intended to distinguish stressors according to the temporal order in which they can be observed This distinction also helps to clarify the causal connection btw exposure to difficult life problems and the deleterious outcomes of such exposure
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