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SOC364H1 (3)


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University of Toronto St. George
Brent Berry

Lecture 7 Inequalities in housing  Crowding  Adjusting for population growth o National housing act o CMHC  Core housing need measurement  Housing segregation  Voluntary and involuntary factors o New immigrant voluntary to live an ethnic enclave o Exclusionary zoning and housing discrimination by landlords are important involuntary o Role of group preferences  Zoning and affordable housing o Inclusionary and exclusionary zoning  Inclusionary zoning, which is a set of planning ordinance that require a given share of new construction to be affordable for people with low moderate income.  Exclusionary zoning aims to exclude affordable housing from a municipality through the zoning code  Trends and inequalities in house sizes Chronic vs. episodic homelessness  Episodic homelessness: the inability to obtain shelter for temporary period  Chronic homelessness: prolonged homelessness b/c of physical or mental incapability to obtain sustainable shelter and other material goods o Increased in Canada over the past 2 decades Benefits and problems of high-rise living  Benefit o Valued for spectacular views, the sensation of height, privacy and quietness, and, increasingly, prestige and status. o Allow for the efficient use of energy, infrastructure, and linkages to mass transit  Problems o Social and mental health o Gender and ethnic difference How suburbanization has had important consequences for experienced and expected privacy at home?  In fact, the common suburban tract house and subdivision are designed to emphasize privacy.  Exterior spaces include private outdoor areas at the back of the home that serve a role distinct from the more public front yard. o Suburban homes are also set back further from the street and sidewalk, o discouraging spontaneous socializing at the front of the home o Privacy is further emphasized through the diversion of local traffic with cul-de sac streets.  Interior spaces are separated by their functional role, and the expectation for personal private space for each household member has increased. o For example, parents in many middle-class communities today feel negligent if they don’t provide a private bedroom for each child.  A private bedroom was once considered luxury.  Technology inside the modern suburban home, o Such as personal televisions, telephones, and computers has fostered even greater privacy and public space avoidance. o They make it less necessary to leave the home to satisfy a basic desire for communication or entertainment.  Paradoxically, such overt facilitators of communication often increase the separation between individuals sharing a home. Response to homelessness  Accommodative responses provide for basic subsistence needs, especially food and temporary shelter. They do little to help keep the homeless off the streets.  Restorative responses aid the homeless from a treatment -oriented rather than sustenance perspective. Examples include mental and regular hos pitals, drug detox facilities, and some missions. Long-term housing fits into this category of restorative responses  Exploitative responses because they cater to the homeless from a market -oriented perspective with little authentic concern for their well -being. For example, there are documented examples of the homeless being exploited as unpaid sources of labour and blood plasma. Some merchants extend credit to the homeless at usurious rates of interest, and others charge exorbitant fees for basic services Lecture 9 Two theories of immigration and health 1. The marginal man  Stress of migration and the alienation from the dominant culture due to both discrimination and cultural and linguistic difference decrease health o Multiple barriers and stressors of post-immigration  Immigrants’ health worse than native, but overtime, can become better  Association btw immigration and health o Process of acculturation and time in the host country-> improvement of the immigrant’s mental health 2. The healthy immigrant effect  Argues that recent migrants have better health than both the native-born pop and long-term migrants  Association btw immigration and health o With increasing time of stay in the host country immigrants’ health status diminishes to a level somewhat comparable or worse than native-born populations  Why o Adopt unhealthy behaviors o Self-selection of healthier, wealthier immigrants  Previous evidence o Ali found that migrants, with the exception of those who had stayed in the country for a period of time exceeding 30 years, have lower rates of depression and alcohol abuse than native-born  Both marginal man and healthy immigrant perspectives posit that the mental health of immigrants will converge to that of no difference with the native population Immigrants Exposure to Stressors  Social stressors o Immigrants may be exposed to more stressors  Language barriers, sense of isolation, homesickness  Marginality, social discrimination  Economic hardship, change in role identity, family problems  Social resources o Social support multi-dimensional among immigrants  Disruption of social relations  Chain-migration  Homophily important?  Ethnic support is very important( Korean network)  No ethnic support is not associated with the health outcome(native-born network)  Psychological resources o Mastery and self-esteem How do resources reduce the adverse effects of stressors? Two competing models  Deterring model o Existing coping resources reduce impact of stressors on distress in three ways (resources influence stressors)  Resources reduce distress independent of stressors  Resources reduce distress by suppressing stressors  Resources reduce distress by conditioning the deleterious impact of the stressor  Coping model o Stressors exert their effects through a wider context of life situations in which important coping resources are jeopardized or compromised o Stressors influence resources in three ways  Stress triggers counteracting coping resources that reduce distress  Stress deteriorates coping resources (coping resources mediate the effect of stress on distress)  Prior stress produces a buffer of coping resources that helps people deal with later stress Montazer and Wheaton (2011) Summary of Findings… Why the negative trajectory across generations? 1. Change in family climate across generations…  Low family conflict, high family care in first generation-low GNP  High family conflict, low family care in 2.5 gen-low GNP 2. Change in school performance…  High grades and school interest in first gen-low GNP  Low grades and no interest in school in 2.5 gen-low GNP  Mother’s depression levels worse among those from low-GNP as length of residence increases  Father’s alcohol use worse among those from low-GNP as length of residence increases. o However, alcohol use among those from lower-mid GNP decreases substantially over length of residency Method Noh and Avison (1996) Summary of Findings…  Key findings o Life events increase self-esteem  Evidence for the counteractive model  Ethnic social support reduces subsequent life events o Stress-suppressing model o Evidence of homophily benefits  Mastery reduces impact of life events o Stress-conditioning model  Greater support for the deterrent model  Critiques? Application of Structural Amplification Lecture 10 Benefit and consequence of urban centre for children  Consequences of urban centres for children o Population density o Insufficient income o Inadequate housing o Outdoor pollution have imp
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