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University of Toronto St. George

Exam Notes Lecture 1  To study gender relations sociologically o Gender refers to the socially and culturally constituted behaviours, activities, and attributes that a given society considers appropriate for men and women o Assumption that only gender and not sex, socially constructed o Gender does not only organizes our identities but social relations in ways that go beyond the realm of the interpersonal o Organizes and is organized simultaneously by social structures, institutions and social actors in ways that benefit some, but not all o Power is a constitutive element of gender relations o How we understand gender also structures how we produce knowledge, and production of knowledge is inseparable from relations of power o So to study gender sociologically means that we need to take this into consideration o Gender is socially constructed in interaction among and between people, social institutions and social structures o Effect of gender is to create inequality based on perceptions of difference between women as a group and men as a group o Process: the interactive dimension of gender construction based on the idea that women and men are different. Process of creating distinguishable social statuses for assignment of rights and responsibilities. Creating the social differences that define what is women and what is men o Stratification: difference into system of ranking. Such as dominant categories are the hegemonic ideals E.g. men. Dichotomy and hierarchy. What men do is valued more highly, generally, than what women do, even if they do the same work. Race and class further dichotomize o Structure: gender divides work in the home and in economic production, legitimates those in authority and organizes sexuality and emotional life – Women part of role  Approaches into thinking about and studying gender o Add women and stir: knowledge on women’s experiences, but not popular approach because lack of knowledge on men’s experience o Systematic analyses of gender: gender as part of the social structure, social construct and relations between women and men. Meaning is never fixed, changes and fluid o Concerns with difference and diversity: deconstructing of gender binaries, thinking about intersectional analyses Lecture 2  Power: unequal relationships constituted in a social field of force  Discourse: group of statements which provide a language for representing a particular kind of knowledge about a topic  Deconstruction: analyzing in context the way binary opposition operates, reversing and displacing its hierarchical construction, rather than accepting how it is  Descriptive use of gender: gender is a concept associated with the study of things related to women, relationships between the sexes are social. Says nothing about why these relationships are constructed as they are, how they work or how they change  Radical feminism: theories of patriarchy. Women subordination to men. Scott thinks these theorists fail to show how gender inequality structures all other inequalities. How gender affects those areas of life that do not seem to be connected to it  Marxist/Socialist feminism: opposite problem to theorists of patriarchy. Instead of asserting the primacy of gender as a system of inequality, theoretical framework cannot but render gender inequality a byproduct of the modes of production. Gender here has no analytic status of its own  Feminist psychoanalysis: subject formation, social construction of gender and how it structures the psyche  Intersectionality: gender and race are socially constructed and mutually constitutive through cultural meanings and representations, material relations and social structural processes, and power. Gives cultural meanings to each other Lecture 3  Relationship between laws about women and the power of the state o Women have been invisible as historical subjects  State: compulsory political organization that successfully claims the monopoly over the legitimate use of physical force within a given territory. Political organization, resources to maintain over a territory  Modern-State: characterized by the rational-legal author. Rule of law and ideas of state bureaucracy  State does not equal to nation: state is more like different forms of institutions. Works to claim monopoly. Nation is a shared collective identity. Not necessarily grounded  Nation-State: a particular political organization  Citizenship: having the legal status and legal rights, and participation to the state. Sense of belonging, categorizes into inclusion or exclusion, for those with the status or not  Looking into the relationship between production and reproduction enable us to see the state’s role in mediating gender relations of power  Systems of oppression between men and women, interconnected with the state to serve the needs of capitalism and patriarchy  Socialist feminist theorist: link between the state’s regulation of the link between family and the economy. Forcing into women low pay jobs – private and public patriarchy (Haney)  Radical feminist theorist: weberian monopoly on the means of legitimate coercion, the power of men over women. the rule is the rule of men, idea of patriarchy embodied in law, existing throughout society. Society is organized  State is a process, mutually constitutive relationship of gender and the state, state as having multiple institutions  Masculinity being socially constructed, shaped by the multiple modes of power circulating through the domain called the state = masculinist power, rather than power of men  Not individual, but wide spread  Intersectional approach: citizenship as a ‘multi-tier’ construct. Citizenship is gender but women’s citizenship is not only in relation to gender. Context changes over time, brings in issues of immigration Lecture 4  Boundaries: boundaries as cultural, defining culture as providing shared meaning through which to articulate belonging to social groups. Production of meaning  Culture. Analyzed in divergent domains of language, religion, citizenship, race, tracing how collective identity and notions of difference are shaped through various institutions  Korteweg: bright boundaries imply that society is structured around a sharp distinction between insiders and outsiders so that individual members of minority groups can cross into majority society only if they give up part of their group identity and adopt some of the practices of majority society  Blurred boundaries imply tolerance for various forms of difference and for multiple memberships in different groups so that e.g. an immigrant can be considered Muslim and Ditch  Blurring bright boundaries entails a change in the dominant perception of immigrants as dramatically different from majority society Lecture 6  Panoptimex: gendered meanings and subjectivities. Represents the expectations embedded in the stereotype of the preconstituted, passive, n
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