Lecture 8 Assessing the Relationship between Gender and Earnings
Powerpoint Chart: Red: women, Blue: men
- Female dominated jobs are paid less than male dominated jobs.
What is the role of gender in the processes?
How can we compare female dominated jobs and male dominated jobs?
* Gender wage gap and gender earnings gap are different.
- Wage gap: male and female differences in average hourly earnings, wage RATE gap
- Earnings gap: male and female differences in average total ANNUAL earnings
(Important) Much larger earnings gap than wage gap between men and women.
- Women are likely to work part-time; hours work
Chart: Full year full time workers, Blue: larger gap
- men and women in the same job, controlling for the same experience and human capital, women make
90% of what men make, and 10% gap function of gender discrimination ; important to control external
variables that affect.
- We can’t really compare different productivity between men and women - effort, intensity of individual,
impossible to measure
Ross in Arizona: gender wage gap in stock traders – service oriented contexts are performance-based
managerial discrimination due biases embedded in male and female performance
Merit based but based on the evaluation of someone with biases
Assessing Wage Rates
*Overtime: Men more likely to work overtime than women (likely due to family responsibilities).
1. Industries: male dominated industries, more options to work overtime, increase the hourly wage,
impact of sex segregation
*Shift work: Midnight shift higher wage as it is undesired and tough, a “bonus” is even greater for night
Role of Human Capital (Education) - Chart - The more education, the more you get paid
- The value of human capital of men and women is not the same
- Different fields of study different jobs men and women get into
6% of Differences in gender wage gap
Zeng: motherhood penalty (being a mother and their wages and non-mothers)
- Wage gap among mothers highest among all women, with the highest level of education
- Career interruptions is way more costly when you’re in a male-dominated job, than when in
- Women family friendly fields more flexible not accurate at all; most female-dominations have
less flexibilities male-dominated jobs: more hours, but more flexibility and control over your
Experience/Tenure/and Hours Worked (Chart)
- How long have you worked, with one employer?
- women hourly making as much as men (95%). Gap is small in 0-2 yrs of experience.
- For women, The more labour market experience, the wider the gap there exists
- Women are more likely to have more part time job experiences than men due to childbearing as they
move on, and at the end, their increased job experience is not as valued because they are more like part
- Women come back to work and continue to work after parental leave, but the gap is already there and
will not close. Men got promotion when women left for family.
Men that left for paternal leave? A lot worse impact for men by leaving for family
- The notion of Masculinity: if records show you had a parental leave, it is shown as not as
- Yet, those are Privileged males in some of the best male-dominated positions who are able to take
the time for leave
Chart on Marital status, comparing women as a whole compared to men
- Single women are more like men than married women.
Total Explained/Total Unexplained
- Only 56.6% of all the components is explained for variance in the wage gap
- Normally having to be at least70-75% This is an underestimation
***The Unexplained: the demand side explanation such as sex segregation, employer biases,
Assessing Wage Bias
* First Step: Pay equity = wage differences due solely to gender 2 kinds of wage discrimination
1.Unequal pay for the same work: Gunderson situation; men and women in the same establishment in
the same jobs
2.Unequal pay for different work, but with the same value for the organization and the economy
pay equity issue
* Second Step: Identifying what we are measuring
Job as the Unit of Analysis
1.What a job is paid: Job class; mix of jobs in the same pay structure, pay structures: set of wages
applied to a job e.g. starting wage-maximum wage
- Take the maximum wage: removes effects of individual employee characteristics, such as seniority
and years of work experience
2.The worth of the job to the organization: Job value
- Skills and education needed to do the job; responsibilities of the job; effort the job requires;
working conditions of the job
3.Gender of the job: the composition of women in the job, the percentage of women
Calculating Wage Bias
If men and women’s jobs are worth the same, are men and women paid the same?
Goal: Gender difference, for instance, having male-dominated and female-dominated fields with the same
job value, should not matter.
Wages = a + bV (job value) + bF (%female)
First, add gender composition, second, add job value. Hypothetically, gender composition should not
matter in the variance of wages when job value component is added.
The relationship between gender composition and wages should be non-linear.
- Maximum salary increased by .2 unit increase of gender composition entering male-dominated jobs.
(percent of women in the company)
- As women are added, and become female dominated jobs, it shows decreasing maximum salary
Male Wage-Line Test “Proportional value comparison
- Male jobs that are more valued increased maximum salary
- It’s worth the same between men and women, but male jobs are paid more than women’s
Pay equity legislation in Canada Gender has been built into jobs redress gender discrimination
How Pay Equity Works:
enacted in order to redress systemic sex-based wage discrimination in Ontario
applies to all public sector employers and all private sector employers with more than 10
employees, to all employees of these employers, and to their bargaining agents
Who manages it?
Self-managed by the workplace parties
Who enforces it? Pay Equity commission, through its Review Officers and the Pay Equity
identifies the extent of pay inequity :
1. job-to-job comparison
2. proportional value comparison
3. proxy comparison
Under the present system, an employer is not required to take specific measures to
promote pay equity within its establishment Week 8
Assessing the Relationship between Gender and Earnings
Graph: Occupational Sex Composition and Median Weekly Earnings
- RED female dominated occupations are lower in median weekly earnings
- Blue male dominated occupations are higher in median weekly earnings
- What is the role in these processes
- Are the jobs comparable to each other? Jobs are either male dominated and female dominated,
it would be best to have integrated jobs to measure
Levels of Analysis:
- Wage rate gap: the M-F difference in average hourly wage rates (PER HOUR WAGE RATE)
- Earnings gap: the M-F difference in average total annual earnings (ANNUAL EARNINGS)
- Wage Determining Variables: Occupation; FYFT workers in 2003
***Research finds there a much larger earnings gap than wage gap between men and women = women
more likely to work part-time (LISTEN TO RECORDING TO MAKE SURE THIS COULD BE WRONG!)
- 2007 average women worker earn 68% of what men worker earn
- Wages per hour gap is much smaller
EX. Men and women only 10% difference when doing same job in same establishment
- Same skill set, human capital
- Function of gender discrimination
- Can’t measure effort, intensity etc. unmeasured intangibles
EX. Stock traders
- Performance based incentives cause biases
- Embedded in performance based indexes (based on an individuals measure of your work)
- Depresses their work based on gender (intangible social aspects)
Assessing Wage Rates
Male Dominated Occupations:
Overtime: (male dominated occupations have more opportunity for overtime
Men more likely to work overtime than women (likely due to family responsibilities).
This increases the average earnings of men.
Overtime pays 1½ to 3 times the wage rate Shift Work: (another product of sex segregation)
Usually three shifts morning, afternoon, night
Where you are located is sex segregation which is the biggest indictor of wage differences
Men more likely to work in primary extractive industries and manufacturing firms with shift work.
Shift work itself is paid more: a “bonus” for afternoon shifts, even more for night shifts
Human Capital Variables
Education--Average annual earnings (FYFT)
- Role of education predicting occupation
- Human capital investments the more money you make at the end
- Education better occupation more money
- Gap at every level of education – WHY?
o Different fields (gendered fields of study)
o Some fields of study lead to higher level occupations with higher income
o Wages of mothers higher than mothers and non-mothers in nursing ex.
o Career interruptions in a good job (male dominated job) is way more costly than women
taking time out in female dominated jobs
o Assumption that male dominated are not as flexible (because they have autonomy) as
female dominated jobs
More economical to pay mothers 5 months maternity leave then it was to
retrain the overturn ex. Google
Experience/Tenure/ and Hours Worked
- Labour market experience
- Job Tenure (how long you’ve been with the company)
- When you enter the labour market with men counterparts (they are earning comparable and
quite small wage/earnings gap)
- As you get more experience and work longer the gap gets wider
- What it means to be committed to your job (face time)
- Widen btw cohorts, and rebound as you get more experience (the gap starts to close once you
return from time off and start to gain more experience again, but it’ll never close)
- Study about men taking maternity leave – shown to suffer more than women taking leave (seen
as even less committed)
Marital Status (comparing women who work)
- Key childbearing years between married vs. single
- Single women more like men than married women are
- Difference is marital status (external demands)
Graph: - Adding all things into a model (should equal to 100 = your wages)
- Packages of things that explain you wages
- Total unexplained = what is left?
- What else is going on here?
Assessing Wage Bias
First Step: What is Pay Equity Dealing With?
Pay equity = wage differences due solely to gender
Not due to occupation, hours worked, education, experience, or other causes
Two kinds of wage discrimination:
1. Unequal pay for the same work
Unequal pay for the same work (Gunnerson example – men and women same
2. Unequal pay for different work, but having the same value to the organization--pay
equity refers to this
Wage gap in different work but same value/equally valuable to organizations
Pay inequity= stereotypical value vs. actual value
Second Step: Identifying What We are Measuring
1. Jobs as the unit of analysis (UOA)
Organizations make pay structure decisions about jobs, not about individual employees
We need to know:
1. What a job is ACTUALLY PAID
Take the max earnings to avoid seniority
2. What a job is really WORTH to the organization
How do we determine the worth of the job (the more worth = the more pay)
o Skills and education needed to do the job
o Responsibilities of the job
o The effort that the job requires
o Working conditions of that job
Points system (CEO more points, fast food less points = more points means the
more pay you should get)
3. The GENDER of the job
How many females are doing it
How many percent of female occupy that occupation
2. Employees as the unit of analysis (UOA)
We need to know: • What the person is paid
• The person’s sex
• Wage determining factors: human capital, tenure, occupation, etc. – you control for
these to see the effect of gender.
1. Identifying What A Job is Paid
Pay structure = A set of wage rates applied to a job
1. Starting wage (know what the base rate pay is)
2. Maximum wage (know what the max pay rat is, seniority and tenure is rewarded
by organizations, encourage to stay with increases of page rate)
Job=job’s maximum salary
Removes effects of individual employee characteristics (like tenure & seniority) (if anything over
estimate, better than underestimate)
Employee=employee’s actual salary
Takes into account factors that affect actual salary
2. Job value = What a job is worth to the employer
Skills & education needed to do the job; Responsibilities of the job; Effort the job requires; Working
conditions of the job
3. Assessing Job Gender
◦ The nature of work in the job
◦ The number of women doing it (relative to number of men in the job)
Wage Model: (How much do the 3 things matter (actually paid/worth/gender))
1. DV= wages
2. Focal IDV = job gender or employee sex
3. Other IDVs = controls
When JOB is UOA=The job’s real value
When Employee is the UOA=Attributes of the person, job, org, and industry
What is left (the unexplained portion)= direct effect of gender bias on wages
Calculating Wage Bias
QUESTION: When their jobs are worth the same to the organization, are men and women paid the
- Worth the same should not have difference
- Introduce what the effect is
- Job value is the same (male/female dominated worth the same points) then pay and % of
women should not matter - The more % of women there are the lower the wage
Controlling Job Value:
If there is no wage bias--The relationship between job gender and wages will become trivial when
controlling for job value
If there is wage bias--The relationship will still be important
Regression Model: (DON’T NEED TO KNOW)
(wages) = a + b (jobVvalue) + b (% femaFe)
• We focus on the coefficient b F
• This tells us the impact of gender (% female) on wages when job value is controlled
Estimating Wage Bias Graphically
Need to examine the relationship between salary and percent female (‘job gender’):
- Occupations that are more female dominated
- The relationship between proportion female and wages is nonlinear (there is a tipping point)
o Tipping point effect
O-25% female increase of what women earn (women in male-dominated
Relationship changes after tipping (threshold) point
The proportion of women (starting from 30/40%) wages start to decline
The more female dominated it becomes = the value of the wages declines, we
see how much the job is valuable
Male Wage-Line Test—’proportional value comparison’
In this test, a regression line is drawn for the male jobs
- We see the female jobs are below the male wage line
- Worth the same but the gender of the job
- More women in the job the value drops below the male wage line
Pay Equity Legislation in Canada
- Public sector employees,
How Pay Equity Works:
Enacted in order to redress systemic sex-based wage discrimination in Ontario workplaces
Applies to all public sector employers and all private sector employers with more than 10
employees, to all employees of these employers, and to their bargaining agents
Who manages it?
Self-managed by the workplace parties Who enforces it? Pay Equity commission, through its Review Officers and the Pay Equity
Identifies the extent of pay inequity:
1. Job-to-job comparison
2. Proportional value comparison
3. Proxy comparison
Under the present system, an employer is not required to take specific measures to promote pay
equity within its establishment Lecture 9
Manufacturing Motherhood: Combining Motherhood and Paid Work
Conceptualizing the Family
a) functionalist perspective - differentiated sex roles functionally necessary for society
b) feminist perspective - social reproduction and power inequality
c) Intersectional perspectives - gender, class, and race/ ethnicity combine to differentially
disadvantage particular women within families. The „Family‟ is not homogenous.
* System approach
- System is a whole. Family is heart of human body. Without it, breaks down. Other parts are important
i.e. pumping to the heart.
* Social control underpinnings
-There are parts to the system that keep the whole functioning
View of the Family:
1. Nuclear family is universal - the NUCLEAR family is so useful to society that it is inevitable and it is
universal. It is most functional form. Anthropological research on 200 societies.
2. Provides essential functions
* Sexual - controls sexuality, provides stability for adults
* Reproductive - provides new members of society -can raise kids in stable household with dad and
* Economic - family provides for its members - provides more efficiently and effective for household
members. Resources are staying in house
* Educational - family socializes the young into societies norms and values - f amily socialized the
Parsons, sociologist 1902-79–Basic Functions of the Family: 2 functions
1. Purpose of Family = socialization
2. Socialization requires differentiated sex roles
Types of Socialization: Primary socialization: socialization of young kids to behave our society expects.
The stabilisation of adult personalities
Differentiated sex roles: needed for raising family and function.
Instrumental-role of the father to connect the family to outer society via his paid work;
To connect family to other institutions in society. Dad goes to work, connecting ad to
workplace and other people
Expressive-mother teaches children appropriate sex-role behaviours in the home so
later on contribute to society
Gender Ideologies built into Functionalism:
-ideology is important to functionalism and nuclear family, heterosexuality -only way.
1. Sexual reproduction requires a heterosexual union (nuclear family form is the only family form
that is functional)
Any other family form is dysfunction. There is a harmony, can‟t deviate. Causing a problem,
the pieces don‟t connect and society is in disarray.
2. Essentialist ideas of gender and socialization
Because women reproduce, they are closer with children, and therefore naturally
suited for expressive roles.
In turn, men are naturally better suited for the working role
2. Functionalist view of working mothers: increasing numbers of working wives and mothers has
destabilized the family—it can‘t function properly.
Critique of Functionalism
1. passive model of socialization
-children are an identity that is acted upon. We imprint gender as if it is not reciprocal
process. Socialization is more about negotiating. Adolescents really negotiate this process.
1. unitary character of society--no classes, regions, religions, ethnicities, ages, communities, in
-we don‟t‟ have any classes, race ethnicities, we don‟t have age, we don‟t have
communities. WE just have the family. We don‟t know the other processes because they are not
included in analysis.
1. static approach—lacks the conceptual tools to address potentiality for change
-It is ahistorical – because it has unitary idea – doesn‟t have aspects – it is unchanging
entity – doesn‟t change over time. It ignores all other things changing.
1. oversimplification of sex roles --why can‘t an individual perform both roles?
-It is ciclycal and it is functional, goes in a circle – doesn‟t get in complexity of family
1. overly optimistic -ignores conflict in family. It all has to function.
Feminist Perspectives of the Family
Criticize Ideology and Social Organization of the Family:
1. Family responsibilities make male workers less likely to strike
2. Emotional support in family stabilized male workers
3. The family values and teachers obedience - children learn to accept hierarchy and their
position within in
4. Reinforces patriarchy
Feminist Perspectives on the Family
Feminist Critique of Functionalism:
1. challenge the superiority of the nuclear family as the ideal family form
Nuclear construct – separate spheres ideology – opposites. This is an ideology and isn‟t an
empirical necessity. Need to look at social construction and how identity is constructed. It
is not natural and due to biology like functionalists believe.
2. Reveal exploitation of women in families
Family as ideology and social arrangement
-Family is both an ideology and a social arrangement – they do not need to map on
each other. Working mothers is also an ideology they are not the same thing
Separation of spheres – compartmentalization of “roles” is problematic – like ACKER
argues – gender permeates all social structures – not just a role but it is embedded in all
-CRIT of FEM: if everything is gender – everything looks different – how is it the
same, also gender mig ht not be as salient in other workplaces. How do we measure
it? ALSO: it portrays family more unequal than it is – family ID is very important to
people so they are missing the positives by focusing on the negatives.
CRIT of FUN: compartmentalization – gender is more pervasive than functionalism has us
2. ignores inequities in housework and childcare – things are unequal and it is mirrored in society Intersectional Perspectives of the Family
-2 social statuses that combine in society i.e. gender and race. How does age effect social
outcomes for specific groups.
Problematizes Constructions of Mothering:
class biased and racially biased
mothering occurs within specific social contexts – it is socially constructed but these social
construction vary greatly in terms of culture and material resources and constraints. It
varies with ethnic group, religion etc. It really shapes families and what mothers mean.
Focus on biological motherhood ignores intergenerational and communal mothering
E.g., African American shared mothering practices
E.g., domestic workers who are usually mothers and must neglect their children to
take care of other peoples families
OPPOSITE OF FUNCTION: totally not biological – it is context-specific. It is
meaning driven, not biological process.
Biological reductionism: doing gender
Motherhood – static, unitary, doesn‟t change.
Challenge FEM: because FEM is out of white middle class experience. WE need to
face empirical reality. Fem problematized bio but then their whole idea of
mothering itself is class and race biased. It decentres white middle class
experience – it is more complex. There are other experiences.
Motherhood is not just as a gender construct – but it is racialized – i.e. different
aspects of caring is distributed among different groups i.e. domestic workers –
have to take themselves out of their own home and mothering and then
mothering other womens children. There are other things like race, class
citizenship. Intersectional Perspectives of the Family
Recommend we deconstruct mother ideologies by: (We need to challenge Motherhood as an
1. deconstruct definitions associated with mother as a master definition
-mothers are epitimy of doing femininity. Assumes all sorts of things about doing gender the
best – it equates being a woman=mother. Denies men from being able to nurture kids.
1. Be critical of dichotomies—the construction of mother/father is based on the
feminine/masculine dichotomy, where the latter is also seen as superior
– they are opposite – as soon as we have mother we have fathers on the other side. Hard t
marry the two – moms working and men nurturing. By creating this language of difference we
socially construct different arrangements in family.
1. Recognize Intersections– and expose class and racial/ethnic biases
-idea of motherhood comes out of WMC – most other women can‟t afford to have this
ideology. They cannot split the spheres – their moms had to work in factories. Need to see
how those mothers care for their families. Class really shapes on resources you can draw.
Historical Roots: social construct
18 century-- childrearing was not a discrete activity to be carried out solely by mothers.
It was not solely carried out by mothers. Idea of kids as little people that need to be moulded
into healthy people came out based on:1-3
rise of language and ideology associated with motherhood.
19 century--manufacturing mothers--child development become the responsibility of the
mother – hierarchy of needs, child development, psychology didn‟t come before 19 century. Idea
of what child needs to develop complex behaviour and personality, motherhood also didn‟t exist.
Significant Historical Transitions:
1. decline of domestic production
-Colonial Times: subsistence living – wasn‟t surplus of stuff. Father had a trade. Less
complex social system
-Colonial period to pre Industrilization: Kids would learn skills of father. More hands =
more stuff gets done.
-1785-1820: Rise of Industrilization: factories – fathers go to factories. Work is leaving the home.
1. Rise of the nuclear family and the separation of spheres
1. Rise of social childhood (and decline of child mortality)
1. self-sacrificing mother (middle-class)
Intensive Mothering (Hays 1996)
childrearing should be ― child-centered, expert guided, emotionally absorbing, labour intensive,
and financially expensive, and should be performed by the mother alone(30).‖ – what it takes to be
a good mom
mothering is seen as a full-time job (not paid work)
assumes only mothers can provide good care for children —there is no room for paid
caregivers or fathers here
There are 2 groups excluded – hired people can‟t be part of mothering and dads can‟t be
This is WMC construct of mothering. Access to resources are allowed to make yardstick for
society. Alienates adoptive mothers, extended family – invisible. They are not allowed to
Only biological mothers can do mothering AND dads can‟t be mothered.
middle class ideology, children as a reflection of you, your accomplishment
‗mommy wars‘– more rhetoric than reality - moms feel inadequate all the time. Home is supposed
to be home in heartless world vs. calculated world that is cuthroat and competitive. Makes both
stay at home moms and working moms – makes them fight against each other. BUT reality is
there is a no win situation – stay at home moms feel inadequate because they are a failure of
Mothers = selfless vs. Labour Market = cold and calculating
MacDonald (1998)—Manufacturing Motherhood: Intersectional perspective
Research Question: Given that the majority of women now work for pay outside the home, but
also given that the ideology of intensive mothering that existed in the 1950s (when moms were at
home) still exists, how do working mother‘s and paid caregivers make sense of their shared
both nannies and mothers consent to a particularized notion of intensive mothering that
actually obscures (makes invisible) the shared nature of mother-work going on (27).
Workers mothers and intensive mothering construct – what does it look like in action. Nannies and mothers do motherhood – and perform as a set of practices where mothers and
―those daily tasks involved in the care and protection of small children....mother-work
represents a large component of what it means to be a mother and to experience
Looking at social significance on what it means to be a mother – myth of motherhood – the
belief that all women need to be mothers. All mothers need their children and all children
need their mothers.
MacDonald (1998)—Manufacturing Motherhood:
Shadow Motherhood-- the mother-work carried out by paid caregivers, where, it involves the
carrying out of mother-work as well as the simultaneous masking of it
Defines the mother work carried out by paid caregivers where they do the work but they mask
that they are doing it. You can see your shadow – but isn‟t the full version of you. You are
carrying out but are masked.
1. Boundary Work: Making Nannies Invisible
-language of time with value component – they call it “family time” when nanny leaves.
When nanny is there – it is not a family. When she leaves – this is mothering.
1. Mom/not Mom
-Detachment rules – nannies would make sure they didn‟t cross the line i.e. being called
mom. Will get fired – no one else can be called that. They do provide emotional work. They
give emotional support but they understand they are only the nanny.
1. Keeping the Books
Through the shadow work of paid caregivers and the boundary work of working mothers, they
both collude to uphold the notion that the nuclear family is self sufficient, backed by intensive
-it has little to do with the logistics of doing it – only ideological is important. How was this was
going to be viewed, not how it was carried out. How are they going to mask these tasks to set them up in
a way that they can consent to this intensive motherhood concept.
-reinforces idealized ideas of mothers – it is consented to. It does little to serve the interest f
Socio-Demographic Shifts: Changing Family Forms – empirical changes
Major changes in the family since the 1960s:
1. rise of dual earner households
-irreversible and important changes. 1. rise of single parent families
Debunking the Myth of the Opt Out Revolution
Myth: Mothers Opt Out of Paid Work.. – what is going on with working mothers?
Working Mother‘s: (kids under 16)
o 1976: 39%
o 2004: 73% (compared to 79% of childless women)-they do paid work. Not seeing a huge
difference betwee mothers and non-mothers.
-what factors affect working rate: does age of child affect working participation of mother?
-Hypothesise: younger kids would need mom more, they would work less. Older child, more likely
she will work.
This is not a huge difference.
-Most moms with young kids work and more start to participate with age. This is cross sectional –
need to look at over time Trends
Age of Children:
Youngest under 3: 64%
Youngest 3 to 5: 70%
Youngest 6 to 15: 77%
Trends: 1976 2004
Youngest under 3: 28% 64%
Youngest 3 to 5: 37% 70%
Youngest 6 to 15: 46% 77%
Largest increase is for women with youngest children – against if you become a mom you leave
Debunking the Myth: Mothers just work part-time....
In 2004: only 26% of working mothers worked part time! (under 30 hours)
-age doesn‟t affect part time work. Not solely because you are a mom that you need to work part time
because otherwise it would vary across age.
Age of Children:
o Youngest under 3: 26% - this is not majority. o Youngest 3 to 5: 29%
o Youngest 6 to 15: 25%
working part-time because of child-care or family responsibilities:
- OF THE PEOPLE who work part time – 18% only says because of kids.
o Men 2%
o Women 18%
Myth of the Opt Out Revolution
Debunking the Myth of the Opt Out Revolution
Belkin, Lisa. 2003. ―The Opt-Out Revolution.‖ New York Times
Argued that highly educated professional working mothers are choosing not to compete at a
particular point and instead opting out of work altogether. Women do not make it to the
top because they do not want to...
F with highest degree with HC – Im done being part of this calculated world and I am
becoming a mother.
Feminists: view ignores the role of inflexible workplaces and inequity in the home. It ignores role
of work place. Ignores pressure of second shift. Ignores part of employers who refuse to be flexible.
Traditionalists: Opting out is a manifestation of women choosing family over work; its biological.
Problematizing ‗Choice‘: Reasons for Quitting (Stone 2007) – was it a choice?
1.Tough choice for majority
-hey felt pride, identified with their work. Tried to find way to compete and have kids. Flexible
work hours, reduced work hours. Tried all strategies. Doesn‟t prove that she is just a professional and
doesn‟t want to perform. Would think how am I going to leave this client. What would they thin about me?
It is part of my identity. Feel inadequate about leaving. They did opt out but were unable to do it.
2. Easy choice for a few
-they were traditional before they became mothers.
Work-Related Factors—‗Push Factors‘
1. Workplace Inflexibility – client –based – need to be there all the time. Couldn‟t reduce hours. Couldn‟t have compressed work week. Women who reduced their hours had to do more work because
they needed to get stuff done.
2. The ―Mommy Track‖ – male dominated professions – they assume you are more committed to your
family than your work.
EG: an executive at a large non-profit organization:
“And I’m never going to get anywhere—you have the feeling that you just plateaued
professionally because you can’t take on the extra projects; you can’t travel at a moment’s notice;
you can’t stay late; you’re not flexible on the Friday thing because that could mean finding
someone to take your kids. You really plateau for a much longer period of time than you ever
realize when you first have a baby. It’s like you’re going to be plateaued for thirteen to fifteen
-you‟ve got to get home at some point but then you get passed up for assignments.
Family Forces— Pull Factors
1. Children--Recall: Intensive Mothering Ideologies
importance of having kids raised by mother, not by a nanny. Young kids are less independent
but now older kids have complicated homework. Want older kids into piano lessons.
Surprised at the scope and complexity of older children‘s needs
felt that paid caregivers couldn‘t manage the complexity and greater sophistication of their
kid‘s needs as well as they could
2. Husband Factors
1. Lack of Parenting Help – lacked in co-parenting
2. Secondary Income
3. Husband‘s Preference
Most husbands were egalitarian
Typical refrain: ―It‘s your choice.‖ Lecture 9
Control over Work & Workers
The Labour Process (How labour is used to produce goods and services)
1. Allocation of labor to different aspects of production/service
What is your job
2. The use of technology
Involves computers, assembly line
3. Intensity of effort
Pace, level of effort, the nature of your work
Focus of labour process theory:
Labor process as employers’ efforts to determine who does which kind of work and how they use
technology and workers’ responses to these decisions
Power of the employer to make decisions about production but workers’ also respond to employers’
Power relationship/dynamics to control one group by another and responses to those relationships
Assumptions of Labour Process Theory
Influence of Marxist concepts of power, conflict, control and resistance
- Labour is the social relations of work between actors that we are concerned with
- The value of the product is the cost of the labour to make it
- Social relations btw managers/workers and the conflict between them
Power: workers and managers/supervisors have different interests and concerns (conflict of
interest). And there is inequality between them because employers have more power than
workers (managers/supervisors power relationships with workers – imbalance of power –
workers work hard but not more than kickbacks)
Conflict: worker does not receive the profit that they generate. Instead it goes to the owner
Conflict of interests (profit/surplus value (difference btw labour cost and the price) is not benefiting
Exploitation of workers’ labour
Assumptions of Labour Process Theory
Control: Managers/supervisors try to control when where and how workers do their jobs.
e.g., clock to regulate time
Nature of the workplace The person who owns it tells you how to do your work, no creative effort, no control over your work
Resistance: workers resist managerial control, sometimes by organizing collectively into unions
other times in more individualistic ways
Redefine how they interpret their situation (form of psychological resistance)
Braverman: the Degradation of Work
Argued that Taylorism was at the center of all management styles under monopoly capitalism
The standardization of the labour – Taylorism (scientific management)
Dissect the job in little bits of the labour process and standardization/routinization
Taylorism is a method of controlling the LP:
1. Separate work from skills from workers
No longer seen as skilled
Cut the job/dissect the job into little tasks
2. Separate conception from execution
HR determines how the little tasks is done
3. Employers’ use of knowledge to control how each step of the work process is done
Context= Bureaucracy (no creative work)
Braverman argued that clerical workers were subject to deskilling due to management’s
fragmentation and routinization of their work
Management is going to be more disposable
Make labour cheap and disposable by the organizations for profit (make labour as cheap
Top managers and executives of large offices gained more control over the office labour process
Taylorist principles was beginning to degrade and deskill the work of technicians, professionals
and middle managers as well.
Control primary focus; profit secondary
Hochschild: Emotion Work
Coming from the work of flight attendents
“The management of feeling to create a publicly observable facial and bodily display” that is sold
for a wage (Hochschild)
Emotions have an exchange value in the labour market for a wage
‘Transmutation’: commercialization of emotions
How private feelings are “engineered and administered by managers in large organizations…
(Hochschild: 19).” Personal emotion has bee