SPA100Y1 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Preposition And Postposition, Nios Embedded Processor, Singular (Software)

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SPANISH SPA100Y1 NOTES CHAPTER 1
(1.1) THE ALPHABET (el alfabeto)
In Spanish, the alphabet is the same as in English; however there are 2 additional letters: ‘rr’ and ñ.
The full alphabet is below, under the following format: { letter » letter’s name (pronunciation) }
a » a (ah)
h » hache (achey)
ñ* » eñe (enyey)
u » u (ue)
b » be (bey)
i » i (ee)
o » o (oh)
v » ve (vey)
c » ce (sey)
j » jota (hota)
p » pe (pey)
w » doble ve (doh-bley vey)
d » de (day)
k » ka (kah)
q » cu (cue)
x » equis (ekiiss)
e » e (ey)
l » ele (elley)
r » ere (errey)
y » i griega (ee grieh-gah)
f » efe (ehfey)
m » eme (emmey)
rr* » erre (ehrrey)
z » zeta (zeh-tah)
g » ge (hey)
n » ene (enney)
t » te (tey)
PRONUNCIATION
C: when in front of an e or i, it makes an S sound, when in front of an a, o, or u, it makes a K sound.
G: when in front of an e or i, it makes a J sound, when in front of an a, o, or u, it makes a G sound.
H: silent in front of vowels.
J: makes an H sound.
LL: makes a ‘Y’ sound.
Ñ: makes a ‘gneh sound.
RR: makes a ‘rolling r sound.
U: silent after a q.
Z: makes a ‘th’ sound.
(1.2) CARDINAL NUMBERS (Incl. Chapter 2)
0 » cero
8 » ocho
16 » diez y seis
30 » trenta
1 » uno
9 » nueve
17 » diez y siete
40 » cuarenta
2 » dos
10 » diez
18 » diez y ocho
50 » cincuenta
3 » tres
11 » once
19 » diez y nueve
60 » sesenta
4 » cuatro
12 » doce
20 » veinte
70 » setenta
5 » cinco
13 » trece
21 » veinte y uno
80 » ochenta
6 » seis
14 » catorce
22 » veinte y dos
90 » noventa
7 » siete
15 » quince
23 » veinte y tres
100 » cien/ciento
Cardinal numbers 0 to 15, and multiples of 10 from 0 to 100, have their own names. Numbers 16 to 99
(excluding multiples of 10) are compounds of the tenths and the digits, with ‘y’ in between (see above
for example).
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(1.3) COLOURS (los colores)
Yellow » Amarillo
Blue » Azul
Orange » Anaranjado
Black » Negro
Grey » Gris
Pink » Rosado
In Spanish, just like adjectives, colours have feminine and plurals too. See section 2.1 and 2.2 for details.
(1.4) DAYS, MONTHS and SEASONS
(A) DAYS OF THE WEEK (los días de la semana)
Days of the week in Spanish are all masculine. Weekdays (Monday through Friday) end with ‘s’ whether
singular or plural; while weekends (Saturday and Sunday) carry an ‘s’ at the end only when plural. Also
unlike in English, the days of the week in Spanish are not capitalized.
Monday » lunes
Tuesday » martes
Wednesday » miércoles
Thursday » jueves
Friday » viernes
Saturday »bado
Sunday » domingo
(B) MONTHS OF THE YEAR (los meses)
Months of the year in Spanish are masculine, though the article (see chapter 2) is almost rarely ever
used. Unlike in English, the months of the year in Spanish are not capitalized.
January » enero
February » febrero
March » marzo
April » abril
May » mayo
June » junio
July » julio
August » agosto
September » septiembre
October » octubre
November » noviembre
December » diciembre
(C) SEASONS OF THE YEAR (las estaciones)
Months of the year in Spanish are masculine, though the article (see chapter 2) is almost rarely ever
used. Unlike in English, the months of the year in Spanish are not capitalized.
Example: Enero es en el invierno.
(January is in winter.)
Spring » la primavera
Summer » el verano
Fall » el otoño
Winter » el invierno
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(D) THE DATE (la fecha)
In Spanish, the following is the model for saying the date. You may (if you’d like) choose to omit the day
of the week and the Hoy’ (today) at the beginning of the sentence.
» Hoy, es {insert weekday}, el {insert date} de {insert month}.
Example: Hoy, es martes, el 24 de diciembre. (Today is Tuesday, the 24th of December)
(1.5) SUBJECT PRONOUNS (pronombres personales)
In Spanish, just like in English, subject pronouns exist:
(inf. stands for informal; masc. stands for masculine; fem. stands for feminine)
SINGULAR PRONOUNS
I » Yo
You (inf.) » Tú
You (formal) » Usted
He » Él
She » Ella
PLURAL PRONOUNS
We » Nosotros (masc.); Nosotras (fem.)
You (inf.) » Vostros (masc.); Vosotras (fem.)
You (formal) » Ustedes
Them (masc.) » Ellos
Them (fem.) » Ellas
ADDITIONAL NOTES:
In Spanish, there is an informal and a formal ‘you’. The informal ‘you’ is used to talk to your friends and
family. The formal ‘you’ is used to talk to talk to elders, teachers and/or other people of authority.
Furthermore, in Spanish, there are masculine and feminine subject pronouns. All it takes is for one guy
to change a feminine subject pronoun into masculine (IE: 99 girls and 1 boy: ellos)
(1.6) CONJUGATING SER (to be)
The verb ser (to be) is an irregular5 verb in Spanish. You conjugate it as shown above.
EXAMPLES: I am Canadian. » Yo soy canadiense. | You3 are Mexican. » Vosotras sois mexicanas.
1
Informal, Singular. 3 Informal, Plural.
2
Formal, Singular 4 Formal, Plural.
5 As you will see in chapter 2 and 3.
SINGULAR
PLURAL
Yo
SOY
(I am)
Nosotros
Nosotras
SOMOS
(we are)
ERES
(you1 are)
Vosotros
Vosotras
SOIS
(you3 are)
Él
Ella
Usted
ES
(he is)
(she is)
(you2 are)
Ellos
Ellas
Ustedes
SON
(they are)
(they are)
(you4 are)
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Document Summary

Spanish spa100y1 notes chapter 1 (1. 1) the alphabet (el alfabeto) In spanish, the alphabet is the same as in english; however there are 2 additional letters: rr" and ". The full alphabet is below, under the following format: { letter letter"s name (pronunciation) } a a (ah) C: when in front of an e or i, it makes an s" sound, when in front of an a, o, or u, it makes a k" sound. G: when in front of an e or i, it makes a j" sound, when in front of an a, o, or u, it makes a g" sound. Z: makes a th" sound. (1. 2) cardinal numbers (incl. Cardinal numbers 0 to 15, and multiples of 10 from 0 to 100, have their own names. Numbers 16 to 99 (excluding multiples of 10) are compounds of the tenths and the digits, with y" in between (see above for example). (1. 3) colours (los colores)

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