Revision Summary for Test 1 [SPA 100]

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Department
Spanish
Course
SPA100Y1
Professor
Essential Textbook Summary
Semester
Fall

Description
SPANISH SPA100Y1 NOTES CHAPTER 1 (1.1) THE ALPHABET (el alfabeto) In Spanish, the alphabet is the same as in English; however there are 2 additional letters: rr and . The full alphabet is below, under the following format: { letter letters name (pronunciation) } a a (ah) h hache (achey) * ee (enyey) u u (ue) b be (bey) i i (ee) o o (oh) v ve (vey) c ce (sey) j jota (hota) p pe (pey) w doble ve (doh-bley vey) d de (day) k ka (kah) q cu (cue) x equis (ekiiss) e e (ey) l ele (elley) r ere (errey) y i griega (ee grieh-gah) f efe (ehfey) m eme (emmey) rr* erre (ehrrey) z zeta (zeh-tah) g ge (hey) n ene (enney) t te (tey) PRONUNCIATION C: when in front of an e or i, it makes an S sound, when in front of an a, o, or u, it makes a K sound. G: when in front of an e or i, it makes a J sound, when in front of an a, o, or u, it makes a G sound. H: silent in front of vowels. RR: makes a rolling r sound. J: makes an H sound. U: silent after a q. LL: makes a Y sound. Z: makes a th sound. : makes a gneh sound. (1.2) CARDINAL NUMBERS (Incl. Chapter 2) 0 cero 8 ocho 16 diez y seis 30 trenta 1 uno 9 nueve 17 diez y siete 40 cuarenta 2 dos 10 diez 18 diez y ocho 50 cincuenta 3 tres 11 once 19 diez y nueve 60 sesenta 4 cuatro 12 doce 20 veinte 70 setenta 5 cinco 13 trece 21 veinte y uno 80 ochenta 6 seis 14 catorce 22 veinte y dos 90 noventa 7 siete 15 quince 23 veinte y tres 100 cien/ciento Cardinal numbers 0 to 15, and multiples of 10 from 0 to 100, have their own names. Numbers 16 to 99 (excluding multiples of 10) are compounds of the tenths and the digits, with y in between (see above for example). (1.3) COLOURS (los colores) Yellow Amarillo Green Verde Blue Azul Red Rojo Orange Anaranjado Purple Morado Black Negro White Blanco Grey Gris Brown Marrn Pink Rosado In Spanish, just like adjectives, colours have feminine and plurals too. See section 2.1 and 2.2 for details. (1.4) DAYS, MONTHS and SEASONS (A) DAYS OF THE WEEK (los das de la semana) Days of the week in Spanish are all masculine. Weekdays (Monday through Friday) end with s whether singular or plural; while weekends (Saturday and Sunday) carry an s at the end only when plural. Also unlike in English, the days of the week in Spanish are not capitalized. Monday lunes Friday viernes Tuesday martes Saturday sbado Wednesday mircoles Sunday domingo Thursday jueves (B) MONTHS OF THE YEAR (los meses) Months of the year in Spanish are masculine, though the article (see chapter 2) is almost rarely ever used. Unlike in English, the months of the year in Spanish are not capitalized. January enero July julio February febrero August agosto March marzo September septiembre April abril October octubre May mayo November noviembre June junio December diciembre (C) SEASONS OF THE YEAR (las estaciones) Months of the year in Spanish are masculine, though the article (see chapter 2) is almost rarely ever used. Unlike in English, the months of the year in Spanish are not capitalized. Spring la primavera Example: Enero es en el invierno. Summer el verano (January is in winter.) Fall el otoo Winter el invierno (D) THE DATE (la fecha) In Spanish, the following is the model for saying the date. You may (if youd like) choose to omit the day of the week and the Hoy (today) at the beginning of the sentence. Hoy, es {insert weekday}, el {insert date} de {insert month}. Example: Hoy, es martes, el 24 de diciembre. (Today is Tuesday, the 24th of December) (1.5) SUBJECT PRONOUNS (pronombres personales) In Spanish, just like in English, subject pronouns exist: (inf. stands for informal; masc. stands for masculine; fem. stands for feminine) SINGULAR PRONOUNS PLURAL PRONOUNS I Yo We Nosotros (masc.); Nosotras (fem.) You (inf.) T You (inf.) Vostros (masc.); Vosotras (fem.) You (formal) Usted You (formal) Ustedes He l Them (masc.) Ellos She Ella Them (fem.) Ellas ADDITIONAL NOTES: In Spanish, there is an informal and a formal you. The informal you is used to talk to your friends and family. The formal you is used to talk to talk to elders, teachers and/or other people of authority. Furthermore, in Spanish, there are masculine and feminine subject pronouns. All it takes is for one guy to change a feminine subject pronoun into masculine (IE: 99 girls and 1 boy: ellos) (1.6) CONJUGATING SER (to be) SINGULAR PLURAL Yo SOY (I am) Nosotros SOMOS (we are) Nosotras T ERES (you are) Vosotros SOIS (you are) Vosotras l (he is) Ellos (they are) Ella ES (sh2 is) Ellas SON (they4are) Usted (you are) Ustedes (you are) The verb ser (to be) is an irregular verb in Spanish. You conjugate it as shown above. 3 EXAMPLES: I am Canadian. Yo soy canadiense. | You are Mexican. Vosotras sois mexicanas. 1Informal, Singular. 3Informal, Plural. 2 4 5Formal, Singular Formal, Plural. As you will see in chapter 2 and 3. SPANISH SPA100Y1 NOTES CHAPTER 2 (2.1) GENDER RULES In Spanish, there are masculine and feminine words. These are called genders of the noun. (A) MASCULINE Generally, words ending in { -o, -ma, -al, -or, -ente, -ante, -el } are commonly masculine. EXAMPLES COMMON EXCEPTIONS el pelo (hair) la mano (hand) el animal (animal) la labor (labour) el color (colour) la gente (people) el accidente (accident) el problema (problem) el papel (paper) Also, if a word does not fit any of the rules above, yet ends with o + consonant, they are masculine. (B) FEMININE Generally, words ending in { -a, -in, -umbre, -e, -d, -z } are commonly feminine. EXAMPLES COMMON EXCEPTIONS la fecha (date for calendar) el da (day) la cancin (song) el mapa (map) la televisin (television) el avin (airplane) la muchedumbre (crowd) el lapz (pencil) la serie (series) la universidad (university) la luz (light) Also, if a word does not fit any of the rules above, yet ends with a + consonant, they are feminine. (C) UNISEX / SWITCHABLE GENDER NOUNS Words that refer to a job, profession or hobby (such as a teacher) have switchable genders, depending on the person(s) being addressed. They usually end in { -ista or -ante }. For instance: FOR MALES FOR FEMALES el periodista (male journalist) la periodista (female journalist) el turista (male tourist) la turista (female tourist) el pianista (male pianist) la pianista (female pianist) el estudiante (male student) la estudiante (female student)
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