SMC 175 L12.04 - Review

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University of Toronto St. George
St. Michael's College Courses
Jennifer Harris

SMC 175 – Medieval Civilization J. Harris 12/04/12 R EVIEW - Medieval civilization comprised of 3 elements: Romanitas, Germanitas and Christianitas o Key features o None disappeared but there’s a mutual assimilation as they emerged, forming the medieval culture o Roman elements – survival of imperial crown (Charlemagne, Ottonian)  Romanesque style in architecture  Revival of liberal arts, study of law – educational movement o German elements – warrior culture channeled in Peace of God movement, Crusades  Use of ordeals as a way of settling judicial disputes o Christian elements – transformed in its contact with the other two  Repeated calls for repentance and renewal  Conversion of life – renewal movements - Romanitas o Roman empire = multi-religious, pagan till Constantine  Christian empire, foundation of medieval Europe o Large territory centered in Italy, alter Byzantium o 3 c., political crises – tetrarchy – 2 worlds = Greek world in the East, Latin world in the West o Cultural diversity led to its dissolution th o Homogenous, East until 15 c. o Christianized under Constantine – slowly integrated into the Church, clergy = imperial functionaries o Emperor as head of Church – held councils  Caesaro papism – wielding both spiritual and temporal swords - Christianitas o Christianization of empire began before conversion of Constantine o Within the empire already while Constantine on campaign th o 4 c., pick up speed in spread with legalization , banning of other religions o Rome passed over for Constantinople as center of Christianity o Donatists, Arians – dominant Christian parties in the provinces o Councils – discussed what is the “orthodox Church” o Christianity more practice than belief – engaged in Christian activity and ritual but we have no access o content of their faith  People practicing Christianity by 5 c. throughout empire o Succession of waves of conversion – dichotomy between belief and practice  Leadership – Constantine vs. Clovis (representative of practice vs. belief, respectively) o Rise in practices that suggest stronger personal beliefs – repentance rituals o Mainstream church has two streams within – monastic and ecclesiastic th o Both streams in 5 c. entrenched in society – the clergy stepped in governmental offices - Germanitas o Mass migration of Germans – seen as barbarians o Attracted to orderly world of Rome – assimilated into the Romanitas and Christianitas of Rome o Aka Franks, Carolingians, Ottonians, Capetians th o Took up Christianity but not all – heterodox groups 12 c., e.g., Waldensians o Own laws and customs (mundium, werdgelt) but embraced Roman, Christian ideas o Merovingians
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